The metabolic cost of recreational full court wheelchair basketball


Usita, C.K.; Ord, R.M.; Perez, A.T.; McCann, D.J.

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 35(5 Suppl.): S347

2003


S347
Saturday,
May
31,
2003
MEDICINE
&
SCIENCE
IN
SPORTS
&
EXERCISE
®
1930
THE
METABOLIC
COST
OF
RECREATIONAL
FULL
COURT
WHEELCHAIR
BASKETBALL
C.K.
Usita,
R.
M.
Ord,
A.
T.
Perez,
and
D.J.
McCann.
Gonzaga
University,
Spokane,
WA
Wheelchair
basketball
is
a
fairly
common
recreational
activity
for
wheelchair
bound
individuals
and
is
a
potentially
valuable
activity
for
improving
indices
of
fitness
and
health.
However,
little
is
known
of
the
intensity
of
the
metabolic
and
cardiovascular
responses
to
recreationally
full
court
play
in
non-elite
wheelchair
athletes.
Purpose:
The
purpose
of
this
study
was
to
detarmine
the
intensity
of
the
metabolic
rate
(MR)
and
heart
rate
(HR)
response
of
non-elite
wheelchair
basketball
players
to
recreational
full
court
play.
Methods:
Five
male
non-elite
experienced
wheelchair
basketball
players
participated
in
the
study.
The
participants
ranged
in
age
from
47
to
53
yr,
body
mass
from
63.5
to
108.9
kg,
and
years
of
experience
playing
recreational
wheelchair
basketball
from
0
to
27
yr.
Both
MR
and
HR
were
measured
for
5
minutes
of
rest,
10
minutes
of
spontaneous
full
court
basketball
play,
and
5
minutes
of
subsequent
recovery
using
a
portable
metabolic
analyzer
attached
to
each
wheelchair.
I
him
regression
analyses
were
performed
on
HR
and
MR
for
each
subject
to
determine
if
HR
was
a
reasonable
indicator
of
MR.
Results:
The
group
mean
MR
during
play
was
4.11
-
0.3
kcal
min
-1
,
with
individual
means
ranging
from
3.1
to
8.4
kcal
min
-1
.
Group
mean
HR
during
play
was
120.6±9.2
bt
min
-1
,
with
individual
means
ranging
from
112
to
136
bt
min
-1
.
The
Pearson
product-
moment
correlation
coefficient
between
HR
and
MR
ranged
from
0.71
to
0.94
among
the
five
subjects.
Conclusion:
Recreational
full
court
wheelchair
basketball
of
non-elite
players
produced
moderately
low
metabolic
costs,
yet
sustained
elevated
heart
rates
were
indicative
of
sufficient
cardiovascular
stress
for
the
development
and/or
maintenance
of
cardiovascular
fitness.
1932
RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN
HIP
STRENGTH
AND
TIBIOFEMORAL
VALGUS
ANGLE
DURING
SINGLE
LEG
SQUATS
J.D.
Willson,
L
McClay
Davis,
FACSM,
M.L.
Ireland,
FACSM.
Joyner
Sportsmedicine
Institute,
Lexington,
KY
Introduction:
Tibiofemoral
valgus
(TFV)
has
been
suggested
to
contribute
to
the
etiology
of
traumatic
and
repetitive
overuse
injuries
of
the
knee.
Previous
studies
show
that
females
possess
less
strength
in
hip
abduction
(ABD)
and
external
rotation
(ER).
Therefore,
the
purpose
of
this
study
was
to
analyze
the
relationship
between
hip
strength
and
TFV
angle
during
single
leg
squats.
Methods:
5
male
(mean
age
=
28.0
years,
weight
=
184.6kg,
Tegner
level=
4.6)
and
5
female
(27.8
years,
141.8kg,
Tegner=
3.6)
were
evaluated.
Isometric
hip
ABD
and
ER
measurements
were
recorded
with
hand-held
dynamometry
and
strap
stabilization.
Markers
were
placed
at
the
midpoint
of
the
ankle
mortise
and
TF
joint
as
well
as
at
the
midpoint
of
a
line
connecting
the
ASIS
to
the
mid-TF
joint
marker.
Digital
images
were
recorded
in
SL
stance
and
during
SL
squats
to
45
°
knee
flexion
to
determine
TFV
angle.
I
inear
regression
analysis
was
used
to
predict
TFV
angle
based
on
isometric
strength
measurements.
Independent
t-tests
were
used
to
compare
peak
valgus
angle
in
SL
stance
and
during
SL
squats,
as
well
as
isometric
strength
measurements
by
gender.
Results:
Regression
analysis
did
not
identify
a
significant
relationship
between
peak
isometric
strength
and
peak
TFV
angle
during
SL
squats
(p=
.97).
Females
were
28%
weaker
in
hip
ER
(p=
.02),
but
exhibited
similar
hip
ABD
strength
(females=
25.7%BW,
males=
29.0%BW,
p=
.36).
Females
were
in
greater
TFV
angle
in
SL
stance
(females
=
4.6
°
,
males
=
1.0
°
,
p=
.02).
Mean
TFV
increased
5.5
°
during
SL
squat
versus
SL
stance
for
all
subjects
(p<
.01).
Females
exhibitied
higher
peak
TFV
angle
during
SL
squat,
but
not
significantly
so
(females=
9.6
°
,
males=
7.0
°
,
p=
.43).
Conclusion:
Based
on
these
results,
TF
angle
during
a
single
leg
squat
cannot
be
predicted
from
hip
ABD
and
ER
strength.
As
a
group,
TFV
angle
increased
during
SL
squats.
Females
began
and
finished
the
test
in
greater
TFV
and
demonstrated
less
hip
ER
strength.
However,
only
SL
stance
angle
was
significantly
different.
Additional
subjects
will
increase
the
statistical
power
of
the
gender
question.
G-25A
FREE
COMMUNICATION/SLIDE
BIOMECHANICS
OF
LIFTING
TECHNIQUE
1931
THE
RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN
HIP
STRENGTH
AND
VALGUS
KNEE
POSITION
DURING
A
SINGLE
LEG
SQUAT
T.L.
Claiborne,
V.
Ghandi,
D.M.
Pincivero,
FACSM
Human
Pmformance
and
Fatigue
Laboratory,
Department
of
Kinesiology,
The
University
of
Toledo,
Toledo,
OH
PURPOSE:
To
determine
the
relationship
between
hip
strength
and
valgus
knee
movement
during
a
single
leg
squat
(SLS).
METHODS:
Twenty-six
healthy
adults
(14
males,
12
females)
participated
in
two
separate
testing
sessions.
During
the
first
testing
session,
each
subject
was
instructed
to
stand
on
their
preferred
leg,
squat
to
approximately
60
degrees
of
knee
flexion,
and
return
to
the
standing
position.
Frontal
plane
(varus/valgus)
knee
movement
was
evaluated
kinematically
via
three
dimensional
motion
analysis,
at
a
sampling
rate
of
60
Hz.
Five
SLS
were
repeated
with
two
minutes
of
rest
between
each
squat.
During
the
second
session,
isokinetic
concentric
and
eccentric
hip
and
knee
strength
was
tested
on
a
Biodex
isokinetic
dynamometer
at
60
deg/sec.
Motions
tested
included
hip
abduction
(ABD),
adduction
(ADD),
flexion
(FLEX),
extension
(EXT),
internal
rotation
(IR),
external
rotation
(ER),
knee
flexion
(KF),
and
knee
extension
(KE).
Three
reciprocal
repetitions
were
performed
for
each
movement
with
two
minutes
of
rest
between
sets.
RESULTS:
The
results
showed
significant
correlations
(p<0.05)
between
concentric
ABD
(r=-0.42),
ADD
(r=-0.45),
EXT
(r=-0.33),
KF
(r
=-0.47),
KE
(r=-0.39),
eccentric
IR
(r
-0.35),
ER
(r=-0.48),
KF
(r=-0.34)
peak
torques
and
frontal
plane
movement
in
the
valgus
direction.
Additionally,
concentric
ABD
(r-squared.17),
ADD
(r-squared.20),
KF(r-squared.22),
KE
(r-squared.15),
and
eccentric
ER
(r-squared.21)
peak
torques
were
all
significant
predictors
(p<0.05)
of
frontal
plane
knee
motion.
When
normalized
for
body
mass,
females
exhibited
significantly
less
(p<0.05)
concentric
ADD
and
FLEX,
and
eccentric
ABD
peak
torques
compared
to
males.
CONCLUSIONS:
These
data
suggest
that
increased
knee
movement
toward
valgus
may
occur
when
normalized
ABD,
ADD,
EXT,
IR,
ER,
KF,
and
KE
peak
torques
are
relatively
lower.
Females
exhibited
lower
strength
values
in
ABD
and
ADD,
when
compared
to
males,
possibly
implying
a
gender
predisposition
to
increased
knee
motion
in
the
valgus
direction.
1933
EFFECT
OF
PELVIC
INCLINATION
ON
DYNAMIC
EQUILIBRIUM
M.A.
King,
J.P.
Boucher,
FACSM
University
of
Quebec
at
Montreal, Montreal,
Quebec
(Sponsor:
Jean
P.
Boucher,
FACSM)
PURPOSE:
Determine
the
effect
of
pelvic
inclination
(measured
in
the
sagittal
view)
on
the
displacement
of
the
center
of
force
(COF).
METHODS:
Two
groups
of
10
healthy
college
age
females
were
evaluated,
selected
based
on
sagittal
view
pelvic
inclination
of
either
pelvic
neutral
of
0-
or
pelvic
inclination
of
>10°
as
measured
by
digital
photography.
Subjects
had
to
squat
to
60°
of
knee
flexion
in
two
seconds
(1
sec.
flexion,
1
sec.
extension)
with
visual
(knee
displacement
on
oscilloscope)
and
auditory
(metronome)
feedback
to
insure
precision.
Three
trials
of
force
data
were
collected
(40
Hz)
using
TekScan
pressure
mat
(MatScan)
and
software
(F-Scan
version
5).
Foot
position
was
traced
to
ensure
the
same
position
for
the
pelvic
inclination
measurement
and
the
squat.
COF
displacement
was
quantified
for
the
whole
body
(WB)
and
for
the
two
feet
separately
(R
vs.
L).
In
both
quantifications,
three
variables
were
measured:
area,
distance,
and
variability.
Area
(A)
estimated
how
much
"ground"
was
covered
by
the
COF
during
the
squat
using
the
X
and
Y
excursions
and
the
formula
for
an
ellipse.
Distance
(D)
reflects
the
total
distance
traveled
by
the
COF,
while
variability
(V)
gives
the
amount
of
variation
in
distance
from
one
point
to
the
next. For
the
WB
quantification,
groups
were
compared
using
a
t-test,
while
the
R
vs.
L
quantification
allowed
comparisons
using
a
groupXside
factorial
ANOVA
with
repeated
measures
on
the
last
factor.
RESULTS:
WB
quantification
revealed
significant
differences
(p<0.05)
for
A
and
V.
The
following
differences
were
found
for
the
R
vs.
L
quantification:
no
differences
for
A,
D
showed
significant
side
pl.02)
and
groupXside
interaction
(F,,.=6.01,
pl.02)
differences,
and
V
showed
all
main
effects
(group
F,,,,,=10.93,
p=0.004,
side
E,.=12.68,
p=0.002)
and
groupXside
interaction
(F,,,=12.25,
p=0.03)
to
be
different.
CONCLUSION:
These
findings
suggest
that
mechanical
differences
at
the
pelvis,
as
defined
by
pelvic
inclination,
may
influence
the
body's
strategy
in
managing
COF.
This
may
warrant
consideration
in
injury
prevention.
1934
LOWER-EXTREMITY
JOINT
KINETICS
IN
OLDER
ADULTS
ARE
SYMMETRIC
WHILE
PERFORMING
THE
SQUAT
FXFRCISE
J-E.
Song,
S.P.
Flanagan,
C.
Admon,
M-Y.
Wang,
G.J.
Salem,
FACSM
University
of
Southern
California,
Los
Angeles,
CA
email:
jooeunso@usc.edu
Purpose:
The
purpose
of
this
investigation
was
to
compare
the
joint
kinetics
between
the
dominant
(DOM)
and
non-dominant
(ND)
leg
in
older
adults
while
performing
the
squat
exercise
without
external
resistance.
Methods:
Twenty
older
adult
participants
(70-85
years)
performed
3
trials
of
a
squat
to
a
self-selected
depth.
Ground
reaction
forces
(GRFs)
were
measured
on
2
force
platforms,
and
a
motion
analysis
system
quantified
segmental
orientations
and
kinematics.
Inverse
dynamics
techniques
were
used
to
determine
peak
joint
angles
(JA),
peak
net
joint
moments
(NJM),
peak
joint
power
(JP),
NJM
impulse
(IMP),
and
mechanical
energy
expenditure
(MEE)
at
the
hip,
knee,
and
ankle
of
both
legs.
Comparisons
between
DOM
and
ND
were
analyzed
using
repeated
measures
ANOVA
and
paired
t-tests
(a
=
0.05).
Results:
There
were
no
significant
differences
(<5.5%)
in
peak
GRFs
between
legs.
There
were
no
significant
differences
(<2%)
in
peak
JA
between
legs
at
the
hip,
knee,
or
ankle.
There
were
no
significant
differences
(<11%)
in
NJM
and
JP
between
legs
at
all
3
joints
during
either
the
concentric
or
eccentric
phases
of
the
exercise.
There
were
also
no
significant
differences
(<15%)
in
IMP
or
MEE
between
legs
at
all
three
joints.
Conclusion:
Results
suggest
that
kinetics
are
distributed
equally
between
legs
in
older
adults
during
a
squat
without
external
resistance.
This
information
may
be
useful
when
selecting
exercises
for
seniors.
Supported
by
NIA
AG19320-01
1935
THE
RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN
EVOKED
MUSCLE
PROPERTIES,
FATIGUE,
STRENGTH,
AND
POWER
IN
MAXIMAL
EFFORT
SQUAT
JUMPS
P.J.
Bourque,
G.G.
Sleivert
University
of
New
Brunswick,
Fredericton,
New
Brunswick,
Canada
(Sponsor:
Will
G.
Hopkins,
FACSM)
Electrically
evoked
muscle
twitch
properties
may
non-invasively
provide
information
regarding
the
functional
properties
of
muscle.
The
relationship
between
evoked
properties
and
neuromuscular
function
in
dynamic
movement
is
unclear.
PURPOSE:
To
examine
the
association
between
evoked
properties
and
indices
of
strength,
power
and
fatigue.
METHODS:
6
females
and
5
males,
age
25±5
y
(mean±
SD),
were
placed
in
a
knee
extensor
myograph
from
which
evoked
characteristics
(peak
force,
rate
of
force
development,
half
relaxation
time
and
time
to
peak
force)
of
the
quadriceps
femoris
were
measured
using
supramaximal
electrical
stimulation.
Participants
also
performed
a
5s
maximum
isometric
voluntary
contraction
and
a
30s
isometric
knee
extension
fatigue
test.
Subsequently,
maximal
effort
squat
jumps
were
performed
at
0
to
70%
of
1RM,
from
which the
load-power
relationship
was
determined.
Relationships
between
evoked
characteristics
and
strength
and
power
indices
are
reported
as
Pearson
correlation
coefficients.
RESULTS:
Significant
correlations
were
found
between
the
evoked
contractile
characteristics
and
power,
strength,
and
fatigue
indices,
ranging
from
0.60
(95%
confidence
limits
0.00-0.88)
to
0.80
(0.38
to
0.95).
In
general,
faster
contractile
proparties
were
associated
with
higher
strength
and
power
and
lighter
relative
loads
at
peak
power,
yet
greater
fatigability.
Stepwise
regression
showed
that
twitch
force
and
rate
of
force
development
together
were
better
predictors
of
peak
power
(R
2
=64%)
than
any
single
contractile
characteristic,
as
were
the
combination
of
half
relaxation
time
and
rate
of
force
development
in
predicting
the
fatigue
index
(R
2
=76%).
CONCLUSION:
Evoked
muscle
properties
moderately
predict
voluntary
strength
and
power,
and
neuromuscular
fatigue.
The
determination
of
evoked
properties
may
assist
in
understmirthig
individual
differences
in
power
and
fatigue.