Seismic stratigraphy of the Giant Foresets Formation, offshore North Taranaki western platform


Soenander, H.B.

4th New Zealand Oil Exploration Conference 1: 207-233

1991


The Plio-Pleistocene Giant Foresets Formation has been investigated in the offshore North Taranaki region (longitudes 172 degrees E-174 degrees E and latitudes 38 degrees S-39 degrees S), using seismic reflection profiles and exploration well data. The formation is divided into four seismic facies above a prominent seismic reflector dated as base Pliocene. The topset facies is characterized by subparallel continuous reflectors, the progradational foresets by subparallel continuous reflectors in a clinoform pattern, the degradational foresets facies by chaotic offlapping low-amplitude reflectors, and the bottomset facies by moderate-amplitude, subhorizontal reflectors of variable continuity. Five continuous reflectors have been mapped, three within the formation and two facies bounding it. The three internal reflectors terminate towards the upper boundary by toplap and erosional truncation, and the lower boundary (base Pliocene) by downlap. Termination of the three internal reflectors toward both upper and lower boundaries suggests that the latter are correlative unconformities bounding one depositional sequence. The mapping results of the prominent internal reflectors show that the foresets prograded from southeast to northwest as part of a large lobe. The geometry of the formation suggests it is a "high stand system tract" which developed during early Opoitian (5.0 Ma) to Mangapanian (2.6 Ma) time when the rate of the sediment supply was higher than the rate of basement subsidence.

1
SCALE
SOkm
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pc)
km
173°
174°
173
.
174•
I75
176
.
Legend
:
exploration
well
seismic
line
-40
.
36
39
.
NEW
PLYMOUTH
40,
Figure
1:
Location
map.
SEISMIC
STRATIGRAPHY
OF
THE
GIANT
FORESETS
FORMATION,
OFFSHORE
NORTH
TARANAKI
WESTERN
PLATFORM
H
B
Soenandar
Research
School
of
Earth
Sciences
Victoria
University
of
Wellington
Abstract
The
Plio-Pleistocene
Giant
Foresets
Formation
has
been
investigated
in
the
offshore
North
Taranaki
region
(longitudes
172°E-174°E
and
lattitudes
38
°
S-39°S),
using
seismic
ireflection
profiles
and
exploration
well:
:
The
formation
is
divided
into
four
seismic
facies
above
a
prominent
seismic
reflector
dated
as
base
Pliocene.
The
topset
facies
is
characterized
by
subparallel
continuous
reflectors,
the
progradational
foresets
facies
by
subparallel
continuous
reflectors
in
a
clinoform
pattern,
the
degradational
foresets
facies
by
chaotic
offlapping
low-amplitude
reflectors,
and
the
bottomset
facies
by
moderate-amplitude,
subhorizontal
reflectors
!:
of
variable
continuity.
Five
continous
reflectors
have
been
mapped,
three
within
the
formation
and
two
facies
bounding
it.
The
three
internal
reflectors
terminate
towards
the
upper
boundary
by
toplap
and
erosional
truncation,
and
the
lower
boundary
(base
Pliocene)
by
downlap.:
Termination
of
the
three
internal
reflectors
toward
both
upper
and
lower
boundaries
suggests
that
the
latter
are
correlative
unconformities
bounding
one
depositional
sequence.
The
mapping
results
of
the
prominent
internal
reflectors
show
that
the
foresets
prograded
from
southeast
to
northwest
as
part
of
a
large
lobe.
The
geometry
of
the
formation
suggests
it
is
a
"high
stand
system
tract",
which
developed
during
early
Opoitian
(5.0
Ma)
to
Mangapanian
(2.6
Ma)
time
when
the
rate
of
the
sediment
supply
was
higher
than
the
rate
of
basement
subsidence.:
Introduction
The
name
"Giant
Foresets
Formation"
was
first
used
by
Shell
BP
Todd
Oil
Services
Ltd
(1977)
to
describe
a
formation
consisting
of
mudstones,
siltstones
and
sandstones
deposited
in
about
5
million
years
during
the
Plio-Pleistocene.
Interpretations
of
seismic
data
in
the
Western
Platform
and
the
western
part
of
the
North
Taranaki
Basin
show
that
this
formation
is
characterized
by
prograding
clinoforms
typified
by
foreset
beds,
with
buried
slope
channels,
dipping
to
the
northwest
(Thrasher,
1988).
The
total
thickness
is
about
2.2
km,
about
half
of
the
stratigraphic
thickness
in
much
of
the
Western
Platform
(Beggs,
1989).
The
Giant
Foresets
Formation
is
divided
into
four
facies
based
on
seismic
character,
namely:
topset,
progradational
foreset,
degradational
foreset,
and
bottomset
facies.
The
study
area
is
located
in
offshore
Taranaki
between
coordinates
172°E-
174°E,
38°S-
39°S,
and
comprises
an
area
of
about
17000
km
2
(Figure
1).
New
Plymouth
is
the
nearest
city,
about
175
km
to
the
southeast.
This
area
was
actively
explored
by
oil
companies
from
1968
to
1984,
including
the
acquisition
and
processing
of
marine
seismic
reflection
data
and
the
drilling
of
six
exploration
wells
(Figure
2).
The
aims
of
this
study
are
the
folowing:
(i)
to
produce,
in
detail,
isopach
maps
of
the
Giant
Foresets
Formation
from
available
seismic
reflection
profiles;
(ii)
to
interpret
the
maps
and
profiles
using
seismic
stratigraphic
concepts
to
determine
in
detail
the
direction
of
progradation
of
the
formation;
(iii)
to
reconstruct
a
chronostratigraphic
chart
which
shows
how
the
formation
evolved
by
using
biostratigraphic
data
from
a
well
(Taimana-1);
and
(iv)
to
discuss
the
factors
which
influenced
its
evolution.
207
SEISMIC
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DATA-NORTH
TARANAKI
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Figure
2:
Shot
point
position
map
of
the
North
Taranaki
Basin.
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EARLY
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BASEMENT
1000-
11000
3000
4000
mans
enA
Regional
Setting
and
Stratigraphy
The
Giant
Foresets
Formation
was
produced
by
the
northward
progradation
of
sediment
eroded
during
reverse
faulting
and
structural
inversion
of
the
southern
Taranaki
Basin
and
the
northwestern
part
of
the
South
Island.
This
deformation
began
in
in
the
Miocene
and
was
renewed
in
Plio-Pleistocene
time
(Knox,
1982).
Tilting
of
older
sediments
in
the
southern
Taranaki
Basin
and
erosion
of
the
uplifted
strata
produced
a
vast
amount
of
sediment
that
rapidly
prograded
across
the
Western
Platform
and
the
western
part
of
the
North
Taranaki
Graben
(Kamp,
1986).
The
paleogeography
during
the
deposition
of
these
sediments
in
the
Lower
Pliocene
and
their
position
in
the
stratigraphic
column
of
the
Western
Platform
and
North
Taranaki
Graben
are
shown
in
Figure
3
(King
and
Robinson,
1988).
Interpretation
Procedure
and
Results
The
general
feature
of
the
Giant
Foresets
Formation
can
be
seen
in
both
N-S
and
E-W
seismic
reflection
profiles.
The
formation
appears
as
a
prograding
series
of
clinoforms
that
dips
toward
the
north
and
west.
These
clinoforms
consist
of
high
to
medium
amplitude
reflectors
which
form
a
sigmoidal
pattern.
At
the
top
and
bottom,
the
clinoforms
are
bounded
by
subparallel
reflectors
with
high
to
medium
amplitudes
(Figures
4A,
4C,
5A,
5C).
In
the
east
of
the
study
area
these
seismic
patterns
are
interrupted
by
discontinuities
in
the
reflectors
which
are
interpreted
as
normal
faults
associated
with
an
Upper
Miocene
volcano
(G.
Thrasher,
pers.
comm.
1991).
However,
to
the
west
and
north,
the
prograding
clinoforms
change
from
a
smooth
to
a
contorted
and
hummocky
reflection
configuration
which
probably
indicates
the
end
of
the
development
of
these
clinoforms.
The
parallel
to
subparallel
reflections
that
confine
the
prograding
clinoform
patterns
are
interpreted
as
topset
facies
and
bottomset
facies;
the
clinoforms
are
interpreted
as
the
prograding
foresets
facies
(Beggs,
1989).
Topset,
progradational/degradational
and
bottomset
facies
as
they
occur
in
this
study
area
are
shown
in
Figure
6.
The
topset
facies
is
marked
by
subparallel
continuous
reflectors;
the
progradational
foresets
by
coherent
offlapping
moderate-
amplitude
reflectors;
the
degradational
foreset
facies
by
chaotic
offlapping
low-amplitude
reflectors;
and
the
bottomset
facies
by
moderate-amplitude
subhorizontal
reflectors
of
variable
continuity.
The
progradational
foreset
facies
downlaps
onto
the
strong
continuous
reflector
(yellow
horizon),
mapped
by
Thrasher
and
Cahill
(1990)
and
dated
as
base
Pliocene,
and
terminates
beneath
the
topset
facies
by
toplap.
In
order
to
study
the
attitude
of
these
clinoforms
(the
progradational
foresets
facies)
and
their
relationship
to
the
top
and
bottomset
facies,
this
study
maps
four
prominent
internal
reflectors
that
can
be
traced
throughout
the
study
area.
These
reflectors
are
labelled
(from
top
to
bottom)
red,
pink,
green,
and
blue.
The
red
reflector
is
characterized
by
high
to
medium
amplitude
in
the
south
and
east,
but
it
changes
to
medium
to
S
N
Western
Platform
Figure
3:
The
stratigraphic
column
and
the
Early
Pliocene
paleogeography
map
of
the
Western
Platform—North
Taranaki
Graben
(from
King
and
Robinson,
1988).
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A
:
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yellow
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7
a
0.0
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0
SEC
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0
SEC
0.0
SEC
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Figures
4A:
Uninterpreted
seismic
reflection
profile
of
NM-15;
4B:
Interpreted
seismic
reflection
profile
of
NM-15;
4C:
Uninterpreted
seismic
reflection
profile
of
WM-23;
4D:
Interpreted
seismic
reflection
profile
of
WM-23.
.
1
1.
15
10.1-2
Mt-IS
W-12
1441-3
SI
A-11
41
-10
W-1
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00
SEC
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31411
AV
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NORTH
TAIMANA-I
+
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wq
-
.
wc
-----
I
-
-
-
7
-71-
1
NM-2
1
/2
-
5KM—
Figure
5A:
Uninterpreted
seismic
reflection
profile
of
NM-21.
TAIMAJ44-1
W-10
1411-15
M1-111
444-17
NM-3
814-10
00
SIC.
'
-
NmIng...•••••
-t
-a.
1.0
SEC
.
20
SEC
NM-21/2
5KM
A
:
red
B
:
pink
C
:
green
D
blue
E
:
yellow
00
SEC
10
SEC
2.011C
Figure
5B:
Interpreted
seismic
reflection
profile
of
NM-21.
SOUTH
0.0
SEC
NORTH
1111A-10
41,
11742
0.0
SEC
t:
-
'
-
1
4
w
>-
1.0
SEC
F.
to.
--.
-
1'
-
-
-
"
,
-
1.-••
A
ge
-
,
2.0
SEC
J.s.
-
-
2
0
SEC
5KH
HF-1120
1
.•
0.0
SEC
T
WO
-WAY
TIMES
1.0
SEC
Figure
5C:
Uninterpreted
seismic
reflection
profile
of
HF-1120.
H4111
WIG
I
•••
••••
11•••
••••••
-
- -
.
_
0.0
SEC
.0
SEC
-.-14.
••••
2.0
SEC
12.0
SEC
5KM
HF-1120
A
:
red
B
:
pink
C
:
green
D
:
blue
E
:
yellow
Figure
5D:
Interpreted
seismic
reflection
profile
of
HF-1120.
0
1
tf
VIt
13/
%SO
Legend
A:
red
B
:
pink
C
:
green
D
:
blue
E
:
yellow
v,,
11,
9150
N
0.0
SEC
sf
•••
111
w.”.••••
I
t
11
1
ha0.14
••••
:7
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Figure
6:
Topset,
progradational/degradational
and
bottomset
facies
(sf:
sea-floor,
tf:
topset
facies,
pff:
progradational
foreset
facies,
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bottomset
facies).
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low
amplitudes
in
the
north
and
west.
The
pink
reflector
is
toplapped
by
the
red
reflector
as
shown
on
line
NM-16
at
SP
920-1050
(Figure
7).
The
distance
between
the
red
reflector
and
the
lower
reflectors
narrows
towards
the
south,
as
shown
on
line
NM-21
(see
Figure
5B).
To
the
south
beyond
the
study
area,
these
reflectors
probably
terminate
against
the
red
reflector.
These
terminations
suggest
that
the
red
reflector
is
a
correlative
seismic
unconformity.
Also,
because
the
position
of
this
reflector
is
at
the
top
of
the
progradational
foresets
facies
and
all
the
reflectors
above
it
are
parallel
to
it,
the
red
reflector
is
therefore
a
boundary
between
this
facies
and
the
topset
facies.
To
the
north
and
west,
however,
the
red
reflector
decreases
in
reflectivity,
is
surrounded
by
chaotic
to
hummocky
patterns,
and
downlaps
onto
the
yellow
reflector
(Figures
4B,
4D,
5B
and
5D).
The
pink
reflector
is
characterized
by
high
to
medium
amplitudes
and
is
well-developed
in
the
study
area
except
on
line
NM-16
from
SP
920-1050
(see
Figure
7)
where
it
is
toplapped
by
the
red
unconformity,
suggesting
erosional
truncation.
To
the
north
and
west,
the
pink
reflector
downlaps
onto
the
yellow
reflector,
but
to
the
south
the
pink
reflector
onlaps
the
green
reflector
as
shown
on
NM-21
at
SP
6720
(Figure
5B).
The
next-oldest
reflector
is
the
green
reflector,
which
is
marked
by
high
to
medium
amplitudes.
To
the
north
and
west,
this
reflector
also
downlaps
onto
the
yellow
reflector.
To
the
south
and
east
outside
the
study
area
however,
the
green
reflector
probably
toplaps
against
the
red
reflector.
The
blue
reflector
is
the
lowest
of
the
clinoform
package.
It
is
characterized
by
medium
amplitudes
and
downlaps
onto
the
yellow
reflector
in
the
north
and
west
of
the
study
area.
The
evolution
of
the
clinoforms
can
be
appreciated
from
a
map
showing
the
downlap
position
of
each
reflector
(Figure
8).
This
map
shows
the
prograding
clinoforms
to
be
part
of
a
large
fan
lobe
which
prograded
from
the
southeast
to
the
northwest.
This
end
of
the
clinoforms
is
also
characterized
by
an
onlap
fill
seismic
facies
unit
which
can
be
interpreted
as
a
channel.
The
eastern
part
of
this
lobe
has
been
affected
by
two
normal
faults
and
an
igneous
body.
The
faults
are
part
of
the
Cape
Egmont
Fault
Zone,
the
igneous
body
is
an
Upper
Miocene
volcano
(G.P.
Thrasher,
pers.
comm.,
1991)
which
is
related
to
the
Cook-Turi
Lineament
(Knox,
1982).
The
results
of
the
mapping
of
these
prominent
reflectors
are
described
using
two-way
travel
time
(TWT
maps).
These
maps
show
that
depositional
dips
on
all
of
these
reflectors
in
this
study,
except
the
yellow,
are
developed
around
Taimana-
1.
Based
on
this
observation,
the
conversion
from
TWT
to
depth
has
been
done
by
using
the
"time-depth
curve"
(TDC)
derived
from
the
checkshot
data
in
this
well
(Figure
9).
The
results
of
this
conversion
are
shown
as
structure
contour
maps
for
all
the
prominent
reflectors
(Figures
10, 11,
12,
13
and
14).
The
general
direction
of
progradation
of
the
Giant
Foresets
Formation
is
to
the
northwest
as
shown
by
Thrasher
(1988).
This
direction
of
progradation
can
also
be
shown
by
reconstructing
isopach
maps
between
each
pair
of
the
yellow,
blue,
green,
pink
and
red
reflectors.
These
isopach
maps
are
shown
in
Figures
15,
16,
17
and
18.
The
maximum
total
thickness
west
of
the
fault
zone
of
the
clinoform
or
the
progradational
foresets
facies
is
900
m
(Figure
19).
A
map
of
the
thickest
part
of
each
interval
(Figure
20)
shows
that
younger
intervals
reach
their
maximum
thicknesses
northwest
213
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km
2.5
Figure
7:
Interpreted
profile
of
NM-16
shows
the
pink
is
toplapped
by
the
red
at
sp
920-1050.
w
iN
Legend
E
A
B
C
D
KO
red
pink
green
blue
yellow
E
110
100
3
1100
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I
I
I
173
.
E
1
1
174E
Taimana-1
4
39
.
S
39
e
S
173
.
E
174
E
Figure
8:
Downlap
map.
of
older
ones.
Thickness
and
progradation
patterns
in
the
graben
area,
however,
are
irregular
and
difficult
to
determine
due
to
deformation.
Discussion
In
order
to
understand
the
development
of
the
Giant
Foresets
Formation
(represented
by
the
red,
pink,
green,
blue
and
yellow
reflectors)
through
time
this
study
uses
the
sequence
stratigraphic
interpretation
method
(Vail
et
al.
,
1977,
1988).
A
chronostratigraphic
chart
was
constructed
from
two
profiles
in
the
east-west
and
north-south
directions
across
the
exploration
well,
where
dating
is
available
from
the
biostratigraphy.
These
two
profiles
(Figures
21
and
22)
were
drawn
from
the
structure
contour
maps
of
all
reflectors,
based
on
lines
NM-16
and
WM-25
(east-west)
and
lines
NM-21
and
HF-1120
(south-north).
The
termination
of
all
reflectors
by
downlap
onto
the
yellow
reflector
at
the
base
and
by
toplap
against
the
red
reflector
suggest
that
the
red
and
yellow
reflectors
are
correlative
seismic
unconformities.
The
pink,
green
and
blue
reflections
are
between
the
two
major
unconformities,
and
are
by
definition
(Mitchum
et
al.,
1977)
grouped
in
one
depositional
sequence.
The
position
of
each
reflector
on
the
well
log
of
Taimana-1
is
shown
in
Figure
23
and
the
sedimentation
curve
based
on
the
recently
revised
biostratigraphy
of
Taimana-1
is
shown
in
Figure
24
(G.H.
Scott
and
J.M.
Beggs,
pers.
comm.,
1991).
The
best
fit
is
shown
by
three
points
(A,
B
and
C)
using
assumptions
of
condensed
early
Opoitian
(eWo)
and
Mangapanian
(Wm)
sediments.
By
combining
information
in
Figures
23
and
24,
the
age
of
each
prominent
reflector
can
be
estimated.
The
ages
are
shown
plotted
on
the
two
profiles
in
Figures
25
and
26.
From
these
profiles,
the
chronostratigraphic
chart
shown
in
Figures
27
and
28
can
be
constructed.
The
chronostratigraphic
chart
shows
the
position
of
the
base
Pliocene
which
is
represented
by
the
prominent
yellow
reflector
(E)
as
a
continous
line.
This
continuity
indicates
that
this
reflector
was
well-developed
in
this
profile
during
that
time.
It
was
followed
by
the
deposition
of
the
blue
(D),
green
(C),
pink
(B)
and
red
(A)
reflectors.
The
downlap
indicates
the
limit
of
the
development
of
each
prominent
reflector,
i.e.
the
development
of
the
blue
reflector
ceased
at
3.6
Ma
(late
Opoitian-Waipipian),
the
green
reflector
in
2.8
Ma
(Mangapanian),
pink
at
2.65
Ma
and
the
red
reflector
at
2.6
Ma.
The
truncation
of
the
pink
reflector
suggests
that
this
reflector
in
one
part
of
this
profile
was
eroded
by
the
red
reflector.
This
chart
also
shows
that
the
faults
in
the
eastern
part
of
the
profile
moved
after
the
deposition
of
this
sequence
finished.
The
subparallel
reflectors
above
the
red
reflector
(topset
facies)
and
below
the
yellow
reflector
(bottomset
facies)
indicate
low
energy
deposition.
However,
the
clinoform
patterns
of
the
progradational
foresets
facies
(represented
by
the
pink,
green
and
blue
reflectors)
suggest
that
this
facies
was
deposited
in
a
high
energy
environment.
Revision
of
the
biostratigraphy
data
in
Taimana-1
(G.H.
Scott,
pers.
comm.,
1991)
shows
that
from
Opoitian
to
Nukumaruan
the
water
depth
was
gradually
shallowing
from
middle/upper
bathyal
(in
Opoitian)
to
middle
shelf
(Nukumaruan).
Above
the
Nukumaruan,
the
water
depth
deepened
again
to
outer
shelf.
Sea
level
thus
oscillated
during
that
period.
Bios
tratigraphic
and
seismic
stratigraphic
analyses
gave
evidence
that
the
progradational
foresets
facies
was
developed
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ig
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o
f
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imana
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lir
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(From
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A11110-1
TANGO
OA-1
MOA-15
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ttop
TAIMANA-1
19r
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Figure
10:
Structure
contour
map
of
the
red
reflector.
172
77
.
I
17
I7V
713
.
STRUCTURE
CONTOUR
MAP
OF
THE
PINK
REFLECTOR
TANGAROA-I
(From
unmigrated
seismic
profiles)
1
S
kra
twAsso
sorushrs
M
metros;
tester
sese.
Is
102
as
d."
0•00•11•41
7•070.0-1
es1.0.1
6
.•
0.1
\
111.4101
volevIs
•IsysIwo?
1010.1171
the
relleelsr
/
TANIANA-1
1188
TAW-1
-f-
Or,
1711
3V
79.
Figure
11:
Structure
contour
map
of
the
pink
reflector.
177
.
0
4
173'
E
17.'
36
.
STRUCTURE
CONTOUR
MAP
OF
THE
GREEN
REFLECTOR
(From
unmigrated
seismic
profiles)
4
T
ommommmonn1
5"
TANGAROA-I
44
.
44'
/
/1
74
ANA-1
rag
•1
39•
I
174E
Tv
s
rn
Figure
12:
Structure
contour
map
of
the
green
reflector.
III
.
I
DV
II
13.
STRUCTURE
CONTOUR
MAP
OF
THE
BLUE
REFLECTOR
TANOAROA-1
(From
unmigrated
seismic
profiles)
1
L
E31•1
..1
5
1.1000
131.31/33;
*sr
/""
blern1le10033
AmolhAll
Tolnorrl
3.131.13“.
Mem.
rokosk
31/333•1.7
/
13•13.11134133
r•fle31•P
AIMANA-1
112'1
31
.
Figure
13:
Structure
contour
map
of
the
blue
reflector.
72.
I
I.
t
STRUCTURE
CONTOUR
MAP
OF
THE
YELLOW
REFLECTOR
TANGA110A-1
(From
unmigrated
seismic
profiles)
t
omm000memomm(
5
k."
VI
A
IHU1-
locree-1
TASIANA-I
2600
IS*
TANI-I
1
4
I
A
.
174.
17
.
Ilt•t
30
.
Figure
14:
Structure
contour
map
of
the
yellow
reflector.
177'[
114
ISOPACH
MAP
OF
"
YELLOW-BLUE
"
INTERVAL
TANGAR.A4,
(From
unmigrated
structural
contours)
A1411(1-1
1
f
14414110.mmoimmal
3"
17r
173
.
1
TAIMANA-1
/
4
4_
4
1741
'IV
1
Figure
15:
Isopach
map
of
"yellow-blue".
71'l
6
36
.
ISOPACH
MAP
OF
"
BLUE-GREEN
"
INTERVAL
TA.646A110A•
I
(From
unmigrated
structural
contours)
1
U6EN6
e".
•••••
TAMANA.
I
-
17.'s
)0
6
tir
Figure
16:
Isopach
map
of
"blue-green".
IS'S
17ri
35*
ISOPACH
MAP
OF
"
GREEN-PINK
"
INTERVAL
TIJKIAROA
-
I
(From
unmigrated
structural
contours)
Shen
Al
I
a
TAIMANA-I
F
17i•
Figure
17:
Isopach
map
of
"green-pink".
TANS-I
SS'
I
1711
72.
$
177•
17
Tr
ISOPACH
MAP
OF
"
PINK-RED
"
INTERVAL
TANOAROA-I
(From
unmigrated
structural
contours)
AA
IRI-1
4
MOA-111
i
LISPS
Cwieur
01.V.01•11111•Othit
Won.
le
Item
PeromlIMI
10mm-I
•••1
,
001
1
4
0
t
home
eirkovg
*Indio".
tin
11.111
el
tIe
rellertor
rtrt
30
.
7Alff
Figure
18:
Isopach
map
of
"pink-red".
lI
.
14
.
1
„•
I
ISOPACH
MAP
OF
"
YELLOW-RED
"
INTERVAL
TA.CIANCIA.
(From
unmigrated
structural
contours)
L
IIIMMINMMIIIMMIlt
kn.
LEGEND
100
VA41
:
11-1
110A-19
Contours
leopech,
In
metres;
contour
interval
Is
100
m
.normal
fault
Taimene-1
exploration
well
Miocene
volcenIc
structure
eee
e
the
limit
of
the
reflector
/TAIMANA-1
wet
Figure
19:
Isopach
map
of
"yellow-red".
0
4
mew
0•0
4
NORMAL
FAULTS
Tairnana-1
exploration
well
.....
77;1
.
.....
I
11E1
JO
.
t
200
M
ISOPACHS,
ALL
INTERVALS
(From
unmigrated
structural
contours)
VANOA11OA•11
4
A.111.1.1
t
o•11
•1
11".
LEGEND
11.•
ISOPACH
200
M
FOR
PINK-REO"
ISOPACH
200
M
FOR
"GREEN-PINK"
ISOPACH
200
M
FOR
"DLUE-GREEN"
ISOPACH
20011
FOR
"YELLOW-BLUE"
tirt
31•
Upper-Miocene
volcanic
structure
?
IA•t
I
••
tAMMIA-1
/
:
:•
0*
.......
.•
.
.•
.........
1711
31
.
\
Figure
20:
Two
hundred
metre
isopachs,
all
intervals.
0.0
1000
4000
Talman4-1
NN
014
4444
/10
ION
0044
A
:
red
B
:
pink
C
:
green
D
:
blue
E
:
yellow
PROFILE
OF
THE
CROSS
SECTION
NM-21/2
AND
HF-1120
0
5
km
0.0
1000
N
Figure
22:
Profile
from
cross-section,
NM-21
&
HF-1120.
0.0
$
4
1,1
,
NN
NN
+
011
111
,
0
tilt NN
ItN
IM•
10611
00
Figure
21:
Profile
from
cross-section,
NM-16
&
WM-25.
WEST
74144•40-1
EAST
41411
4160
4111
1000.
looq
:
'Rio
-
2040
1,
O
PROFILE
OF
THE
CROSS
SECTION
NM-16
AND
WM-25
Aired
B
:
pink
204
0
C
:
green
?
km
D:
blue
E
:
yellow
—4000
SOUTH
NORTH
1
T•IM•N•.1
0-.7400
t
GA
Rad
ITT
0••••
1•6•00
SO
0
rz
g
44
:*-
0.96
sec.
TWT,
940
m
0.99
sec.
TWT,
970
m.
RED
PINK
1.07
sec.
TWT,
1060
m.
'
1111
..1.
,
=
_
-_
_
..
IL:7
-
-
..._
.
_
,..
j
--
,
11....
.:5-1-
.
=.--=..:.-._
:
L.
'
---:::
E
..
.
t
.
..-
_,...--
.E
.---
.
:
:21.-r•
c.ti
.
..=
.
.J.7.
-
:::
Ils)
.
117i
-
.,
"..s
=::
'-=-
...1.
.
,._
.....
_
..,
.t
____
=L
:::
:-
-
.
-
_
--.:]
.1=
1
-
'
20
°Hr
:
:.
---
i
r.
-
.
d.a
.
.r.
"
11
- -
-e.=.
:
Z.
-
...
-
.."-•1:=.
-
7.:.
-
If
.
L
-
:-
.
" ----
:
I
250.:
••••
GREEN
BLUE
1.28
sec.
TWT,
1320
m
1
-2-
f=
YELLOW
1.49
sec.
TWT,
1580
m
4
-Or
Figure
23:
Well
log
of
Taimana-1.
229
WELL
DEPTH(M)
topset
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0.
I
4
,
,T
I
f,
I,
:!
WD
160
foresets
0
bottomset
1800
2000
1600
Wq
2
2.
1.
0-
0
-
eWn
IWn
We
it
I I
1 1
I I
I I
I I
II
II
Cl)
2.6
2.6
210-
N
3.0-
3.1
32
5
Wm
Wp
3.
6-
IWo
r
4.0-
eWo
SEDIMENTATION
RATE
CURVE
TAIMANA-1
(Beggs
and
Scott,
pers.comm,
1991)
5.0
Nam
A-B-C
Is
the
best
fft
using
assumptions
of
condensed
Wn
and
earty
Wo
Figure
24:
Sedimentation
curve
of
Taimana-1
(Scott
and
Beggs,
pers.
comm.,
1991).
from
early
Opoitian
to
Mangapanian,
and
that
this
facies
is
bounded
by
low
energy
deposition
sediments
(topset
and
bottomset
facies).
The
termination
of
the
prominent
reflectors
in
the progradational
facies
(pink,
green
and
blue
reflectors)
toward
their
boundaries
(red
and
yellow
reflectors)
suggests
that
the
latter
are
unconformities.
Onlap
seismic-facies
units
above
the
red
reflector
on
line
WM-23
can
be
interpreted
as
channel
fills,
and
the
results
of
the
revision
ofbiostratigraphic
data
from
Taimana-1
shows
shallowing
of
the
water
depth
during
Opoitian
to
Nukumaruan.
By
comparing
these
features
with
the
model
of
van
Wagoner
et
al.
(1988),
it
can
be
concluded
that
the
progradational
foreset
facies
bounded
by
two
unconformities
is
one
depositional
sequence.
In
seismic
stratigraphic
terminology
the
red
reflector
is
a
type
1
sequence
boundary,
the
yellow
reflector
is
a
floodplain
as
well
as
an
unconformity,
and
the
whole
of
the
progradational
foresets
facies
is
a
"highstand
systems
tract".
Conclusion
The
Giant
Foresets
Formation
in
the
study
area
is
one
part
of
a
big
lobe
or
fan
which
prograded
from
the
southeast
to
the
northwest.
This
is
demonstrated
by
the
movement
of
the
isopach
maxima,
which
change
from
a
circle
in
the
southeast
to
an
elliptical
body
to
the
northwest. The
thickness
of
the
progradational
foresets
facies
found
in
Taimana-1
is
650
m,
thickening
to
800
m
towards
the
northwest
before
the
red
reflector
downlaps
onto
the
yellow
reflector.
The
progradational
foresets
facies
of
the
Giant
Foresets
Formation
which
formed
during
early
Opoitian
(5.0
Ma)
to
Mangapanian
(2.6
Ma)
is
bounded
by
two
unconformities.
The
features
of
this
facies
as
clinoforms
suggesting
that
during
its
development
the
rate
of
subsidence
was
less
than
the
rate
of
eustatic
sea
level
fall.
It
is
concluded
that
the
progradational
facies
is
one
depositional
sequence
and
that
this
facies
is
a
highstand
systems
tract,
bounded
at
the
top
by
230
2.6
A
2.65-B
2.9
—C
3.6
E
5.0
I
2000
Im
a
1000
5.
3.6
2.9
--
-2.65
A
_
2.6
L•co
,4
1
1111
•Q•
of
:AA
11.1•00r
A
:
1.4
pr.
C:
0:
AA.
E
rene.
0.0
1000
3000
4000.
0.0
1000
2000
WOO
4000
how
SEISMIC
SEQUENCES
OF
NM-21
AND
HF-1120
0
5
km
T
s-
I
o.
WEST
1111
4
,
1•1
elm
141.5
EAST
141.4na-1
111
res
M
M
I...
+
1.00
Ile.
14.11
IS..
1000
1.110
1.11
1.01
0.0
Figure
25:
Seismic
sequence
of
NM-16
&
WM-25.
1.14
1011
114
1000
-
2
65'
2.9'
BM
''
.
5.0
-E
SEISMIC
SEQUENCES
OF
NM-10
ANC
WMr25
—2
.
9-
Ih•
00e
el
o.
r•11.1of
(U.)
A:
.4.41
S
i
2.0
C:
r..'
O
:
by.*
I
I
7.4.11
SOUTH
NORTH
1111
ONO
+
1111
711.
ln1
1•••
0
S
km
Figure
26.
Seismic
sequence
of
NM-21
&
BF-1120.
2.8
A
0n011•40.01
ID
WEST
TAIMANA•1
A
EAST
CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHIC
CHART
OF
THE
RED,
PINK,
GREEN,
BLUE
AND
YELLOW
REFLECTORS
LINE
WM-25
AND
NM-16
•••••0••
A
fault
C
O
dn—
Nun
eV
do.**
loPPO
W
u
caul
en
vamp
A
led
B
pink
C
wean
Oar
play
D
1
I••••••••I
•••••••
E
res.
ZEALAND
we
w.
w.
10•••••
IA
IA
L4
LI
onin.T.0•40L
I
Moen/
E
SOUTH
TAIMANA-1
110
NORTH
A
CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHIC
CHART
OF
THE
RED,
PINK,
GREEN,
BLUE
AND
YELLOW
REFLECTORS
LINE
NM-21
AND
HF-1120
do
downlap
tP
toPlaP
le
truncated
on
Onlap
A
red
B
pink
C
green
D
blue
E
yellow
0
km
11.4
O
C
ENO
ZOIC
1••••11••
B
d
do
n
n
—LO
0
Figure
27:
Chronostratigraphic
chart
of
NM-16
&
WM-25.
Figure
28.
Chronostratigraphic
chart
of
NM-21
&
BF-1120.
a
'type
1'
sequence
boundary
and
at
the
bottom
by
a
the
oscillation
of
sea
level
from
the
Upper
Miocene
to
floodplain.
The
deposition
of
the
bottomset,
progradational/
Pleistocene
time.
degradational
foreset,
and
topset
facies
was
influenced
by
References
BEGGS,
J.M.
1989:
Seismic
stratigraphy
of
the
Plio-Pleistocene
Giant
Foresets,
Western
Platform,
Taranaki
Basin.
New
Zealand
Oil
Exploration
Conference
Proceedings
1989:
201-207.
INTERNATIONAL
DEPT,
DALLAS.
1984:
Final
Well
Report,
Taimana-1,
PPL
38109.
Diamond
Shamrock
New
Zealand,
New
Zealand
Gelogical
Survey
Petroleum
Report
no.
1026:
1-99.
KAMP,
P.J.J.
1986:
The
mid-Cenozoic
Challenger
Rift
System
of
Western
New
Zealand
and
its
implications
for
the
age
of
Alpine
fault
inception.
The
Geological
Society
of
America
Bulletin
v.97:
255-281.
KNOX,
G.J.
1982:
Taranaki
Basin,
structural
style
and
tectonic
setting.
New
Zealand
Journal
of
Geology
and
Geophysics
25
:
125-140.
KING,
P.R.
1989:
Polyphase
evolution
of
the
Taranaki
Basin,
New
Zealand:
Changes
in
sedimentary
and
structural
style.
New
Zealand
Oil
Exploration
Conference
Proceedings
1989:
134-150.
KING,
P.R
&
ROBINSON,
P.H.
1988:
An
overview
of
Taranaki
Region
Geology,
New
Zealand.
Energy
Exploration
&
Exploitation
vol.
6
number
3:
213-232.
MITCHUM,
R.M;
VAIL,
P.R;
SANGREE,
J.B.
&
THOMPSON
III.
1977:
Seismic
Stratigraphy
and
Global
Changes
of
Sea
Level
part
1:
Overview.
American
Association
of
Petroleum
Geologists
Memoir
26:
51-52.
MITCHUM,
R.M;
VAIL,
P.R;
&
SANGREE,
J.B.
1977:
Seismic
Stratigraphy
and
Global
Changes
of
Sea
Level
part
6
:
Stratigraphic
Interpretation
of
Seismic
Reflection
Patterns
in
Depositional
Sequences.
American
Association
of
Petroleum
Geologists
Memoir
26:
117-133.
1977:
Seismic
Stratigraphy
and
Global
Changes
of
Sea
Level
part
7:
Seismic
Stratigraphic
Interpretation
Procedure.
American
Association
of
Petroleum
Geologists
Memoir
26:
135-143.
PILAAR,
W.F.H;
&
WAKEFIELD,
L.L.
1978:
Structural
and
stratigraphic
evolution
of
the
Taranaki
Basin,
Offshore
North
Island,
New
Zealand.
The
Australian
Petroleum
Exploration
Association
Journal
1978:
93-101.
SCOTT,
G.
1991:
Review
of
Taimana-1
Biostratigraphy
220-1620
m,
Post
Miocene.
New
Zealand
Department
Scientific
and
Industrial
Research
(DSIR-GEO)
Lower
Hutt
Project
203.110,
unpublished
report.
THRASHER,
G.P.
1988:
The
interpretation
of
seismic
reflection
data
from
the
Western
Platform
Region
of
Taranaki
Basin.
Energy
Exploration
&
Exploitation
vol.
6
number
2:
136-150.
THRASHER,
G.P.
&
CAHILL,
J.
1990:
Structural
Contours
on
Top
Miocene,
New
Zealand
Gelogical
Survey
Report
G-
142:
sheet
9.
VAN
WAGONER,
et
al.
1988:
Overview
of
the
fundamentals
of
sequence
stratigraphy
and
key
definitions.
Society
of
Economic
Paleontologists
and
Mineralogists
Special
Publications
no.
42:
39-45.
VAIL,
P.R;
MITCHUM,
J.R,
R.M.
1977:
Seismic
Stratigraphy
and
Global
Changes
of
Sea
Level
part
1:
Overview.
American
Association
of
Petroleum
Geologists
Memoir
26:
51-52.
Acknowledgements
I
am
grateful
to
Dr.
J.
D.
Collen,
Research
School
of
Earth
Sciences,
Victoria
University
of
Wellington,
for
encouraging
me
to
present
this
work
and
for
critically
reading
the
manuscript.
My
special
thanks
go
to
Dr.
J.M.
Beggs
and
Mr.
G.P.
Thrasher
from
DSIR-GEO,
Lower
Hutt,
for
allowing
me
to
borrow
some
seismic
lines,
for
sharing
information,
and
for
valuable
discussions
and
suggestions
to
improve
this
work.
Thanks
also
go
to
Prof.
P.
Vella,
Geology
Department,
Victoria
University
of
Wellington,
for
his
advice
in
calculating
sea
level
changes,
Dr.
Jim
Mc.Dougall
and
Mr.
Geoff
Rait,
Geology
Department,
Victoria
University
of
Wellington
for
critically
reading
this
manuscript
and
crucial
suggestions,
June
Cahill
from
DSIR-
GEO,
Lower
Hutt
for
her
help
in
providing
the
shot
point
map,
Ms.
D.
Polly
from
the
Ministry
of
External
Relations
&
Trade
for
the
financial
support,
and
finally
to
the
Ministry
of
Commerce
for
the
opportunity
to
present
this
paper.
Author
BASUKI
SOENANDAR
graduated
from
the
Mining
Exploration
Engineering
Department,
Institute
of
Technology
Bandung,
Indonesia,
in
1980.
From
1981
to
the
present
he
has
worked
for
PERTAMINA
(Indonesian
Oil
&
Gas
State
Company)
Jakarta,
Indonesia.
In
1988
Basuki
was
awarded
a
scholarship
from
the
Ministry
of
External
Relations
&
Trade
to
study
in
New
Zealand,
and
in
1990
he
completed
a
Diploma
of
Applied
Science
in
Petroleum
Geology
and
Geochemistry
from
Victoria
University
of
Wellington.
He
is
presently
studying
for
an
M.Sc.
in
Geology
at
Victoria
University
of
Wellington.
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