A note on the forest vegetation in Sadogashima Island


Yoshioka, K.

Ecological Review 16(2): 121-136

1964


Brief notes on 7 types of deciduous broadleaved forest and thicket and 3 types of evergreen broadleaved forest. The prevailing W. wind restricts the latter to sheltered parts of the E. coast.

A
NOTE
ON
THE
FOREST
VEGETATION
IN
SADOGASHIMA
ISLAND*
kuniji
YOSHIOKA
SOME
floristic
studies
were
already
made
by
Shinpo
(1932-35)
and
Kitami
(1950)
on
Sadogashima
Island
in
the
Japan
Sea
off
the
coast
of
Niigata
City,
Niigata
Prefecture,
North-eastern
Japan.
Although
a
few
species
are
indigenous
to
it,
there
is
little
difference
in
flora
between
this
island
and
Honshfi,
the
main
island
of
Japan,
except-
ing
for
the
conspicuous
mixed
occurrence
of
the
plants
of
the
warm
temperate
and
of
the
cool
temperate
zones.
As
to
the
vegetation
of
the
island
no
information
is
avairable
to
date,
for
which
reason
the
writer
made
some
observations
on
the
forest
vegetation
during
his
short
stay
from
the
14th
to
the
20th
of
July,
1956.
The
writer
is
indebted
to
Emeritus
Professor
Kazusuke
Shinpo
and
Doctor
Yoshiji
Homma
of
the
Niigata
University
for
their
valuable
advice
in
things
of
Sadogashima
Island.
I
LOCATION,
GEOLOGY
AND
CLIMATE
Location
Sadogashima
Island
is
situated
in
the
Japan
Sea
at
about
30
km
off
the
coast
of
Kakuda-hama
beach
in
Niigata
Prefecture
of
Honshu,
the
main
island
of
Japan
(Fig.
1).
The
island
is
located
between
37'48'
and
38'20'
N.
Lat.
and
between
138°14'
and
138'34'
E.
Long.
It
is
the
largest
island
in
the
Japan
Sea
and
is
857
km'
in
area,
extending
over
59
km
from
north
to
south.
The
island
can
be
divided
into
two
areas,
the
Osado
area
in
the
north-east
and
the
Kosado
area
in
the
south-east,
by
graben-like
land
called
"Kuninaka"
between
them.
The
Osado
area
is
traversed
lengthwise
by
a
mountain
range
whose
chief
peaks
are
Kinpoku-san
(1173
m)
and
Myoken-yama
(1042
m).
The
Kosado
area
is
hilly
in
topography
and
the
highest
peak,
Daichi-san,
attains
an
altitude
of
646
m.
Geology
The
island,
together
with
the
main
island
of
Japan,
was
once
a
part
of
the
eastern
margin
of
the
"Palaeoasiatic
Continent"
during
the
early
Tertiary
epoch
and
became
isolated
to
form
an
island
by
the
birth
of
the
Japan
Sea,
by
which
the
main
island
of
Japan
was
separated
from
the
continent.
Sadogashima
was
disconnected
from
the
main
island
by
faults.
The
surface
geology
of
the
Sadogashima
Island
is
rather
complicated
as
may
be
noticed
from
the
Geological
Map
of
Niigata
Prefecture
1955)
and
the
geological
survey
by
the
members
of
the
Niigata
University
(Nishida
et
al.
1950).
Neogene
and
Paleogene
strata,
however,
cover
wider
areas
than
those
of
the
Palaeozoic
and
Quaternary.
The
Tertiary
strata
occupy
rather
wide
areas
both
in
the
Osado
and
in
the
*
Contribution
from
the
Mount
Hakkocla
Botanical
Laboratory
No.
76.
121
NOTO
P
F.
34
JP
JA
PAN
SEA
SADOGASHIMA
I
NIIGATA
\
SEKI
OKURA
ODA
UTAMt
HIRAMATSU
WAGI
,\)
c..
‘"
KINPOKU-SAN
SHIRASE
A
MYOKEN-YAMA
s
RYOTSU
TASSHA
AIKAWA
OTOWA-IKE
SHIINOTOMARI
KAWASAKI
KATAKAMI
0
NAKAOKI
SAWANE
HATANO
0
0
())
A
KYOZUI<A-YAMA
\>'
TAKIRISU
0
HAMOCHI
AKATOMARI
SHINPO
OGI
9
SUKUNEGI
122
ECOLOGICAL
REVIEW,
VOL.
16,
NO.2
(
1964)
.
Fig.
1.
Map
showing
the
localities
studied
for
their
forest
stands
(0)
and
their
climates
(0)
Kosado
areas.
They
are
composed
of
tuffs
and
tuff
breccia
as
sedimentary
rocks
and
andesite,
basalt,
liparite
and
granite
as
igneous
ones,
all
of
which
date
back
to
the
Tertiary
epoch.
The
Paleozoic
rocks
are
slate
and
sandstone
and
these
are
restricted
in
distribution
to
a
narrow
part
of
the
Osado
area.
The
Quaternary
strata,
diluvial
as
well
as
alluvial,
chiefly
occupy
the
Kuninaka
graben-like
land,
where
most
of
the
paddy
and
upland
fields
of
the
island
are
centered.
YOSHIOKA
:
NOTE
ON
FOREST
VEGETATION
IN
SADOGASHIM
A
123
Climate
The
climatological
data
recorded
at
Aikawa,
Oda,
Ryotsu,
Hatano,
Nakaoki
and
Hamochi
in
Sadogashima
Island
and
cities
of
Niigata
and
Murakami
in
Honshu
are
extracted
from
the
Meteorological
Annual
Report
of
Niigata
Prefecture
(1952)
for
reference
(Table
1).
Table
1.
Climates
of
Sadogashima
Island
and
the
adjacent
sites
in
HonshU,
the
main
island
of
Japan.
The
localities
with
an
asterisk
are
situated
in
Honshii.
North
Latitude
Aikawa
38°2'
Oda
38'14'
Hamochi
Ryotsu
37°51'
38°5'
Hatano
37°59'
Nakaoki
38°1'
Niigata*
Murakami*
37°56' 38°14'
January
2.0
2.2
1.9
1.5
1.6
1.2
1.
5
0.9
February
2.0
2.2
2.1
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.2
??,
March
4.6
4.8
4.
6
4.3
4.6
4.3
4.4
3.7
E
April
10.0
10.
1
10.
1
9.9
10.4
9.9
10.
1
10.2
f2,
May
`
1)
au
''
June
14.
7
19.0
14.
8
19.0
15.
2
19.5
14.
9
19.2
15.0
19.8
15.0
19.
1
14.
9
15.6
15.
6
20.0
50
July
23.
7
23.
3
23.
9
23.9
24.
8
23.
9
24.0
24.
5
2;
"
August
25.8
25.9
26.0
26.0
26.
3
25.5
25.
8
26.3
September
21.6
21.5
22.0
21.9
21.9
21.
5
21.5
21.
8
c
October
15.8
15.9
15.6
15.8
15.4
15.2
15.4
15.1
°'
November
10.6
10.
5
10.7
10.
1
10.3
9.7
9.7
9.3
December
5.
2
4.
9
4.
9
4.
6
4.
3
4.
3
4.3
3.
7
Year
12.9
12.9
13.
1
12.8
13.
1
12.6
12.7
12.7
Annual
amount
of
precipitation
1,
780
1,
495
1,
934
(mm)
1,
813
1,
725
1,
625
1,
780
2,161
Span
between
the
first
and
last
111
-
139
frosts
(day
)
The
island
lies
amidst
a
warm
current
named
the
Japan
current,
and
is
charac-
terized
by
an
oceanic
climate.
The
island
has
a
more
moderate
winter
climate
than
the
adjacent
main
island,
although
their
latitudinal
positions
are
the
same.
In
Sadogashima
Island
the
mean
monthly
temperatures
from
December
to
March
are
slightly
higher
at
Aikawa
and
Oda
along
the
west
coast
than
at
Ryotsu
on
the
east
coast
even
though
they
are
located
roughly
in
the
same
latitudinal
position.
Nakaoki
and
Hatano,
situated
somewhat
inland,
have
lower
temperatures
in
winter
than
the
coastal
sites
such
as
Aikawa,
Oda
and
Ryotsu.
The
span
between
the
first
and
the
last
frosts
is
111
days
at
Aikawa
in
the
island
in
contrast
with
139
days
at
Niigata
in
Honshu,
that
is,
the
frost
free
season
of
Aikawa
is
about
a
month
longer
than
that
of
Niigata.
The
precipitation
in
the
island
is
rather
high,
although
the
amount
of
snow
is
less
than
that
of
the
adjacent
Honshu.
The
velocity
and
direction
of
winds
in
the
island
have
not
been
recorded
except
those
of
Aikawa,
where
the
mean
wind
velocity
attains
5.5-7.5
m/sec
for
winter
and
2.4-3.5
m/sec
for
summer
with
the
winter
max-
imum
velocities
of
21-26
m/sec.
The
prevailing
winds
are
W-NW
in
winter
and
ESE-SE-WSW
in
summer.
The
island,
therefore,
is
exposed
to
considerably
strong
W-NW
winds
in
winter
(Figs.
2,
3).
II
VEGETATION
The
forest
and
thicket
of
Sadogashima
were
observed
at
Seki,
Okura,
Tassha
and
Sawane
along
the
west
coast
and
at
Utami,
Hiramatsu,
Wagi
and
Shirase
along
124
ECOLOGICAL
REVIEW,
VOL.
16,
NO.2
(1964)
the
east
coast
of
the
Osado
area.
For
the
inland
vegetation
several
sites
were
in-
vestigated
along
the
route
from
Tassha
via
Otowa-ike,
to
the
peak
My6ken-yama
in
the
Osado
area.
In
the
Kosado
area
observations
were
made
on
the
forests
and
thickets
along
the
coast,
from
north
to
south,
at
Kawasaki,
Shiinotomari,
Akatomari,
Shinpo,
Ogi
and
Sukunegi
and
also
at
a
somewhat
more
interior
area
of
Tasukiri,
Hamochi
and
Katakami
(Fig.
1).
The
present
study
was
restricted
to
a
rather
narrow
area
compared
with
the
vast
extent
of
the
whole
island,
but
it
serves
to
get
a
general
view
of
the
forest
and
thicket
of
the
island.
The
island
is
covered
mostly
by
the
spontaneous
forest
and
thicket
vegetations,
although
it
is
partly
occupied
by
the
planted
stand
of
"Sugi",
Cryptomeria
japonica
and
of
a
bamboo,
Phyllostachys
bambusoides.
Most
of
the
paddy
and
upland
fields
of
the
island
are
centered
in
and
around
the
Kuninaka
graben-like
land,
where
the
land
is
almost
entirely
cultivated.
Cryptomeria
japonica,
one
of
the
most
useful
trees
for
building
materials
of
Japanese
house,
also
occurs
spontaneously
in
the
island,
scattered
in
the
diciduous
broad
leaved
forest
of
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
chiefly
at
rather
high
altitudes
of
the
Osado
area
(Fig.
3).
Phyllostachys
bambusoides,
which
is
used
in
fishery,
is
not
native
to
Japan,
but
was
introduced
from
China.
The
island
is
characterized
by
the
frequent
occurrence
of
the
cultivated
bamboo
stand
chiefly
along
the
south-east
coast
where
it
is
protected
from
the
strong
N-NW
winds
which
prevail
in
winter
(Fig.
4).
Most
of
the
spontaneous
forests
and
thickets
belong
to those
of
the
deciduous
broad
leaved
trees,
and
a
few
to
those
of
the
evergreen
broad
leaved
trees
and
pines.
The
pines,
Pinus
densiflora
and
P.
thunbergii,
occur
scatteredly
and
they
scarcely
make
a
stand.
A.
Deciduous
Broad
Leaved
Forest
and
Thickets
The
island
is
occupied
mainly
by
the
deciduous
broad
leaved
forests
and
thickets
composed
of
many
kinds
of
trees
and
shrubs
shifting
gradually
as
their
habitats
change.
They
can
be
classified
into
several
types
of
somewhat
different
physiognomy
and
floristic
composition
along
the
environmental
gradient.
1.
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata-Fagus
crenata
forest
No
pure
stand
of
the
Fagus
crenata
forest
was
found
along
the
routes
of
the
present
observations.
But
the
pure
forest
of
Fagus
crenata
covers
most
of
the
montane
zone
in
the
north-eastern
part
of
Japan.
A
mixed
stand
of
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserata
and
Fagus
crenata
was
found
only
in
a
basin-like
depression,
protected
from
the
strong
wind,
around
the
pond
"Otowa-ike"
at
an
altitude
of
580
m
(Figs.
5,
6).
The
floristic
composition
of
the
stand,
expressed
by
the
frequency
symbols
of
the
English
school,
is
as
follows
:
Tree
layer
:
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
cod,
Fagus
crenata
cod,
Acer
sieboldianum
a,
Clethra
barvinervis
o,
Pinus
densiflora
r
YOSHIOKA
:
NOTE
ON
FOREST
VEGETATION
IN
SADOGASHIMA
1.25.
4
4
.
r-
Fig.
2.
Planted
trees
of
Populus
nigra
exposed
to
the
strong
west
wind,
near
the
seashore
of
Tassha
in
the
Osado
area.
Most
of
the
shoots
were
killed
in
winter,
and
the
trunks
inclined
leeward.
._
P
.
-•
-
4
1',
44.
,:•
G
y.
t/
;Co
.
.
..;
-
+
s ,
',,s.f.:
(.
±4.
4
.4.
,
9,
1
,,-
.'
"...
4.
--
‘41
,
"."-
...
..".
*-
...."+"
..,
if
••
t'''
Fig.
3.
The
thicket
of
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
associated
with
Cr
yptonzeria
japonica
(right)
at
a
ridge
of
the
peak
Myoken-
yama.
The
trees
take
the
stunted
forms
caused
by
the
strong
west
wind.
:
••• -J.A
126
ECOLOGICAL
REVIEW,
VOL.
16,
NO.
2
(
1964
r
Fig.
4.
Stand
of
a
bamboo,
Phyllostachys
bambusoides,
cultivated
on
a
slope
protected
from
the
strong
west
wind
in
winter,
near
Akatomari
in
the
Kosado
area.
4540
,
4,
12*
•••
1.1
KN
J
-'
Fig.
5.
-
Otowa-ike",
a
pond
with
a
floating
islet
of
sedges
in
the
Osado
area.
The
pond
is
surrounded
by
the
Quercus
mongolica
v.ar.
grosseserrafa-Fagus
crenata
forest.
YOSHIOKA
:
NOTE
ON
FOREST
VEGETATION
IN
SADOGASHIMA
127
Shrub
layer
:
Cephalotaxus
harringtonia
var.
nana
a,
Aucuba
japonica
var.
borealis
la,
Viburnum
furcatum
f,
Lindera
membranacea
o,
Tripetaleia
paniculata
var.
latifolia
o
Herb
layer
:
Carex
foliosissima
la,
Pachysandra
terminalis
la,
Shortia
soldanelloides
var.
magna
la,
Blechnum
nipponicum
o,
Dryopteris
crassirhizoma
r,
Asperula
odorata
r,
Anemone
hepatica
forma
nipponica
r
This
is
the
Cephalotaxus
harringtonia
var.
nana
type
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata-Fagus
crenata
forest,
and
it
is
clearly
related
to
the
following
Cephalo-
taxus
harringtonia
var.
nana
type
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
forest.
It
is
however
distinguished
from
that
in
comprising
such
plants
as
Carex
foliosissima,
Shortia
soldanelloides
var.
magma
and
Fagus
crenata.
2.
Quercus
mongolica
var.•grosseserrata
forest
The
montane
area
of
the
island
above
an
altitude
of
500
m
seems
to
be
occupied
extensively
by
the
forest
or
thicket
dominated
chiefly
by
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
which
is
sometimes
associated
with
Cryptomeria
japonica.
Especially
on
the
site
exposed
to
the
strong
western
winds
prevailing
in
winter
occurs
the
scrubby
vegetation
of
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
(Fig.
3).
A
typical
stand
of
the
forest
shows
the
following
composition.
Tree
layer:
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
d,
Castanea
crenata
o,
Acer
mono
o,
A.
sieboldianum
r,
Prunus
sargentii
r,
Kalopanax
septemlobus
r
Shrub
layer
:
Cephalotaxus
harringtonia
var.
nana
a,
Paurthiaea
villosa
var.
laevis
la,
Ilex
crenata
f,
Viburnum
dilatatum
o,
Lindera
membranacea
o,
Tripetaleia
paniculata
var.
latifolia
r,
Weigela
hortensis
r,
Viburnum
furcatum
r
Herb
layer
:
Carex
lanceolata
o,
Disporum
similacinum
r,
Ardisia
japonica
r
This
is
the
Cephalotaxus
harringtonia
var.
nana
type
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
forest.
It
is
closely
related
in
physiognomy
and
structure
to
the
Quercus
mongolica
forest,
however
it
is
distinguished
from
that
type
of
forest
by
the
dominant
species.
3.
Quercus
mongolica
forest
In
the
Osado
area
on
the
lower
slope
of
mountains
somewhat
distant
from
the
sea-shore
and
200-400
m
high
above
sea
level
is
found
a
deciduous
broad
leaved
forest
dominated
by
Quercus
mongolica.
A
part
of
this
forest
type
shows
the
following
floristic
composition.
Tree
layer
:
Quercus
mongolica
d,
Q.
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
la,
Acer
mono
f,
Quercus
serrata
o,
Castanea
crenata
o,
Prunus
sargentii
o
Shrub
layer
:
Cephalotaxus
harringtonia
var.
nana
f,
Lindera
membranacea
f,
Sapium
japonicum
if
Herb
layer
:
Carex
lanceolata
o,
Melica
nutans
o,
Astilbe
thunbergii
var.
congesta
o,
Artemisia
keiskeana
r,
V
eratrum
japonieum
r
This
is
the
Cephalotaxus
harringtonia
var.
nana
type
Quercus
mongolica
forest
and
is
somewhat
related
to
the
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
forest
and
the
1'8
ECOLOGICAL.
REVIEW,
VOL.
16,
NO.
2
,
19641
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrala-Fagus
crenata
forest.
4.
Quercus
dentata-Acer
mono
thicket
or
scrub
The
deciduous
broad
leaved
thicket
or
scrub
dominated
by
Quercus
dentata
and
Acer
mono
attaining
2
to
5
m
in
height
occurs
frequently
along
the
Japan
Sea
coast
of
the
north-eastern
part
of
Japan.
It
is
found
near
the
sea-shore
exposed
to
the
strong
western
wind
which
prevails
in
winter,
and
this
may
prove
these
trees
to
be
tolerant
to
the
severe
winter
wind.
The
scrub
or
thicket
of
this
type
is
found
also
on
the
western
coast
of
the
Osado
and
the
Kosado
areas
(Fig.
7),
and
shows
the
following
floristic
composition.
Shrub
layer
:
Quercus
dentata
d,
Q.
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
a-o,
Acer
mono
a,
Camellia
japonica
la,
Berberis
sieboldii
f,
Elaeagnus
umbellata
r,
Tilia
japonica
r,
T.
maximowicziana
r
Herb
layer
:
Miscanthus
sinensis
a,
Thalictrum
thunbergii
f,
Dianthus
superbus
var.
longicalycinsu
lf,
Artemisia
montana
o,
Festuca
rubra
var.
rubra
o,
Carex
lanceolata
0
This
may
be
named
as
the
Quercus
dentata-Acer
mono
thicket
or
scrub
according
to
the
height
of
the
stand.
Viewed
from
the
floristic
composition
it
is
rather
related
to
the
herb
type
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest,
although
it
is
clearly
distinguished
therefrom
in
appearance.
5.
Herb
type
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest
Along
the
northwest
coast
of
the
Osado
area
from
Tassha
in
the
south
to
Seki
in
the
north
were
seen
fragmentary
remnants
of
the
deciduous
broad
leaved
forest
which
is
dominated
chiefly
by
Acer
mono
and
Zelkova
serrata.
The
deciduous
forest
of
this
type
is
found
usually
near
the
sea-shore
along
the
coast
of
the
Japan
Sea
in
the
north-eastern
part
of
Japan,
and
it
is
thought
to
be
the
climatic
climax
of
these
sites.
At
Seki,
Okura
and
Tassha
in
the
island
the
following
floristic
compoistion
was
given
for
the
remaining
stands.
Tree
layer
:
Acer
mono
cod,
Zelkova
serrata
cod,
Celtis
sinensis
var.
japonica
a,
Aesculus
turbinata
la,
Sorbus
commixta
la,
Tilia
japonica
o,
Quercus
dentata
o,
Kalopanax
septemlobus
r,
Juglans
ailanthifolia
r
Shrub
layer
:
Weigela
hortensis
f,
Viburnum
sieboldii
o,
V.
dilatatum
o,
Euonymus
macropterus
r,
Berberis
sieboldii
r,
Rosa
multiflora
r
Herb
layer
:
Angelica
edulis
f,
A.
pubescens
f,
Astilbe
thunbergii
var.
congesta
la,
Petasites
japonicus
var.
giganteus
o,
Veronica
siberica
o,
Shizophragma
hydrangeo-
ides
o,
Artemisia
montana
r
These
stands
are
dominated
equally
by
Acer
momo
and
Zelkova
serrata
associated
with
the
frequent
occurrence
of
Celtis
sinensis
var.
japonica,
Aesculus
turbinata
and
Sorbus
commixta.
The
undergrowth
'
is
characterized
by
the
abundance
of
such
per-
ennial
herbs
as
Angelica
edulis,
A.
pubescens,
Astilbe
thunbergii
var.
congesta
and
Petasites
japonicus
var.
giganteus.
This
may
be
called
the
herb
type
Acer
mono-
Zelkova
serrata
forest
being
distinguished
from
a
similar
forest
with
flourishing
YOSHIOKA
:
NOTE
ON
FOREST
VEGETATION
IN
SADOGASHIMA
129
evergreen
shrubs
as
undergrowth,
the
Camellia
type
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest.
S.
Camellia
type
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest
From
Utami
in
the
north
through
Hiramatsu
and
Waki
to
Shirase
in
the
south
along
the
eastern
coast
of
the
Osado
area
were
seen
deciduous
broad
leaved
forests
and
pine
forests.
Of
these
the
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest
is
thought
to
pre-
serve
the
climax
aspect
as
seen
from
the
structure
and
floristic
composition
and
the
others,
Quercus
serrata
forest,
Pinus
densiflora
forest
and
Pinus
thunbergii
forest,
are
secondary
ones
induced
by
human
activities
upon
the
climax
forest.
The
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest
which
remained
in
these
sites
shows
the
following
floristic
composition.
Tree
layer
:
Acer
mono
cod,
Zelkova
serrata
cod,
Quercus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata
a,
Q.
serrata
la,
Q.
dentata
o,
Celtis
sinensis
var.
japonica
f,
Pinus
densiflora
f,
P.
thunbergii
o,
Machilus
thunbergii
lf,
Aesculus
turbinata
r,
Tilia
maximowicziana
r,
Neolitsea
sericea
r
Shrub
layer
:
Camellia
japonica
a,
Eurya
japonica
a,
Sasa
japonica
la,
Malothus
japonicus
o
Herb
layer
:
Ardisia
japonica
f,
Torreya
nucifera
var.
radicans
f,
Cephalotaxus
harringtonia
o,
Dryopteris
uiformis
o,
Miscanthus
sinensis
o,
Carex
lanceolata
o,
Ficus
japonica
r,
Asperula
odorta
r
This
forest
type
shows
a
close
resemblance
in
physiognomy
to
the
herb
type
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest
as
already
mentioned.
However,
it
is
distinguished
therefrom
in
the
abundant
occurrence
of
the
evergreen
trees
and
shrubs.
Especially
it
is
densely
grown
with
such
evergreen
shrubs
as
Camellia
japonica
and
Eurya
japonica.
The
undergrowth
is
also
characterized
by
the
mixed
occurrence
of
the
plants
belonging
usually
to
the
evergreen
broad
leaved
forest
such
as
Camellia
japonica,
Eurya
japonica
and
those
belonging
to
the
beech
forest
such
as
Torreya
nucifera
var.
radicans
and
Cephalotaxus
harringtonia
var.
nana
(Figs.
8,
9).
This
is
closely
related
in
floristic
composition
to
the
evergreen
broad
leaved
forest
composed
of
Shiia
sieboldii,
although
it
resembles
the
deciduous
forest
in
physiognomy.
This
forest
may
be
considered
as
one
transitional
between
the
de-
ciduous
forest
and
the
evergreen
forest,
and
can
be
called
the
Camellia
type
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest.
7.
Carpinus
laxifolia-C.
tschonoskii
forest
The
inland
hills
of
Sadogashima
Island
are
occupied
chiefly
by
the
deciduous
broad
leaved
forest
and
thicket.
In
the
Kosado
area
they
are
usually
the
Carpinus
laxifolia-C.
tschonoskii
forest
and
Quercus
serrata
forest,
the
latter
however
is
a
secondary
one
induced
by
human
activities.
The
Carpinus
laxifolia-C.
tschonoskii
forest
is
thought
to
be
near
the
climax
of
these
sites
in
the
Kosado
area.
These
stands
at
Hamochi
and
Katakami
show
the
following
floristic
compositon.
Tree
layer
:
Carpinus
laxifolia
cod,
C.
tschonoskii
cod,
Zelkova
serrata
o,
Castan
ea
130
ECOLOGICAL
REVIEW,
VOL.
16,
NO.
2
(1964)
crenata
o,
Quercus
serrata
o,
Q.
acuta
r,
Acer
sieb)ldianum
o,
A.
mono
r,
Shiia
siebodii
o,
Pinus
densi'ora
o,
MaJnolia
obovata
r
Shrub
layer
:
Camellia
japonica
a,
Sasa
japonica
a,
Aucuba
japonica
o,
Eurya
japonica
o,
Ilex
crenata
r
Herb
layer
:
Ardisia
japonica
o,
Carex
lanceolata
r,
C.
siderosticla
r,
Dryopteris
uniformis
r
This
is
related
nearly
to
the
Camellia
type
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest
especially
in
the
undergrowth
grown
densely
with
evergreen
shrubs
such
as
Camellia
japonica
and
Eurya
japonica,
but
differs
in
the
composition
of
the
canopy
layer.
The
forest
of
this
type
is
thought
to
be
intolerant
to
severe
winter
wind
and
is
restricted
to
somewhat
inland
areas.
B.
Evergreen
Broad
Leaved
Forest
Evergreen
broad
leaved
forests
are
also
found
in
Sadogashima
island,
however
they
are
restricted
narrowly
to
the
coast
ranging
from
south
to
east.
These
sites
are
favoured
by
the
oceanic
climate
with
moderate
winter
temperature
and
protected
from
the
strong
western
wind
in
winter.
The
northern
limit
of
the
Shiia
sieboldii
forest,
a
representative
evergreen
broad
leaved
forest
of
Japan,
is
in
such
places.
The
evergreen
broad
leaved
forests
in
the
island
may
be
classified
into
three
types
according
to
the
dominant
species
;
Shiia
sieboldii,
Machilus
thunbergii
and
evergreen
oak
forests.
Of
these
evergreen
forests
one
of
Shiia
sieboldii
is
most
frequent
and
that
of
the
evergreen
oak
is
least
common.
8.
Evergreen
oak
forest
In
this
island
occur
two
species
of
evergreen
oaks,
Quercus
acuta
and
Q.
salicina,
of
which
Q.
acuta
sometimes
becomes
the
dominant
of
the
stand
associated
with
deciduous
broad
leaved
trees.
At
Takirisu
in
the
southeast
of
the
Kosado
area
was
found
the
evergreen
oak
forest
stand
with
the
following
floristic
composition.
Tree
layer
:
Quercus
acuta
d,
Carpinus
tschonoskii
la,
C.
laxifolia
la,
Acer
mono
o,
Prunus
verecunda
r
Shrub
layer
:
Camellia
japonica
a,
Neolitsea
sericea
la,
Aucuba
japonica
o,
Alangium
platanifolium
var.
macrophyllum
r
Herb
layer
:
Ardisia
japonica
a,
Anemone
hepatica
forma
nipponica
r,
Dryopteris
uniformis
r
This
is
the
evergreen
oak
forest
of
Quercus
acuta
associated
frequently
with
the
deciduous
broad
leaved
trees
of
the
inland
area,
the
lower
layers
however
are
densely
grown
with
the
evergreen
shrubs
belonging
usually
to
the
evergreen
broad
leaved
forest.
9.
Machilus
thunbergii
forest
Among
the
evergreen
broad
leaved
forests
of
Japan
the
Machilus
thunbergii
forest
advances
farthest
to
north
along
the
coasts
of
both
sides
of
the
north-eastern
part
of
Japan.
It
extends
as
far
as
Iwasaki
(40°35'
N.
L.)
in
Aomori
Prefecture
along
„*„
t
r-r
if
••?''
-
g4tof
z
-
"
-
.•••
.-
-
.-Ae.-
-
`1
t.
_
"
i
t4ti4;
r
Y..!C
-MU
YOSHIOKA:
NOTE
ON
FOREST
VEGETATION
IN
SADOGASHIMA
131
'....0
,‘
,.
N...
''''
'
..•
..K.,4
.._„.„
-.
fa.
,
..-:',..
V.
'i'k
t
Itt
":"
-•
-
....
4
pr.,--
-
,..
,;
:
)
.
„,40"
-
.
;15
:
.
t
wirr
e
e
i b
t
._gyp
47
"
-4
.4
'
i
-e-
—c
;*,
Z 111
p14
-
.T..-
-
*.!
-
,0
;
--..z
,
-7
,...
4
:
"'.
grft.-
,
.i..
--,-..
-
-
....s.-r'si
r
..
re*
Fig.
6.
Quetcus
mongolica
var.
grosseserrata-Fagus
crenata
forst
near
Otowa-ike.
a.
4,,
-
04
-
.s..0
4
,-"Ne,
r
-
7r
.
4r.
4
%
Fig.
7.
Quercus
dentata-Acer
mono
thicket
at
the
seashore
of
Tassha.
These
trees
are
suppressed
low
down
by
the
strong
west
wind
wafted
from
the
sea.
132
ECOLOGICAL
REVIEW,
VOL.16,
NO.
2
(1964')
'..r
,
2
-
---,
...
.
...
1
t,...
14...•
'-.5.4.
,e..
''';'.'
-
41
'
.1'
14
.,
J
ar
'
'
.."
0
.
4
.4t
-
...t
t
'
''t'
''''':
^-1?•7
" -
'
*'-
'
"
4
'''
""'
'
•111
-
Air..
-
'
---
''-‘,
,
NO
t.F
.
4.
. ,
',
'
.
-T
.:
,.
A
ii• ,.
....
.
''';',..
liVr---
-....:
-
'4,,' 4,;
-
.--
:
-
.
-
-',
1-
,
-.
..,.ray
...
i.
...
..
..-v-
,sf.,
,,
gt
,..,
_
s
-,
_..
-
0.
,
..--
.
r
te
"
.,.
!It
may
a
,
-
„,,,
N.,
i
A.,--1
s
._„ 44
)
-
4
,
---:
:
-f
-
-
'.--.
-
r
- 7
-
-.A..
-
...-
..
i
v.
-
,,.
"I'd
,
-4••
='"
'46.-
,.
[.;•'::
k
A
-'
t
.7,
a,-
s
,
N
,--,,-.P.,,,
-
.._:,,
..„,x
--
''';."-;-:,-.,,
'
(?
4
let-
i
a
let-
.r.
''.
:-
t
1
4
'..t...Iiiill
..•
-
's
-
,
Ae
OA
N
\
I
,.
,
,
,
,,
o
,
-
-
,
r
,i;
.
,•,'
Fig.
8.
Ficus
japonica
(center)
and
Torreya
nucifera
var.
radicans
(left)
in
the
Camellia
type
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest.
Extraordinary
mixed
occurrence
of
the
plants
of
the
warm
temperate
and
the
cool
temperate
zones.
It
-
"'"
I
4
Fig.
9
Close
up
of
Ficus
japonica,
an
evergreen
ligneous
liana
characteristic
to
the
evergreen
broad
leaved
forest
of
Japan.
The
northern
limit
of
its
distribution
lies
at
Urakawa
on
the
east
coast
of
the
Osado
area.
ti
YOSHIOKA:
NOTE
ON
FOREST
VEGETATION
IN
SADOGASHIMA
133
the
Japan
Sea
coast.
This
forest,
however,
shows
a
rare
occurrence
in
the
island
compared
with
the
Shiia
sieboldii
forest.
Some
stands
of
this
type
which
are
located
on
the
seaside
of
Aikawa,
Sawane
and
Ogi
show
the
following
floristic
composition.
Tree
layer
:
Machilus
thunbergii
d,
Zelkova
serrata
la,
Neolitsea
sericea
f,
Shiia
sieboldii
o,
Pinus
thunbergii
o,
Acer
mono
o,
Celtis
sinensis
var.
japonica
o,
Cornus
controversa
o,
Kalopanax
septemlobus
r
Shrub
layer
:
Camellia
japonica
a,
Sasa
japonica
a,
Aucuba
japonica
f,
Ilex
integra
o,
Callicarpa
japonica
r,
Eurya
japonica
r,
Parabenzoin
praecox
r,
Viburnum
dilatatum
r
Herb
layer
:
Ardisia
japonica
f,
Dryopteris
erythrosora
o,
D.
uniformis
o,
Elaeagnus
macrophylla
o,
Carex
lanceolata
o,
Liliope
platyphylla
r,
Farfugium
japonicum
r,
Matteuccia
struthiopteris
r,
Iris
japonica
r,
Hedera
rhombea
r
This
is
the
Machilus
thunbergii
forest
usually
found
along
the
coast
of
the
north-
eastern
part
of
Japan.
It
is
closely
related
with
the
Shiia
sieboldii
forest
except
for
the
frequent
occurrence
of
the
deciduous
broad
leaved
trees
belonging
to
the
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest.
10.
Shiia
sieboldii
forest
The
northernmost
localities
of
the
natural
stand
of
Shiia
sieboldii
in
Japan
are
situated
at
Kawasaki
(38°4'
N.
L.)
and
Shiinotomari
(38°4'
N.
L.)
in
this
island,
although
fragmentary,
it
occurs
rather
frequently
along
the
southeast
coast
of
the
Kosado
area
from
Kawasaki
near
Ryotsu
City
in
the
north
to
Ogi
near
the
south
end
of
the
Kosado
area
in
the
south
(Figs.
10,
11).
The
stands
were
analysed
for
floristic
compositon
at
Ogi,
Shinpo,
Shiinotomari,
Hamochi,
Yanagisawa
and
Kawasaki,
of
which
the
latter
three
were
already
described
in
the
previous
paper
(Yoshioka
1963).
The
floristic
composition
of
the
stands
at
Ogi,
Shinpo
and
Shiinotomari
are
given
here.
Tree
layer
:
Shiia
sieboldii
d,
Quercus
salicina
la,
Machilus
thunbergii
la,
Zelkova
serrata
o,
Neolitsea
sericea
o,
Acer
mono
r,
Celtis
sinensis
var.
japonica
r
Shrub
layer
:
Camellia
japonica
a,
Sasa
japonica
a,
Eurya
japonica
a,
Ilex
integra
la,
Aucuba
japonica
o,
Fatsia
japonica
r,
Viburnum
dilatatum
r
Herb
layer
:
Ardisia
japonica
f,
Dryopteris
uniformis
o,
Carex
lanceolata
o,
Ficus
nipponica
o,
Ophiopogon
planiscapus
r,
Blechnum
nipponicum
r,
Cephalotaxus
harringtonia
var.
nana
r,
Torreya
nucifera
var.
radicans
r
This
is
the
Shiia
sieboldii
forest
and
it
is
composed
chiefly
of
evergreens
through-
out
all
layers.
The
occurrence
of
Shiia
sieboldii
forest
in
the
island
is
restricted
to
the
south
and
east
coasts
where
it
is
protected
from
the
strong
northwest
wind
which
is
thought
to
be
a
limiting
factor
preventing
the
establishment
of
Shiia
sieboldii
forest
in
the
island.
Along
the
northwest
coast
exposed
to
the
northwest
wind
of
winter
was
seen
no
stand
of
this
forest,
although
these
places
are
quite
similar
in
temperature
conditions.
t-
0
z.Wr
-0*1:
5
0,4cir:9.7
-
134
ECOLOGICAL
REVIEW,
VOL_
16,
NO.
2
(1964)
Fig.
10.
Evergreen
broad
leaved
forest
of
Shiia
sieboldii
at
Ogi
along
the
east
coast
of
the
Kosado
area.
'13
f.
tee'
1 .
A
.
1ZE
9A
.
„,
.4s•
41
.
r..,;(/`
,t7
I* ..t.
1
7.
.
y
r':
110
yi
d
'
b'
, tfr
•.f
-re
Fig.
11.
Undergrowth
of
Shiia
sieboldii
forest.
Evergreen
shrubs
such
as
Falsia
japonica
(center)
are
abundant.
YOSHIOKA
:
NOTE
ON
FOREST
VEGETATION
IN
SADOGASHIMA
135
C.
Continual
Sequence
of
Community
Types
The
present
observation
on
the
forest
vegetation
of
the
island
was
confined
to
a
preliminary
survey,
because
the
writer's
stay
there
was
too
short
to
make
an
intensive
study
on
the
forest
vegetation.
The
forest
types
described
above
may
need
further
investigation,
however
they
can
give
an
outline
of
the
forest
vegetation
of
the
island.
Considering
the
forest
vegetation
as
a
whole,
the
relations
between
these
forest
types
were
investigated.
As
a
step
for
this,
similarity
was
obtained
between
these
types
according
to
the
presence
community
coefficient.
The
community
coefficient
of
these
forest
types
was
obtained
by
refering
to
the
Shiia
sieboldii
forest
which
is
thought
to
be
located
at
the
end
of
the
community
gradient,
being
favoured
by
the
most
moderate
climate
in
the
island.
The
forest
types
of
the
island
are
put
in
order
of
the
values
of
community
coefficient
by
refering
to
the
Shiia
sieboldii
forest
(Fig.
12).
A
continual
sequence
of
the
forest
types
can
be
seen,
although
there
is
a
significant
disparity
between
the
Shiia
sieboldii
forest
and
the
other
nine
types.
This
disparity,
however,
might
be
reduced
if
the
coefficients
were
weighted
with
frequency
io°
7
50
z
j3
40
Lu
30
›••
Z
x
20
0
10
I
2
3
4
5
8
7
8
9
10
FOREST
TYPE
NO.
Fig.
11.
Continual
sequence
of
the
forest
types
as
refered
to
the
Shiia
sieboldii
forest.
The
forest
type
numbers
represent
:
1:
Shim
sieboldii
forest
serrata
forest
2:
Machilus
thunbergii
forest
7:
Quercus
mongolica
var.
3:
Camellia
type
Acer
mono-Zelkova
grosseserrata
forest
serrata
forest
8:
Quercus
dentata-Acer
mono
scrub
4:
Evergreen
oak
forest
9:
Quercus
mongolica
forest
5:
Carbinus
laxifolia-C.
tschonoskii
10:
Quercus
mongolica
var.
forest
grosseserrata-Fagus
crenata
forest
6:
Herb
type
Acer
mono-Zelkova
136
ECOLOGICAL
REVIEW,
VOL.
16,
NO.
2
(
1964
)
or
coverage.
The
sequence
of
the
forest
types
shows
a
serial
change
along
the
environmental
gradient
from
the
moderate
to
rough
climates.
Generally
speaking,
with
decreasing
climatic
conditions
the
forest
types
shift
from
the
evergreen
broad
leaved
forests
through
the
deciduous
broad
leaved
forests
composed
chiefly
of
trees
belonging
to
Carpinus,
Acer,
Zelkova
and
Celtis
to
the
forest
of
the
deciduous
Quercus
and
Fag
us.
Rather
close
correlations
are
seen
between
the
floristic
composition
and
the
physiognomy
of
the
forest
types
with
a
few
exceptions.
However,
the
Camellia
type
Acer
mono-Zelkova
serrata
forest
is
related
closely
in
floristic
composition
to
the
evergreen
broad
leaved
forests,
while
it
appears
as
a
diciduous
broad
leaved
forest
in
physiognomy.
These
discordances
might
fade
away
if
the
coefficients
were
weighted
with
coverage
or
frequency.
SUMMARY
Sadogashima
Island
in
the
Japan
Sea
off
the
coast
of
Niigata
Prefecture
was
studied
preliminarily
for
the
forest
vegetation.
Ten
forest
types,
from
the
evergreen
to
deciduous
broad
leaved
forests,
are
distinguished,
although
they
are
arranged
in
a
continual
sequence
along
the
gradient
ranging
from
the
warm
to
the
cool
temperate
climates.
The
moderate
climate
of
the
island
should
have
caused
the
conspicuous
vegetation
continum
for
the
forest
vegetation
and
the
northernmost
advance
of
the
evergreen
broad
leaved
forest
of
Shiia
sieboldii.
However,
the
strong
west
wind
prevailing
in
winter
restricts
the
establishment
of
the
evergreen
broad
leaved
forests,
especially
the
Shiia
sieboldii
forest,
to
the
localities
along
the
eastern
coast
where
they
are
protected
from
the
west
wind.
Biological
Institute,
Faculty
of
Science,
Tehoku
University
REFERENCES
Kitami,
H.
(1950)
:
Flora
of
Sadogashima
Island.
In
Geology
and
Botany
of
Sadogashima
Island.
Botany
pp.
1-80.
(In
Japanese).
Niigata
Meteorological
Observatory
(19,52):
Meteorological
annual
report
of
Niigata
Prefec-
ture.
(In
Japanese).
Niigata
Prefecture
(1955):
Geological
map
of
Niigata
Prefecture.
Nishida,
S.,
Sugiyama,
R.,
Imai,
N.
and
K.
Chihara
(1950):
Geology
of
Sadogashima
Island.
In
Geology
and
Botany
of
Sadogashima
Island.
Geology,
pp.
1-25.
(In
Japanese).
Shinpo,
K.
(1932-35):
Flora
of
Sadogashima
Island.
Nature
Study,
No.
1
:
44-56,
No.
2
:
82-101,
No.3:
39-64,
No.4:
56-65.
(In
Japanese).
Yoshioka.
K.
(1963)
:
The
northern
limits
of
the
natural
forest
of
Shiia
sieboldii.
Sci.
Rep.
Tohokte
Univ.,
Ser.
IV.
29:
311-320.