The effect of culturistic training and oral supplementation with L-carnitine on sports results, body make-up, aerobic and anaerobic efficiency, lipids and anti-oxidative enzymes in blood


Eberhardt, A.; Ziemlanski, S.; Siwinska Goebiowska, H.; Drela, N.; Kruszewski, M.; Derentowicz, P.; Markiewicz, K.; Kepa, G.; Panczenko Kresowska, B.; Wit, B.; Busko, K.; Wychowanski, M.; Szczypiorski, P.; Strupinska, E.; Janowicz, J.

Zywienie Czowieka i Metabolizm 27(4): 303-315

2000


The aim of this work was to examine the effect of culturistic training and oral supplementation with L-carnitine on sports results, body make-up, aerobic and anaerobic efficiency, lipids and anti-oxidative enzymes in blood. The testing was conducted before and after a 5-week long culturistic training of 63 young men [Poland; date not given]. One of the groups, chosen at random, was administered L-carnitine in a dose recommended by the producer (n=30; 11.5 mg for 1 kg of body mass), the other group received placebo (n=33). Oral supplementation with L-carnitine increased the training effects in the form of force growth and force endurance, while other assayed parameters did not show significant differences.

PR
ACE
ORYGINALNE
CZLOWIEKA
I
METABOLIZM,
2000,
XXVII,
nr
4
ANDRZEJ
EBERHARDT',
SWIATOSLAW
ZIEMLANSKF,
HENRYKA
SIWINSKA-GOLUBIOWSKA3,
NADZIEJA
DRELA4,
MAREK
KRUSZEWSKI5,
PIOTR
DERENTOWICZ3,
KATARZYNA
MARKIEWICZ3,
GRZEGORZ
KFPA5,
BOGUMILA
PANCZENKO-KRESOWSKA2,
BOZENA
WIT",
KRZYSZTOF
BUSK08,
MICHAL
WYCH9WANSKP,
PIOTR
SZCZYPIORSKP,
EWA
STRUPINSKA1,
JERZY
JANOWICZ1
THE
EFFECT
OF
CULTURISTIC
TRAINING
AND
ORAL
SUPPLEMENTATION
WITH
L-CARNITINE
ON
SPORTS
RESULTS,
BODY
MAKE-UP,
AEROBIC
AND
ANAEROBIC
EFFICIENCY,
LIPIDS
AND
ANTI-OXIDATIVE
ENZYMES
IN
BLOOD*
'Department
of
Sports
Medicine,
Academy
of
Physical
Education
in
Warsaw
Manager:
professor
Andrzej
Eberhardt
M.D.
'Department
of
Physiology
and
Biochemistry
of
Nutrition,
National
Food
and
Nutrition
Institute
in
Warsaw
Manager:
professor
Swiatoslaw
Ziemlahski,
MD
'Department
of
Immunology,
Mother
and
Child
Institute
in
Warsaw
Manager:
professor
Henryka
Siwiliska-Golebiowska
MD
'Immunology
Department
of
the
Zoology
Institute
of
the
Biology
Department
at
Warsaw
University
Manager:
Assoc.
Professor
Gra.2,yna
Korczak-Kowalska
'Department
of
Combat
Sports
and
Weight
Lifting,
Academy
of
Physical
Education
in
Warsaw
Manager:
professor
Roman
Maciej
Kalina
"Department
of
Physiology,
Academy
of
Physical
Education
in
Warsaw
Manager:
professor
Marek
Klossowski
7
Department
of
Biomechanics
of
Rehabilitation
Faculty,
Academy
of
Physical
Education
in
Warsaw
Manager:
professor
Andrzej
Wit
'Department
of
Biomechanics,
Institute
of
Sport,
in
Warsaw
Manager:
doctor
Zbigniew
Trzaskoma
The
aim
of
this
work
was
to
examine
the
effect
of
culturistic
training
and
oral
supple-
mentation
with
L-carnitine
on
sports
results,
body
make-up,
aerobic
and
anaerobic
efficien-
cy,
lipids
and
anti-oxidative
enzymes
in
blood.
The
testing
was
conducted
before
and
after
a
5-week
long
culturistic
training
of
young
males.
One
of
the
groups,
chosen
at
random,
was
administered
L-carnitine
in
a
close
recommended
by
the
producer
(11.5
mg
for
1
kg
of
body
mass),
the
other
group
received
placebo.
11
was
stated
that
oral
supplementation
with
L-car-
nitine
increased
the
training
effects
in
the
form
of
farce
growth
and
force
endurance,
other
assayed
parameters
did
not
show
significant
differences.
*Acknowledgement:
This
study
was
supported
by
KBN
No
4P05D04416
303
KEY
WORDS:
L-carnitine
-
culturistic
training
-
efficiency
-
body
make-up
-
li-
pids
-
antioxidants
Oral
supplementation
with
the
use
of
not
always
well
known
substan-
ces
is
a
widely
practised
method
of
improving
sports
results.
As
it
se-
ems,
the
obtained
effects
often
depend
more
on
their
influence
on
the-
competitors'
mental
sphere
than
on
their
real
influence
on
the
functions
of
organism.
One
of
substances
often
taken
by
sportsmen
is
L-carnitine,
admini-
stered
in
its
pure
form
or
in
nutrition
mixtures
(1,
3).
L-carnitine
is
a
known
for
a
long
time,
natural
substance,
whose
so-
urce
in
our
diet
is
mainly
meat
(the
name
of
the
substance
derives
from
carnis
meat).
Food
derived
from
animals
is
usually
a
good
source
of
carnitine,
while
vegetable
food
contains
only
trace
amounts
of
this
sub-
stance
or
does
not
contain
it
at
all.
L-carnitine
(beta-hydroxy-gamma-trimetyloaminobutyric
acid)
conta-
ins
simultaneously
an
amino
group
and
a
carboxyl
group
in
its
mole-
cule,
which
is
the
required
criterion
condition
for
amino-acid
definition,
although
it
is
not
a
protogenic
amino-acid
(producing
systemic
prote-
in).
It
is
a
physiologically
active
substance,
synthesized
in
human
or-
ganism,
but
it
is
also
sometimes
supplemented
(while
dieting,
sports
training,
illness)
from
exogenous
sources
(nutrition,
supplementation).
Carnitine
can
be
synthesized
in
the
liver
and
kidneys
from
lysine
and
methionine,
vitamins
C,
13
6
,
PP
and
iron.
Organism
of
an
adult
weighing
ca.
70
kg
contains
about
20
g
of
L-carnitine
accumulated
mainly
in
ske-
letal
muscles
and
heart
(98%),
liver
and
kidneys
(1,5%),
and
only
0,5%
in
remaining
organs
(3).
Profitable
effects
of
L-carnitine
on
training
sportsmen
were
noted,
it
was
observed
that
L-carnitine
favours
physical
exercise
and
induces
an
increase
in
efficiency
through
regulation
of
fatty
acids
conversion
fa-
cilitating
their
oxidation.
Supplementation
with
L-carnitine
reduces
amounts
of
lipids
in
fatty
cells
while
body
mass
of
sportsmen
remains
unchanged.
Administration
of
L-carnitine
increases
endurance
and
also
resistance
to
overstrain
and
fatigue
(7,
9,
10).
No
scientific
studies
referring
to
the
effects
of
body
building
training
and
oral
supplementation
with
L-carnitine
on
sports
results
and
body
make-up
of
competitors
beginning
specialistic
training
were
found
in
ava-
ilable
literature.
That
is
the
reason
why
the
aim
of
our
studies
is
to
ana-
lyse
the
effects
of
L-carnitine
and
training
on
sports
results,
body
make-
up,
aerobic
and
anaerobic
capacity,
lipids
and
anti-oxidative
enzymes
in
blood
cells
of
individuals
starting
to
practise
physical
culture.
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
The
study
included
63
men
aged
19
(4
-
2.0),
who
started
training
with
the
method
of
body
building.
Individuals
examined
by
an
at
random
method
were
divided
into
groups:
experimental
group
(30
persons)
and
control
group
(33
persons).
All
persons
underwent
medical
tests
at
the
beginning
and
after
the
end
of
5-week
training.
The
experimental
gro-
304
up
was
administered
L-carnitine
"Olimp"
by
Sportatut
(in
the
form
of
tartrate
tablets
to
suck)
in
a
dose
of
900
mg
daily
(3
times
300
mg
before
main
meals),
11.5
mg
(±1.5)
for
1
kg
of
body
mass.
Fixed
amo-
unts
of
L-carnitine
correspond
with
a
dose
recommended
by
producers
(3).
Control
group
was
administered
placebo.
All
persons
under
examination
ate
at
a
school
canteen,
according
to
modified
for
them
menu
containing
the
following
proportions
of
nu-
tritive
components:
proteins
25-30%
(2-2.5
g/kg
of
body
mass),
fat
15-20%
(0.7-1.8
g/kg
of
body
mass),
carbohydrates
50-60%
(8-13
g/kg
of
body
mass).
All
examined
persons
deposited
appropriate
declarations
stating
that
they
will
not
have
anything
additional
to
eat
and
will
not
use
any
other
permitted
or
forbidden
aiding
substances.
In
all
examined
persons
there
was
an
assay
of:
by
the
heavy-athletic
method
absolute
force
value
(of
sports
results
in
kg)
developed
in
respective
exercises,
by
the
maximum
number
of
repetitions
method
("until
refusal")
for-
ce
endurance
value,
shown
in
exercises
performed
while
overcoming
external
resistance
and
resistance
of
one's
body,
by
the
PWC,,,,
)
test
oxygenic
capacity.
PWC
170
test
according
to
Sjostrand
(14)
consisted
of
doing
two
five-minute,
submaximum
efforts
on
a
cyclo-ergometer
by
Monark
824
E.
The
load
was
respectively
100
and
150
W.
Pulse
value
was
taken
at
the
end
of
each
effort
with
a
Sport
Tester.
PWC
17
indicator
was
calculated
on
the
basis
of
a
cor-
relation
between
the
force
of
the
effort
and
frequency
of
cardiac
con-
tractions,
by
extrapolation
to
170
contr./min.
Maximum
oxygen
con-
sumption
was
assessed
by
an
indirect
method
according
to
Karpman
and
associates
(11),
by
the
Wingate
test
anaerobic
capacity
(2).
The
examined
persons
performed
a
30-second
maximum
effort
with
their
pelvic
limbs
with
individually
matched
ballast,
which
took
into
account
the
weight
of
the
examined
person.
The
ballast
put
on
the
scale
of
the
cyclo-ergometer
amounted
to
7.5%
of
body
mass.
The
study
used
a
cyclo-ergometer
by
Monark
824
E
connected
to
the
IBM
PC
Pentium
computer
with
the
"MCE
v.4.0"
programme.
Measurements
and
calculations
of
the:
mean
power,
maximum
power,
value
of
accomplished
work
and
weariness
in-
dex
were
accomplished
with
the
help
of
the
MCE
programme,
by
the
bio-electrical
impedance
method
the
content
of
fat-free
mass
(LBM),
the
content
of
fatty
tissue
(FAT),
the
content
of
water
in
the
organism
and
the
value
of
LBM/FAT
indicator
signifying
the
ratio
of
fat-free
mass
to
the
fat
content
in
global
mass
and
the
value
of
BMI
indicator
(weight
and
height
indicator).
The
level
of
metabolism
in
re-
pose
was
estimated.
The
study
used
a
computer
set
with
BIA-RJL
Sys-
tem
Inc.
analyser
and
the
Weight
Manager
2a
programming.
The
me-
asurements
were
taken
while
in
a
horizontal
position
with
arms
stretched
along
the
trunk.
Two
electrodes
registering
the
values
of
the
electric
resistance
of
respective
tissues
were
placed
on
a
dorsal
side
of
hand
in
mid-length
of
the
third
metacarpus
bone,
and
two
other
on
a
dorsal
side
of
a
foot
in
mid-length
of
the
second
and
third
metatar-
sus
bones.
After
measuring
the
values
of
resistance
and
reactance,
the
content
of
LBM
(%,
kg),
FAT
(%,
kg),
the
content
of
water
(%,
kg),
BMI
305
(kg/m2),
LBM/FAT
were
evaluated.
The
test
was
done
twice
in
each
per-
son.
The
final
analysis
used
mean
values
from
both
measurements,
moments
of
force
of
the
following
muscle
groups:
trunk
extensors
the
measurement
was
taken
while
in
a
sitting
po-
sition,
lower
legs
hanging,
trunk
in
a
vertical
position,
hands
cla-
sped
in
front
of
the
trunk
The
pelvic
girdle
and
thighs
were
stabi
li-
sed
with
belts.
Force
operating
arm
was
measured
from
the
greater
trochanter
of
the
thigh
bone
to
the
place
of
force
application,
extensors
of
the
right
hip
joint
(thigh
extending
muscles)
the
me-
asurement
was
taken
while
lying
in
a
frontal
position,
lower
limbs
bent
at
an
angle
of
90
degrees
at
the
hip
joint
and
at
an
angle
of
90
degrees
at
the
knee
joint.
Hips
and
trunk
were
stabilised
with
the
help
of
belts.
Force
operating
arm
was
measured
from
the
greater
trochanter
of
the
thigh
bone
to
the
place
of
force
application,
extensors
of
the
right
elbow
joint
the
measurement
was
taken
whi-
le
in
a
standing
position.
The
measured
limb
was
bent
at
an
angle
of
90°
at
the
humeral
joint
and
at
an
angle
of
90°
at
the
elbow
jo-
int.
Arm
and
back
were
stabilised
by
supporting
them
with
special
props.
Force
operating
arm
was
measured
from
the
lateral
epicon-
dylus
of
the
humeral
bone
to
the
place
of
force
application,
extensors
and
flexors
of
the
right
and
left
knee
joint
were
measu-
red
directly
at
HUR
stand.
The
measurements
were
taken
while
sit-
ting
in
an
armchair
with
its
back
slightly
bent
backwards.
Moments
of
force
of
the
extensors
were
measured
for
the
angle
of
90°
at
the
knee
joint,
whereas
the
moments
of
the
flexors
for
the
angle
of
120°.
The
measurem
en
t
s
o
f
th
e
momen
t
s
o
f
f
orce
o
f
th
e
trunk
extensors,
right
hip
joint
extensors
and
right
elbow
joint
extensors
were
taken
on
a
special
stand
a
measuring
frame,
while
the
measurements
of
the
moment
s
o
f
musc
l
e
f
orce
o
f
th
e
ex
t
ensors
an
d
flexors
of
the
knee
joint
were
taken
on
a
special
HUR
stand.
In
the
case
of
the
frame,
the
moment
of
force
[Nm]
was
measured
as
a
ratio
of
the
force
ope
-
rating
arm
[in]
measured
with
the
help
of
an
antropometric
tram-
mel
and
force
[N]
measured
with
a
dynamometer.
At
the
HUR
stand
all
moments
of
muscle
force
were
measured
directly
in
[Nm].
Each
measurement
was
taken
twice
on
both
stands
respectively.
The
hi-
gher
value
was
accepted
as
the
result
of
the
measurement.
All
abo-
ve
mentioned
methods
were
used
at
the
beginning
of
the
study
and
after
a
5-week
long
training
cycle.
Obtained
results
were
statisti
c
ally
d
escr
ib
e
d.
R.
Rao
accretion
and
interactions
between
this
accretion
and
the
group
were
calculated
with
the
help
of
Man
ov
ana
ly
s
i
s
.
T
ra
i
n
i
ng
was
mo
difi
e
d
i
n
the
direction
of
interval
exercise
by
body
building
method
in
a
5-week
cycle,
1
hour
3
times
a
week
always
at
5
p.m.
in
temperature
of
19°C,
directed
to-
wards
springing
up
of
endurance
(exercise
girth
with
short
30s.
inte-
rvals
between
separate
exercises).
METHOD
OF
LOAD
PROPORTIONING
All
exercises
were
performed
in
an
exercise
girth
(the
girth
was
repe-
ated
three
times),
12
repetitions
in
each
exercise
(starting
from
50%
CM).
306
There
were
0.5
min.
intervals
between
separate
exercises.
One
was
sup-
posed
to
perform
a
maximum
number
of
repetitions
in
the
last
girth,
which
served
to
determine
the
load
for
the
next
training
e.g.
if
20
repe-
titions
were
performed
in
the
last
series
of
a
particular
exercise
than
4
kg
were
added
for
the
next
training.
It
results
from
the
following
formula:
(x
12)
:
2
=
y
where:
x
number
of
repetitions
in
the
last
series
of
a
particular
exercise
y
number
of
kilograms
which
can
be
added
for
the
next
training
The
activity
of
anti-oxidative
enzymes
and
the
lipid
profile
were
as-
sayed
in
blood
samples
taken
from
competitors
before
they
started
tra-
ining
and
after
5
weeks
of
training.
Total
cholesterol,
HDL
cholesterol
and
triglycerides
were
assayed
in
blood
plasma
using
enzymatic
tests
by
ANALCO.
The
activity
of
superoxide
dysmutase
(SOD),
catalase
(CAT)
and
glutathione
peroxidase
(PGx)
were
assayed
in
the
hemoly-
sates
of
erythrocytes.
PGx
activity
was
assayed
according
to
the
Ran-
sel
Glutation
Peroxidasa
test
by
RANDOX.
SOD
activity
was
measured
according
to
the
Mistra
and
Fridovich
method
(13).
One
SOD
activity
unit
means
the
enzyme's
ability
to
inhibit
auto-oxidation
of
epinephri-
ne
by
50%
in
a
buffer
of
pH
10.2.
CAT
activity
was
measured
by
Beers
and
Sizer
method
(4).
The
quantity
of
enzyme
which
dissolves
one
mi-
cromol
of
hydrogen
peroxide
in
one
minute
was
assumed
for
one
acti-
vity
unit.
Enzymes'
activity
was
converted
to
one
gram
of
hemoglobin
assayed
by
the
Drabkin
method.
The
concentration
of
lipid
peroxidation
products
was
assayed
in
blood
plasma
by
a
method
with
tiobarbituric
acid
(TBARS)
according
to
Buege
and
Aust
(5).
RESULTS
Increase
of
strength
and
force
endurance
was
ascertained
in
all
par-
ticipants.
The
measure
of
strength
development
was
the
maximum
load
(ML)
obtained
by
the
subjects
in
particular
exercises,
and
the
measure
of
force
endurance
development
was
an
increase
in
the
number
of
re-
petitions
in
the
same
exercises
(table
1,
2).
Persons
from
the
experimental
group
administerd
L-carnitine
obtained
significant
increases
in
absolute
strength
in
all
exercises
in
which
exter-
nal
load,
mainly
in
knee
bending
with
bar-bells
on
shoulders,
was
used
(PRZ)
an
increase
of
13.7
kg
(on
average
4.2
kg
more
than
the
placebo
group),
pressing
out
bar-bells
in
a
lying
position
(WL)
an
increase
of
9.6
kg
(on
average
4.1
kg
more
than
the
control
group),
dead-pull
(MC)
an
increase
of
17.7
kg
(on
average
5.2
kg
more
than
in
the
control
gro-
up)
and
shank
extending
on
a
machine
in
a
sitting
position
(PP)
an
in-
crease
of
12.6
kg
(on
average
4.5
kg
more
than
the
control
group).
In
only
one
exercise
pulling
an
upper
winch
bar
down
to
the
neck
(WG)
the
difference
between
groups
was
statistically
insignificant
(Table
2).
Persons
from
the
group
administered
L-carnitine
obtained
significant
increases
in
the
number
of
repetitions
in
particular
exercises,
which
may
suggest
that
supplementation
with
L-carnitine
can
have
influence
on
an
307
Table
1
Mean
increases
of
the
number
of
repetitions
in
particular
exercises
executed
by
young
males
subjected
to
culturistic
training,
control
group
administered
pla-
cebo
and
experimental
group
administered
L-carnitine.
Mean
values
and
±SD
WL***
PRZ***
WYP'"
WS
ns
MC**
BRZ***
MOT
ns
PP
ns
WG*
UM**
L-carni-
tine
n
-
30
3.55
3.96
12.44
1.70
3.11
14.44
1.92
1.70
2.51
8.92
SD
1.50
1.69
5.54
2.03
2.60
6.19
2.96
1.99
4.60
3.42
Placebo
n
-
33
1.15
0.19
8.03
0.96
1.15
9.8
8
1
.
88
1
.
46
-0.26
6.00
SD
2.39
3.54
4.75
2.69
2.61
7.51
3.03
2.24
4.60
3.04
Statistically
significant
increases
in
groups
on
a
level
of:
***p
<
0.001
**
p
<
0.01
*p
<
0.05
Inter-group
differences
on
a
level
of
p
<
0.001
-
statistically
significant
influence
of
L-carnitine
ns
-
insignificant
changes
WL
-
pressing
out
bar-bells
in
lying
position
PRZ
-
knee
bending
with
bar-bells
on
shoulders
WS
-
pressing
out
sitting
on
a
machine
MC
-
dead-pull
MOT
-
shoulders
adduction
on
a
"butterfly"
machine
PP
-
shank
extending
on
a
machine
in
a
sitting
position
WG
-
pulling
an
upper
winch
bar
clown
to
the
neck
WYP
-
trunk
extending
on
a
"Roman"
bench
BRZ
-
exercising
stomach
muscles
on
a
machine
UM
-
pulling
knees
up
to
chest
in
a
hang
from
bars
Table
2
Mean
increases
of
maximum
weight
in
particular
exercises
obtained
by
young
males
subjected
to
culturistic
training,
control
group
administered
placebo
and
experimental
group
administered
L-carnitine.
Mean
values
in
kg
and
±SD
,---
WL
***
PRZ
***
WS
**
MC
**
MOT
s*
PP
**
WG
ns
L-carnitine
n
-
30
9.62
13.70
6.85
17.77
7.59
12.59
6.55
SD
3.15
4.12
2.82
6.80
2.63
4.24
5.22
Placebo
n
-
33
5.57
9.51
4.23
12.59
4.61
8.07
4.84
SD
3.89
3.74
3.06
4.71
3.72
4.01
3.29
Statistically
significant
increases
in
groups
on
a
level
of:
***p
<
0.001
**
p
<
0.01
Inter-group
differences
on
a
level
of
p
<
0,001
-
statistically
significant
influence
of
L-carnitine
us
-
insignificant
changes
WL
-
pressing
out
bar-bells
in
lying
position
PRZ
-
knee
bending
with
bar-bells
on
shoulders
WS
-
pressing
out
sitting
on
a
machine
MC
-
dead-pull
MOT
-
shoulders
adduction
on
a
"butterfly"
machine
PP
-
shank
extending
on
a
machine
in
a
sitting
position
WG
-
pulling
an
upper
winch
bar
clown
to
the
neck
308
increase
of
ability
to
perform
aerobic
efforts.
The
greatest
statistically
significant
differences
were
ascertained
in
the
following
exercises:
trunk
extending
on
a
"Roman"
bench
(WYP)
an
increase
of
12.4
in
the
num-
ber
of
repetitions
(4.4
more
than
in
the
placebo
group),
knee-bending
with
bar-bells
(PRZ)
an
increase
of
3.9
in
the
number
of
repetitions
(3.8
more
than
in
the
placebo
group),
pressing
out
bar-bells
in
a
lying
position
(WL)
an
increase
of
3.6
repetitions
(2.4
more
than
in
the
pla-
cebo
group),
exercising
stomach
muscles
on
a
machine
(BRZ)
an
in-
crease
of
14.4
repetitions
(4.5
more
than
in
the
placebo
group).
In
three
exercises:
pressing
out
sitting
on
a
machine
(WS),
pulling
over
the
sho-
ulders
on
a
"butterfly"
machine
(MOT),
pulling
an
upper
winch
bar
down
to
the
neck
(PP),
differences
between
groups
turned
out
to
be
sta-
tistically
insignificant
(table
1).
The
study
done
with
the
Wingate
and
PWC
rio
test
showed
a
signifi-
cant
increase
of
aerobic
and
anaerobic
capacity
in
males
undergoing
culturistic
training,
while
no
influence
of
L-carnitine
was
ascertained,
the
differences
between
groups
were
statistically
insignificant
(table
3).
An
analysis
of
individual
values
points
at
a
large
individual
differen-
tiation
in
reactivity
to
applied
loads
and
L-carnitine
from
796.6
±109.6
to
821.2
±
108.0
W
in
the
group
administered
L-carnitine
and
from
702.4
±
106.9
to
728.1
±108.9
W
in
the
placebo
group.
Also
the
quantity
of
work
increased
significantly
in
the
group
undergoing
sup-
plementation
with
L-carnitine
from
19.0
±2.0
to
19.4
±1.9
kJ
and
from
16.9
±2.4
to
17.3
±2.4
kJ
in
the
placebo
group
(p
<
0.05).
However
in-
ter-group
differences
proved
to
be
insignificant.
Significant
changes
in
values
of
muscle
force
moments
of
elbow
joint
extensors,
hip
joint
extensors,
knee
joint
extensors
of
left
and
right
lo-
wer
limb
were
noticed
as
a
result
of
applied
body
building
training
in
both
groups
(table
5).
Differences
between
groups
were
statistically
insignifi-
cant.
No
significant
changes
in
measured
values
of
muscle
force
moments
were
ascertained
in
remaining
muscle
groups.
Obtained
results
corre-
spond
with
the
results
of
force
trials
carried
out
in
the
training
hall.
No
significant
changes
in
mean
values
of
fat-free
mass,
fatty
tissue
and
water
were
ascertained
among
indices
characteristic
of
the
body
make-up
of
examined
persons,
both
within
groups
and
between
groups
(table
4).
No
significant
changes
in
the
levels
of
total
cholesterol,
HDL
and
LDL
cholesterol
and
triglycerides
were
ascertained
under
the
influence
of
training
and
administration
of
L-carnitine
while
determining
serum
li-
pids.
Similarly,
no
significant
changes
in
activity
of
anti-oxidative
en-
zymes
were
noticed
(table
6,
7).
DISCUSSION
Significantly
greater
increase
of
absolute
strength
and
an
increase
of
the
number
of
repetitions
of
particular
exercises
were
ascertained
in
sportsmen
taking
L-carnitine
after
5
weeks
of
training
in
comparison
to
the
results
obtained
by
competitors
from
the
control
group
who
were
administered
placebo.
The
results
point
at
increased
abilities
to
perform
exercise
in
competitors
from
the
experimental
group,
which
as
a
possi-
bility
of
L-carnitine
effect
was
considered
only
theoretically
up
till
now
309
Table
4
Body
make-up
of
young
males
subjected
to
culturistic
training,
administered
placebo
in
control
group
and
L-carnitine
in
experimental
group.
First
test
done
at
the
beginning
of
the
training,
second
after
5
weeks
of
training.
Mean
values
and
±SD
In
persons
receiving
placebo,
n
=
32
A
[
%]
In
persons
receiving
L-carnitine,
n
=
29
[
1
:
,
e]
I
test
II
test
I
test
II
test
Mass
[kg]
67.4
±
8.2
67.8
±
8.2
ns
0.7
ns
77.7
±
8.8
78.1
±
8.6
ns
0.6
ns
Water
[C'el
65.5
±
2.3
65.4
±
2.7
ns
-0.1
ns
63.4
±
3.9
63.2
±
3.4
ns
-0.1
ns
Water
[kg]
44.1
±
5.3
44.2
±
4.6
ns
0.5
ns
49.2
±
4.3
49.3
±
4.2
ns
0.1
ns
LBM
[g]
89.6
±
3.5
89.3
±
3.7
ns
-0.3
ns
87.0
±
5.7
86.5
±
4.5
ns
-0.4
ns
LBM
[kg]
60.3
±
7.3
60.4
±
0.2
ns
0.2
ns
67.3
±
5.9
67.3
±
5.7
ns
0.0
ns
FAT
Fel
10.4
.±-
3.5
10.7
±
3.7
ns
2.9
ns
13.0
±
5.7
13.5
±
4.5
ns
3.9
ns
FAT
[kg]
7.1
±
2.8
7.4
±
3.1
ns
4.2
ns
10.5
±
5.3
10.8
±
4.5
ns
3.9
ns
LBM/FAT
99
±
4.6
9.8
±
4.8
ns
-1.0
ns
8.2
±
4.0
7.5
±
3.6
ns
-8.5
ns
BMI
[kg
x
m
-2
]
21.5
±
1.7
21.7
±
1.7
ns
0.8
ns
23.9
±
2.2
24.0
±
2.2
ns
0.7
ns
ns
-
statistically
insignificant
result,
insignificant
percentage
changes
(D)
between
groups
(lack
of
L-carnitine
influence)
LBM
-
changes
of
fat-less
body
mass
FAT
-
fatty
tissue
content
-
body
mass
index
Table
5
Measurement
results
of
chosen
moments
of
force
conducted
in
a
group
of
young
males
subjected
to
culturistic
training,
control
group
administered
pla-
cebo
and
experimental
group
administered
L-carnitine.
The
first
measure-
ment
was
done
before
and
the
second
after
5
weeks
of
training.
Mean
values
in
Nm
(±SD)
In
persons
receiving
placebo
n
=
33
In
persons
receiving
L-carnitine
n
=
30
I
test
II
test
I
test
II
test
LP
42
±
12
48
±
11*
51
±
9
56
±
10*
TP
527
±
97
498
±
137
593
±
116
615
±
111
BP
434
±
104
375
±
89*
503
±
89
458
±
106*
KPP
231
±
53
219
±
34*
258
±
60
240
±
43*
KPL
223
±
60
204
±
36*
234
±
42
220
±
32*
KZP
145
±
37
147
±
33
158
±
36
159
±
29
KZL
132
±
37
133
±
32
149
±
33
155
±
22
LP
-
elbow
joint
extensors
TP
-
trunk
extensors
BP
-
hip
joint
extensors
KPP,
KPL
-
knee
joint
extensors
of
right
and
left
leg
KZP,
KZL
-
knee
joint
flexors
of
right
and
left
leg
-
mean
values
differ
significantly
between
tests
done
before
and
after
training
p
<
0.05,
inter-group
differences
statistically
insignificant
-
lack
of
L-carnitine
influence
Table
6
Cholesterol
profile
(mg/d1)
in
plasma
lipoproteins
and
triglycerides
(ing/d1)
in
young
males
subjected
to
5-week
culturistic
training
and
oral
supplemen-
tation
with
L-carnitine.
Mean
values
and
±SD
In
persons
receiving
placebo
In
persons
receiving
L-carnitine
n
=
32
n
=
28
n
=
29
n
=
26
before
training
after
training
before
training
after
training
Total
cholesterol
154.52
±
27.80
156.23
±
35.73
ns
147.03
±
21.27
148.57
±
22.49
ns
HDL-cholesterol
48.17
±
9.20
48.56
±
8.21
ns
53.00
±
12.39
52.64
±
10.37
ns
LDL-cholesterol
88.77
±
28.48
88.83
±
27.85
ns
80.58
±
19.16
81.21
±
20.04
ns
Triglycerides
87.86
±
50.01
90.23
±
66.33
ns
67.25
±
23.20
73.57
±
38.37
ns
ns
-
statistically
insignificant
result
312
Table
7
Anti-oxidative
activity
(j/gHb)
and
TBARS
content
(nmol/ml)
in
blood
cells
and
plasma
of
young
males
subjected
to
5-week
culturistic
training
and
oral
supplementation
with
L-carnitine.
Mean
values
and
±SD
In
persons
receiving
placebo
In
persons
receiving
L-carnitine
n
=
32
n
=
28
n
=
29
n
=
26
before
training
after
training
before
training
after
training
Superoxide
dysmutase
2029.03
±
303.88
2045.57
±
349.32
ns
2234.66
±
274.10
2168.35
±
240.76
ns
Catalase
123.88
±
13.19 127.69
±
10.26
ns
117.60
±
15.64
118.94
±
15.02
ns
Glutathionian
peroxidase
33.92
±
9.04
33.51
±
7.63
ns
35.76
±
8.31
36.04
±
8.09
ns
TBARS
1.24
±
0.28
1.32
±
0.13
ns
1.35
±
0.36
1.37
±
0.18
ns
ns
-
statistically
insignificant
result
(1)
and
only
in
relation
to
aerobic
effort,
because
L-carnitine
is
essen-
tial
for
energetic
conversion
of
fatty
acids,
and
participates
in
transport
of
molecules
carrying
long-chain
fatty
acids
through
mitochondrial
mem-
brane
inside
the
mitochondrions
where
substrate
oxidation
and
energy
production
take
place.
L-carnitine
also
stabilizes
the
level
of
potassium
ions
in
a
cell,which
is
significant
in
muscle
tissue
metabolism,
because
retension
of
potas-
sium
ions
increases
the
ability
to
perform
exercise
(as
a
result
of
wa-
ter
retension
inside
the
muscle
cell)
and
can
influence
the
sportsmen's
adjustment
to
short-term,
strenuous
exercise
(7,
10).
While
performing
exercises
and
observing
a
poor
diet,
relative
carniti-
ne
deficiency
may
occur
which
can
result
in
slowing
down
the
pace
of
reserve
fat
loss
and
in
muscle
mass
loss.
By
increasing
the
participation
of
fats
in
energy
production,
carnitine
indirectly
increases
the
level
of
keto-bodies
in
blood
cells.
These
in
turn
penetrate
the
brain
causing
"psycho-energizing"
and
euphorizing
effects,
impairing
the
feeling
of
work
load
and,
in
this
way,
putting
off
the
occur-
rence
of
the
subjective
feeling
of
tiredness.
Such
state
is
read
by
the
cen-
tral
nervous
system
structures
as
a
situation
of
energetical
deficit.
To
re-
medy
that,
through
the
mediation
of
hypothalamus,
the
hypophysis
is
stimulated
to
suspend
the
secretion
of
somatotropin,
with
all
its
conse-
quences
for
the
increasing
of
the
organism's
readiness
to
work
(intensi-
fying
of
the
fatty
tissue
disintegration,
muscle
tissue
proliferation
etc.)
(9).
The
Wingate
and
PWC
17
,,
tests
showed
in
examined
persons
that
cul-
turistic
training
caused
an
increase
of
aerobic
and
anaerobic
capacity,
but
the
effect
of
supplementation
with
L-carnitine
was
not
observed.
There
exist
works,
whose
authors
do
not
confirm
the
ergogenitic
ef-
fect
of
L-carnitine
on
using
up
of
energetic
substrates,
and
this
way
a
si-
gnificant
effect
on
exercise
economics,
which
may
have
a
hearing
on
obtained
results
of
aerobic
and
anaerobic
capacity
evaluation
(3,
10).
313
Supplementation
with
L-carnitine
did
not
change
the
body
make-up
of
examined
persons.
The
results
are
quite
surprising,
since
the
authors
of
many
works
demonstrated
active
influence
of
L-carnitine
on
fatty
tissue
reduction
in
sportsmen
(3,
6,
10).
Although
carnitine
plays
an
important
role
in
fatty
acids
metabolism,
no
effect
of
supplementation
with
L-carnitine
on
the
content
of
trigly-
cerides
in
blood
cells
was
stated
in
the
discussed
study.
Similarly
to
the
studies
of
other
authors
(6,
12)
no
changes
in
the
metabolism
of
fatty
compounds
were
observed
in
people
practising
strenuous
exercise
and
submaximal
exercise
and
taking
L-carnitine.
A
consequence
of
strenuous
exercise
is
an
increase
of
oxygen
require-
ment
and
intensification
of
peroxidative
processes
in
the
organism
(8).
It
seems
that
the
stated
lack
of
changes
in
TBARS
content
and
in
anti-oxidative
enzymes
activity
may
point
at
a
fact
that
in
the
course
of
physical
training
it
comes
to
the
development
of
adaptative
mecha-
nisms
which
protect
sportsmen's
organisms
from
excessive
peroxidation.
Similar
results
were
obtained
also
by
other
authors
(12).
Summarizing
the
obtained
results
it
should
be
stated
that
L-carniti-
ne,
in
a
dose
recommended
by
the
p
ro
ducers,
used
for
5
weeks
during
culturistic
training
of
young
healthy
males
increased
the
training
effects
in
the
form
of
growth
of
accomplished
work
and
did
not
change
aerobic
and
anaerobic
capacity,
body
make-up,
lipids
and
anti-oxidative
enzymes
activity
in
blood
cells
o
f
exam
i
ne
d
p
ersons
.
Th
e
d
ose
o
f
L-carnitine
used
in
.
the
experime
n
t
m
a
y
h
ave
b
een
t
oo
sma
ll
or
th
e
su
ppl
e
mentation
pe-
riod
too
short.
These
suggesti
ons
requ
i
re
f
ur
th
er
s
t
u
die
s
since
differen-
tiation
of
individual
reactions
to
the
use
of
L-carnitine
is
apparent.
CONCLUSIONS
Oral
supplementation
with
L-carnitine
in
a
dose
recommended
by
the
producers
increases
the
effects
of
5-week
long
culturistic
training
in
the
form
of
strength
growth
and
force
endurance.
5
weeks
long
oral
supplementation
with
L-carnitine
in
a
dose
recom-
mended
by
the
producers
does
not
cause
changes
in
aerobic
and
ana-
erobic
capacity,
body
make-up,
serum
lipids
and
anti-oxidative
enzy-
mes
activity
in
blood
cells
in
training
sportsmen.
A.
Eberhardt,
S.
Ziemlariski,
H.
Siwiriska-Golcbiowska,
N.
Drela,
M.
Kruszewski,
P.
Derentowicz,
K.
Markiewicz,
G.
KQpa,
B.
Panczenko-Kresowska,
B.
Wit,
K.
Bulco,
M.
Wychowariski,
P.
Szczypiorski,
E.
Strupinska,
J.
Janowicz
WPLYW
TRENINGU
KULTURYSTYCZNEGO
I
SUPLEMENTACJI
ZYWIENIOWEJ
L-KARNITYNY
NA
WYNIKI
SPORTOWE,
SKLAD
CIALA,
WYDOLNOSC
TLENOW4
I
BEZTLENOW4
ORAZ
LIPIDY
I
ENZYMY
ANTYOKSYDACYJNE
Celein
pricy
bylo
zbadanie
wplywu
treningu
kulturystycznego
i
suplementacji
Zywienio-
wej
L-karnityny
na
wyniki
sportowo,
sklad
ciala,
wyclolnoSe
tlenowa
i
beztlenowa
oraz
li-
pidy
i
enzymy
antyoksydacyjne
krwi.
I3aclania
przeprowaclzono
przed
i
po
5-tygochnowym
treningu
kulturystycznym
mloclych
meZczyzn.
Jedna
z
grup,
dobrana
losowo,
otrzymywala
314
L-karnityne
w
dawce
zalecanej
przez
producentOw
(11,5
mg
na
kg
masy
ciala),
druga
pla-
cebo.
Stwierdzono,
iZ
suplementacja
Zywieniowa
L-karnitynq
zwiekszyla
efekty
treningu
w
postaci
przyrostu
sily
i
wytrzymaloki
silowej,
w
pozostalych
oznaczanych
pararnetrach
nie
obserwowano
istotnych
roZnic.
REFERENCES
1.
Arnbroziak
S.:
Jeszcze
raz
L-karnityna.
Mag.
Sport.
Silowych
1997,
2,
11.-
2.
Bar-Or
0.:
The
Wingate
anaerobic
test:
An
update
on
methodology,
reliability
and
validity.
Sports
Med.,
1987,
4,
381.—
3.
Bentkowski
Z.:
Witaminopodobne
substan-
cje
odZywcze,
karnityna
nowa
era
zastosowan.
Warszawa,
Lonza
LTD.,
1997.-
4.
Beers
R.,
Sizer
I.:
Spectrophotometric
method
for
measuring
breakdown
of
hydro-
gen
peroxide
by
catalase.
J.
Biol.
Chem.,
1952
195,
133.—
5.
Buege
I.A.,
Aust
S.D.:
Microsomal
lipid
peroxidation.
Methods
in
Enzymology.
New
York,
Academic
Press,
1978,
52,
302.—
6.
Decombaz
J.,
Deriaz
0.,
Acheson
K.:
Effect
of
L-carnitine
on
sub-
maximal
exercise
metabolism
after
depletion
of
muscle
glycogen.
Med.
Sci.
Sports
Exerc.,
1993,
25,
733.—
7.
Greig
C.,
Finch
K.M.,
Jones
D.A.,
et
al.:
The
effect
of
oral
supplementation
with
L-carnitine
on
maximum
and
submaximum
exercise
capaci-
ty.
Eur.
J.
Appl.
Physiol.,
1987,
56,
457.—
8.
Haramaki
N.,
Packer
L.:
Oxidative
stress
indices
in
exercise.
In:
Exercise
and
oxygen
toxicity.
Amsterdam,
Elsevier,
1994,
77.-
9.
Heinonen
0.:
Carnitine
and
physical
exercise.
Sports
Med.,
1996,
22,
109.—
10.
He-
inonen
0.,
Takala
J.,
Kvist
M.H.:
Effect
of
carnitine
loading
on
long-chain
fatty
acid
oxidation,
maximal
exercise
capacity
and
nitrogen
balance.
J.
Appl.
Physiol.,
1992,
65,
13.-
11.
Karpman
V.I.,
Gudkov
I.A.,
Kojdinova
G.A.:
Neprjamoe
opredelenie
maksimal-
nogo
potreblenia
kisloroda
u
sportsmenov
vysokoj
kvalifikacii.
Teor.
Prakt.
Fiz.
Kul.,
1972,
1,
37.—
12.
Margaritis
I.,
TessierE.,
Richard
M.J.:
No
evidence
of
oxidative
stress
after
a
triathlon
rice
in
highly
trained
competitors.
Int.
J.
Sports
Med.,
1997,
18,
186.—
13.
Misra
H.P,
Fridovich
I.:
The
role
of
superoxide
anion
in
the
autooxi-
dation
of
epinephirine
and
a
simple
assay
for
superoxide
dismutase.
J.
Biol.
Chem.,
1972,
247,
3170.—
14.
Sjostrand
T.:
Changes
in
the
respiratory
organs
of
workmen
at
an
ore
smelting
works.
Acta
Med.
Scand.,
1947
Suppl.,
196,
687.—