New species and records of Asymmetrasca (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Empoascini) from China and name changes in Empoasca (Matsumurasca)


Liu, Y.; Fletcher, M.J.; Dietrich, C.H.; Zhang, Y-Lin.

Zootaxa 3768: 327-350

2014


Six new species of Asymmetrasca Dlabola are described from China: A. dahaituoensis, A. helica, A. hypercurvata, A. liaoensis, A. reflexilis, A. uncus spp. nov. In addition, A. cienka Dworakowska, 1982, n. comb.; A. decedens Paoli, 1932 and A. sakaii Dworakowska 1971, n. comb., are recorded from China for the first time. The following additional new combinations from Empoasca are also proposed: A. cisiana (Dworakowska, 1971); A. kaicola (Dworakowska, 1982), A. lutowa (Dworakowska, 1971), A. mona (Dworakowska, 1994), A. nipponica (Dworakowska 1982), A. rybiogon (Dworakowska, 1971), and A. uniprossicae (Sohi, 1977). Empoasca (Empoasca) kishtwarensis Sharma, 1984 is proposed as a new synonym of Asymmetrasca kaicola (Dworakowska, 1982). Habitus photos and illustrations of the male genitalia of the new species and a key to Chinese species are provided. New names are proposed to replace two junior homonyms in Empoasca (Matsumurasca).

Zootaxa
3768
(3):
327-350
ISSN
1175-5326
(print
edition)
www.mapress.com/zootaxa/
Article
ZOOTAXA
Copyright
©
2014
Magnolia
Press
ISSN
1175-5334
(online
edition)
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3768.3.4
http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D315EBBE-ACEE-4E23-A6D8-C9BF6CB6ABA4
New
species
and
records
of
Asymmetrasca
(Hemiptera:
Cicadellidae:
Typhlocybinae:
Empoascini)
from
China
and
name
changes
in
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
YANG
LIU
12
,
MURRAY
J.
FLETCHER
3
,
CHRISTOPHER
H.
DIETRICH'
&
YA-LIN
ZHANG
2
'
s
`College
of
Life
Sciences,
Northwest
University,
Taibai
North
Road
229,
Xi'an,
Shaanxi,
710069,
China
'Key
Laboratory
of
Plant
Protection
Resources
and
Pest
Management
of
Ministry
of
Education,
Entomological
Museum,
Northwest
A&F
University,
Yangling,
Shaanxi,
712100,
China
'Orange
Agricultural
Institute,
NSW
Dept
of
Primary
Industries,
Forest
Road,
Orange,
New
South
Wales,
2800,
Australia
'Illinois
Natural
History
Survey,
Prairie
Research
Institute,
University
of
Illinois,
607
Peabody
Dr.,
Champaign,
IL,
61820,
USA
'Corresponding
author.
E-mail:
yalinzh@nwsuafedu.en
Abstract
Six
new
species
of
Asymmetrasca
Dlabola
are
described
from
China:
A.
dahaituoensis,
A.
helica,
A.
hypercurvata,
A.
li-
aoensis,
A.
reflexilis,
A.
uncus
spp.
nov.
In
addition,
A.
cienka
Dworakowska,
1982,
n.
comb.;
A.
decedens
Paoli,
1932
and
A.
sakaii
Dworakowska
1971,
n.
comb.,
are
recorded
from
China
for
the
fi
rst
time.
The
following
additional
new
com-
binations
from
Empoasca
are
also proposed:
A.
cisiana
(Dworakowska,
1971);
A.
kaicola
(Dworakowska,
1982),
A.
lu-
towa
(Dworakowska,
1971),
A.
mona
(Dworakowska,
1994),
A.
nipponica
(Dworakowska
1982),
A.
rybiogon
(Dworakowska,
1971),
and
A.
uniprossicae
(Sohi,
1977).
Empoasca
(Empoasca)
kishtw
arensis
Sharma,
1984
is
proposed
as
a
new
synonym
of
Asymmetrasca
kaicola
(Dworakowska,
1982).
Habitus
photos
and
illustrations
of
the
male
genitalia
of
the
new
species
and
a
key
to
Chinese
species
are
provided.
New
names
are
proposed
to
replace
two
junior
homonyms
in
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca).
Key
words:
Homoptera,
Auchenorrhyncha,
leafhopper,
morphology,
taxonomy,
identification
Introduction
The
typhlocybine
tribe
Empoascini
comprises
88
described
genera
and
ca.
1300
described
species and
is
well
represented
in
temperate
and
tropical
regions
worldwide.
The
largest
genus,
Empoasca
Walsh,
is
currently
poorly
defined
and
includes
many
species
that
are
superficially
similar
due
to
their
small
size
and
pale
green
coloration.
Several
previous
authors
have
recognized
distinctive
groups
of
species
within
the
genus,
but
there
has
been
disagreement
in
the
literature over
whether
such
groups
should
be
recognized
formally
as
separate
genera
or
subgenera,
or
informally
as
species
groups
(cf.,
Dlabola
1958,
Ghauri
1974,
Dworakowska
1968,
1972,
Dworakowska
&
Viraktamath
1975).
One
such
group,
based
on
the
widespread
Palaearctic
species
E.
decedens
Paoli,
has
most
recently
been
treated
as
the
"decedens
group"
of
Empoasca
by
Dworakowska
(1968),
but
was
previously
treated
as
a
separate
genus,
Asymmetrasca
by
Dlabola
(1958)
based
on
unique
features
of
the
male
genitalia.
Treatment
of
this
group
as
a
separate
genus
is
well
justified,
given
its
substantial
morphological
differences
from
typical
Empoasca
(i.e.,
the
New
World
type
species,
E.
fabae
(Harris),
and
its
close
relatives;
Ross
1959).
Species
of
Asymmetrasca
differ
from
Empoasca,
sensu
stricto,
in
having
the
male
subgenital
plate
narrow
at
the
base
and
lacking
an
angulate
dorsolateral
projection,
setal
group
A
arising
far
from
the
base
of
the
plate,
the
anal
hook
usually
with
small
apical
denticuli
and
the
aedeagus
with
a
well
developed
dorsal
apodeme,
the
shaft
usually
much
longer
than
the
preatrium
and
a
single
long
asymmetrical
process
arising
at
the
apex
and
extended
basolaterad.
Typical
Empoasca
(i.e.,
species
most
closely
related
to
the
type,
E.
fabae
Harris)
have
the
male
subgenital
plate
with
an
angulate
basolateral
process
and
setal
group
A
near
the
base,
the
anal
hook
simple
and
the
aedeagus
with
the
shaft
much
shorter
than
the
preatrium
and
lacking
an
apical
process.
Accepted
by
Ai
-Ping
Liang:
12
Jan.
2014;
published:
26
Feb.
2014
327
This
paper
is
the
third
contribution
to
a
more
thorough
investigation
of
the
taxonomy
of
the
Chinese
Empoasca
(sensu
lato).
The
first
two
parts
of
this
study
were
published
in
2011
(Liu
et
al.,
2011a
and
Liu
et
al.,
2011b).
Asymmetrasca
decedens
Paoli,
1932
is
an
important
pest
of
cultivated
red
raspberry
and
peach
in
Europe
(Grassi
&
Dal,
2005;
Jacas
et
al.,
1997).
Here
we
review
the
Chinese
species
of
Asymmetrasca,
including
six
new
species
and
three
new
records
from
China.
Dr.
Sterling
Southern
(pers.
comm.)
called
our
attention
to
two
homonyms
created
by
Qin
&
Zhang
(2008).
Here
we
propose
new
names
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
southerni
Zhang,
nom.
nov.
for
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
clypeata
Qin
&
Zhang
(2008:
20,
nec
Empoasca
clypeata
Gillette
and
Baker
1895),
and
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
qini
Zhang,
nom.
nov.
for
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
quadrifida
Qin
&
Zhang,
2008:
24,
nec
Empoasca
quadrifida
Southern
1982).
Material
and
methods
Habitus
photos
were
taken
by
using
a
digital
micrography
system
equipped
with
an
Auto
-montage
®
imaging
system
and
a
highly
sensitive
QIMAGING
Retiga
4000R
digital
camera
(CCD).
Multiple
photographs
were
compressed
into
final
images.
Images
were
printed
and
used
as
a
basis
for
traced
and
inked
illustrations,
and
illustrations
were
then
digitized
(600
dpi).
Color
photographs
were
saved
at
300
dpi
resolution.
The
body
measurements
are
from
apex
of
vertex
to
tip
of
forewing.
The
morphological
terminology
used
in
this
description
follows
Zhang
(1990)
except
for
the
nomenclature
of
the
wing
venation,
for
which
we
follow
Dworakowska
(1993),
and
chaetotaxy
of
the
subgenital
plate,
for
which
we
follow
Southern
(1982).
All
of
the
specimens
examined,
including
types
of
the
new
species,
are
deposited
in
the
Entomological
Museum,
Northwest
A&F
University
(NWAFU).
Taxonomy
Asymmetrasca
Dlabola,
reinstated
genus
Asymmetrasca
Dlabola
1958:
51.
Type
species:
Empoasca
decedens
Paoli.
Empoasca
Walsh,
in
part;
Dworakowska,
1968:
566;
Nast
1972:
264.
Synonymised
by
Dworakowska,
1968.
Diagnosis.
Small,
green
Empoascini
resembling
Empoasca
in
external
morphology
but
differing
as
follows:
male
subgenital
plate
narrow
at
base,
lacking
angulate
dorsolateral
projection,
setal
group
A
arising
far
from
base
of
plate;
anal
hook
usually
with
small
apical
denticuli;
aedeagus
with
well
developed
dorsal
apodeme,
shaft
as
long
as
or
longer
than
preatrium
with
single
long
asymmetrical
process
arising
at
apex
and
extended
basolaterad.
Notes.
Asymmetrasca
was
listed
as
a
junior
synonym
of
Empoasca
by
Nast
(1972)
and
this
interpretation
has
was
followed
by
the
principal
taxonomic
worker
on
Palearctic
Typhlocybinae
(Dworakowska
1982),
although
other
recent
authors,
mostly
in
the
economic
entomology
literature
(e.g.,
Jacas
et
al.
1997),
have
continued
to
recognize
Asymmetrasca
as
a
valid
genus.
As
noted
above,
species
of
the
genus
differ
substantially
from
the
type
species
of
Empoasca
in
the
structure
of
the
male
subgenital
plate
and
aedeagus.
Therefore,
we
recognize
Asymmetrasca
as
a
valid
genus,
distinct
from
Empoasca,
sensu
stricto.
Asymmetrasca
appears
to
be
restricted
to
the
Palearctic
and
Oriental
regions
and
includes
10
previously
described
species
and
6
new
species
described
below.
The
described
species
are
very
similar
morphologically,
differing
mainly
in
the
relative
shape,
proportions
and
ornamentation
of
the
aedeagal
shaft,
preatrium
and
apical
process.
Key
to
species
of Asymmetrasca
based
on
males
1
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
with
apex
tapered,
lacking
branches
or
teeth
2
1'
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
with
at
least
one
preapical
projection
or
tooth
5
2
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
evenly
curved
throughout
length
in
posterior
view
3
2'
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
distinctly
bent
preapically
in
posterior
view
4
328
Zootaxa
3768
(3)
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2014 Magnolia
Press
LIU
ET
AL.
3
Aedeagus
with
preatrium
more
than
half
length
of
shaft,
shaft
nearly
straight
(Figs
24-25)
helica
3'
Aedeagus
with
preatrium
much
less
than
half
length
of
shaft,
shaft
distinctly
curved
in
lateral
view
cisiana
4
Aedeagus
with
shaft
much
longer
than
preatrium
(Figs
38-39)
kaicola
4'
Aedeagus
with
shaft
only
slightly
longer
than
preatrium
(Figs
8-9)
dahaituoensis
5
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
with
two
or
more
distal
teeth
6
5'
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
with
a
single
preapical
tooth
or
projection,
or
apex
appearing
bifid
7
6
Aedeagus
with
dorsal
apodeme
very
short,
shaft
without
toothed
dorsolateral
fl
ange
(Figs
33-34)
hypercurvata
6'
Aedeagus
with
dorsal
apodeme
well
developed,
shaft
with
toothed
dorsolateral
fl
ange
(Figs
63-64)
sakaii
7
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
nearly
straight
in
posterior
view
8
7'
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
strongly
curved
in
posterior
view
9
8
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
extended
to
right
in
posterior
view,
preapical
projection
extended
dorsad
(Figs
1-2)
cienka
8'
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
extended
to
left
in
posterior
view,
preapical
projection
extended
ventrad
(Figs
43-44).
. .
.liaoensis
9
Aedeagal
shaft
with
basal
width
>
1/3
shaft
length
along
dorsal
margin
in
lateral
view
10
9'
Aedeagal
shaft
with
basal
width
much
narrower
than
1/3
width
of
length
along
dorsal
margin
in
lateral
view
11
10
Distal
process
of
aedeagal
shaft
extended
to
right
in
posterior
view,
preapical
process
smaller
than
section
distad
of
process
(Figs
49-50)
mona
10'
Distal
process
of
aedeagal
shaft
extended
to
left
in
posterior
view,
preapical
process
as
large
as
section
distad
of
process
(Figs
61-62)
rybiogon
11
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
with
single
large
preapical
tooth
or
projection
12
11'
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
with
2
or
more
preapical
teeth
(may
be
small)
13
12
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
with
preapical
projection
extended
dorsad
in
posterior
view
shaft
distinctly
bent
dorsad
in
lateral
view
nipponica
12'
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
with
preapical
projection
extended
laterad
in
posterior
view,
shaft
nearly
straight
in
lateral
view
(Figs
69-70)
uncus
13
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
tapered
with
several
small
preapical
teeth
14
13'
Distal
process
of
aedeagus
with
apex,
expanded
and
truncate
with
medial
tooth
(Figs
79)
uniprossicae
14
Aedeagal
shaft
shorter
than
preatrium,
without
denticuli
on
dorsal
surface
(Figs
55-56)
reflexilis
14'
Aedeagal
shaft
longer
than
preatrium,
with
denticuli
on
dorsal
surface
15
15
Aedeagal
shaft
with
section
distad
of
gonopore
longer
than
basal
section
(Figs
16-17)
decedens
15'
Aedeagal
shaft
with
section
distad
of
gonopore
shorter
than
basal
section
(Figs
47-48)
lutowa
Asymmetrasca
cienka
(Dworakowska,
1982),
n.
comb.,
new
record
from
China
(Figs
1-2,
82-85)
Empoasca
(Empoasca)
cienka
Dworakowska,
1982:
45
Specimens
examined.
China:
Hubei
Prov.:
la,
Lianghekou,
Fangxian,
1.viii.2001,
coll.
Zhigiang
He;
Sichuan
Prov.:
1
a,
Mt.
Qingcheng,
8.vii.2005,
coll.
Lin
Lu;
Xinjiang
Prov.:
1
a,
Yili,
19-20.viii.1979,
700
m,
coll.
Tong
Chen;
Shaanxi
Prov.:
3c3c3,
Yangling,
vii.1986,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang;
Hunan
Prov.:
15',
Mt.
Mang,
Chenzhou,
31.vii.1985;
5c3c3,
Mt.
Heng,
10.viii.1985,
all
coll.
Yalin
Zhang
&
Yonghui
Chai;
3c3c3,
Yacheng„
14.v.1983,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang;
1
a,
Mt.
Tianping,
Sangzhi„
12.viii.
2001,
1250
m;
Henan
Prov.:
2c3c3,
Mt.
Jigong,
11.vii.
1997,
coll.
Jian
Hu,
light
trap;
Shandong
Prov.:
la,
Mt.
Kunyu,
Yantai,
10.vii.
2001,
900
m,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin
&
Zhenjiang
Liu.
Distribution.
China
(Hubei,
Sichuan,
Xinjiang,
Shaanxi,
Hainan,
Hunan,
Henan,
Shandong),
Korea.
Host.
Arbutus
(Ericaceae).
Asymmetrasca
cisiana
(Dworakowska,
1971),
n.
comb.
Empoasca
cisiana
Dworakowska,
1971:
509
Distribution.
China
(Guangdong:
"Tsin-ien,
100
km
W
of
Canton"
[from
original
description])
Note.
This
species
is
known
only
from
the
male
holotype,
which
was
not
available
for
study.
GENUS
ASYMMETRASCA
FROM
CHINA
Zootaxa
3768
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©
2014
Magnolia
Press
329
I
FIGURES
1-2.
Asymmetrasca
cienka,
1,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
2,
aedeagus,
lateral
view.
(all
after
Dworakowska,
1982).
Asymmetrasca
dahaituoensis,
Liu
and
Zhang,
sp.
nov.
(Figs
3-12,
86-89)
Type
materials.
China:
holotype
a,
Hebei
Prov.:
Dahaituo,
Chicheng,
7.viii.
2006,
coll.
Yani
Duan;
paratypes:
2c3c3,
same
data
as
holotype.
All
in
NWAFU.
Length:
c3
2.8
mm.
Ground
colour
of
body
yellow
-greenish
(Fig.
89).
Crown
with
light
green
patch
on
each
side
of
coronal
suture
(Fig.
86).
Eyes
black
-brown.
Pronotum
with
irregular
patches
on
anterior
margin
of
pronotum
and
under
eyes.
Forewing
and
hind
wing
semitransparent.
Abdomen
yellow.
Legs
pale
yellow (Fig.
88).
Ventral
abdominal
apodemes
parallel
-sided,
reaching
segment
5
(Fig.
5).
Male
pygofer
in
lateral
view
with
posterior
margin
broadly
rounded,
15
stout
setae
along
posterior
margin
(Fig.
3);
pygofer
appendage
curved
posterodorsad
following
posterior
margin
of
pygofer
(Fig.
4).
Anal
hook
well
-developed,
with
numerous
apical
papillae
(Fig.
10).
Subgenital
plate
in
lateral
view,
curved
gradually
caudodorsad
apically,
not
expanded
apically;
with
numerous
macrosetae
and
fine
setae
somewhat
irregular;
setal
group
A
with
3
long
stout
setae
and
group
B
with
24-26
short
microsetae
on
apical
half
(Fig.
12).
Paramere
with
5
teeth
on
dentifer,
7
setae
subapically,
apex
nearly straight
in
lateral
view,
curved
laterad
in
ventral
view
(Fig.
11).
Connective
broad, posterior
margin
medially
emarginate
(Fig.
7).
Aedeagal
shaft
well
sclerotized,
preatrium
long
and
straight,
nearly
as
long
as
shaft;
dorsal
apodeme
well
developed;
shaft
somewhat
sinuate
in
lateral
view,
with
several
denticuli
dorsally;
distal
process
nearly straight
in
posterior
view,
apex
not
expanded,
without
teeth,
bent
slightly
ventrad
at
tip
(Figs
8,
9).
Etymology.
The
species
name
is
derived
from
the
type
locality,
Dahaituo,
in
Hebei
Province.
Diagnosis.
This
new
species
is
similar
to
Empoasca
sakaii
Dworakowska,
1982,
but
differs
in
having
the
apex
of
the
aedeagal
process
narrow
rather
than
expanded
apically
and
the
preatrium
relatively
long
and
narrow
in
lateral
view.
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10
--------
\
5
6
7
12
11
FIGURES
3-12.
Asymmetrasca
dahaituoensis,
3,
male
pygofer,
lateral
view;
4,
pygofer
appendage;
5,
abdominal
apodemes;
6,
dorsal
bridge;
7,
connective;
8,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
9,
aedeagus,
lateral
view;
10,
anal
tube
appendage;
11,
paramere;
12,
subgenital
plate.
Asymmetrasca
decedens
(Paoli,
1932),
reinstated
comb.,
new
record
from
China
(Figs
13-20,
90-93)
Empoasca
decedens
Paoli,
1932:
117;
Dworakowska,
1970:
275;
Dworakowska,
1971:
508;
Dworakowska,
1973:
56
Asymmetrasca
decedens
(Paoli);
Dlabola,
1958:
52
Specimens
examined.
China:
Shaanxi
Prov.:15',
Liuba,
10.vii.1980;
1
a,
Wugong,
vii.1979;
1
a,
Chenggu,
3.v.1980;
1
a,
Yanan,
17.vi.1987;
1
a,
Qinling
Station,
8.v.1980;
1
a,
Wutai,
Zhouzhi,
25.vi.1980;
1
a,
Zhenba,
28.vi.1980;
all
coll.
Ning
Ma.
Distribution.
China
(Shaanxi),
North
Korea,
Russia,
Italy,
Egypt,
France,
Cyprus,
Iraq,
Palestine,
France,
Slovakia.
Asymmetrasca
helica,
Liu
and
Zhang,
sp.
nov.
(Figs
21-29,
94-97)
Type
materials.
China:
holotype
a,
Zhejiang
Prov.:
Mt.
Tianmu,
8.viii.2007,
coll.
Xinmin
Zhang;
paratypes:
2
c3
,
same
data
as
holotype.
All
in
NWAFU.
Length:
c3
3.2
mm
-3.3
mm.
General
color
of
body
yellow
-greenish
(Fig.
97).
Crown yellowish,
with
some
obvious
green
markings
on
each
side
of
coronal
suture
(Fig.
94).
Eyes
black.
Pronotum
broad,
with
irregular
patches
of
cream
-yellowish
on
anterior
margin.
Scutoscutellar
sulcus
beige.
Lateral
parts
of
scutellum
with
cream
-yellowish
triangular
spots.
Forewing
and
hind
wing
semitransparent.
Abdomen
yellow.
Legs
pale
yellow
to
yellow (Fig.
96).
GENUS
ASYMMETRASCA
FROM
CHINA
Zootaxa
3768
(3)
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2014
Magnolia
Press
331
14
13
18
4
15
16
17
19
20
FIGURES
13-20.
Asymmetrasca
decedens,
13,
male
pygofer,
lateral
view;
14,
anal
tube
appendage;
15,
abdominal
apodemes;
16,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
17,
same,
lateral
view;
18,
connective;
19,
subgenital
plate;
20,
paramere.
(all
after
Dworakowska,
1970).
21
24
25
23
27
22
26
29
28
FIGURES
21-29.
Asymmetrasca
helica,
21,
male
pygofer,
lateral
view;
22,
pygofer
appendage;
23,
abdominal
apodemes;
24,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
25,
aedeagus,
lateral
view;
26,
anal
tube
appendage;
27,
connective;
28,
paramere;
29,
subgenital
plate.
332
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3768
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2014 Magnolia
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AL.
Ventral
abdominal
apodemes
subparallel-sided,
reaching
segment
5
(Fig.
23).
Male
pygofer
in
lateral
view
slightly
narrowing
caudad
(Fig.
21);
pygofer
appendage
slightly
curved
along
margin
of
lobe
in
lateral
view
(Fig.
22).
Anal
hook
well
-developed,
papillose
apically
(Fig.
26).
Subgenital
plate
with
ventral
margin
curved
dorsally
in
nearly
half
apical
part,
sinuate,
with
numerous
macrosetae
and
fine
setae
somewhat
irregularly
arranged;
setal
group
A
with
3
stout
setae;
group
B
with
17-23
short
microsetae,
group
C
with
three
rows
of
macrosetae,
group
D
arranged
irregularly,
lateral
side
with
some
slim
setae
(Fig.
29).
Paramere
long,
subapically
curved,
dentifer
with
5
teeth,
4-6
setae
present
subapically
(Fig.
28).
Connective
broad,
with
posterior
margin
shallowly
emarginate
medially
(Fig.
27).
Aedeagus
with
preatrium nearly
as
long
as
shaft,
slightly
sinuate
in
lateral
view;
dorsal
apodeme
nearly
as
long
as
preatrium;
shaft
nearly
straight,
without
dorsal
denticuli;
distal
process
elongate,
slender,
strongly
and
evenly
curved
throughout
length,
forming
semicircle
in
posterior
view;
apex
slender,
without
teeth
(Figs
24,
25).
Etymology.
The
specific
epithet
is
derived
from
the
Greek
word
"helix"
meaning
"curl"
and
refers
to
the
strongly
curved
aedeagal
appendage.
Diagnosis.
This
species
is
similar
to
A.
kaicola
Dworakowska,
1982,
but
differs
from
the
latter
in
having
the
aedeagal
shaft
straight
and
the
apical
process
evenly
curved
and
tapered
distally.
Asymmetrasca
hypercurvata,
Liu
and
Zhang,
sp.
nov.
(Figs
30-37,
98-100)
Type
specimens.
China:
holotype
a,
Fujian
Prov.:
Huanggang,
Mt.
Wuyi,
16.viii.2008,
780
m,
coll.
Xia
Gao
&
Xiaoting
Li;
paratypes:
1a,
same
data
as
holotype;
2c3c3,
Zhejiang
Prov.:
Qingliangfeng,
Lin'an,
6.viii.2008,
1100
m,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin.
All
in
NWAFU.
Length:
c3
3.0
mm
-3.1
mm.
General
color
of
body
yellow
-greenish
(Fig.
100).
Crown yellowish,
with
dark
green
markings
on
each
side
of
coronal
suture
obvious
(Fig.
98).
Eyes
black.
Pronotum
broad,
with
irregular
patches
of
cream
-yellowish
on
anterior
margin.
Lateral
parts
of
scutellum
with
cream
-yellowish
triangular
spots.
Forewing
and
hind
wing
semitransparent.
Abdomen
yellow.
Legs
pale
yellow
to
pale
green
(Fig.
99).
---------
,
----
------
-----
31
-----
-
--------
30
35
37
----------------
32
33
34
\
36
FIGURES
30-37.
Asymmetrasca
hypercurvata,
30,
male
pygofer,
lateral
view;
31,
anal
tube
appendage;
32,
abdominal
apodemes;
33,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
34,
aedeagus,
lateral
view;
35,
connective;
36,
paramere;
37,
subgenital
plate.
GENUS
ASYMMETRASCA
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CHINA
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333
Ventral
abdominal
apodemes
subparallel-sided,
reaching
midlength
of
segment
5
(Fig.
32).
Male
pygofer
in
lateral
view
slightly
narrowing
caudad,
ornamented
with
7-9
stout
setae
on
each
side
of
pygofer
lobe
(Fig.
30);
pygofer
appendage
slightly
arched
dorsocaudad,
not
exceeding
caudal
margin
of
lobe
in
lateral
view.
Anal
tube
process
well
developed,
rugose
apically
(Fig.
31).
Subgenital
plate
in
lateral
view
curved
gradually
caudodorsad
apically,
tapering
to
rounded
apex;
with
numerous
macrosetae
and
fine
setae
somewhat
irregularly
scattered;
setae
group
A
with
3
stout
setae,
group
B
with
16-22
short
microsetae,
group
C
with
three
rows
of
macrosetae,
group
D
arranged
in
single
row
through
most
of
length,
irregular
at
base
and
apex
(Fig.
37).
Paramere
long,
subapically
curved,
dentifer
with
5
teeth,
4-6
setae
present
subapically
(Fig.
36).
Connective
broad,
with
posterior
margin
deeply
emarginate
medially
(Fig.
35).
Aedeagus
with
preatrium
long,
straight;
dorsal
apodeme
obsolete;
shaft
irregularly
sinuate
and
slender,
slightly
tapered,
without
dorsal
denticuli;
apical
process
long,
slightly
curved,
apex
expanded
and
distinctly
bifid
(Figs
33-34).
Etymology.
The
specific
epithet
was
formed
by
combining
the
Greek
prefix
"hyper-"
meaning
"above"
with
the
Latin
"curvus",
meaning
curve
and
refers
to
the
overlap
of
the
aedeagal
appendage
with
the
shaft
in
lateral
view.
Diagnosis.
This
species
is
similar
to
A.
decedens
Paoli,
1932,
but
differs
from
the
latter
in
having
the
aedeagus
with
a
longer
process
that
overlaps
the
shaft
in
lateral
view
and
has
the
apex
bifid.
Asymmetrasca
kaicola
(Dworakowska,
1982),
n.
comb.
(Figs
38-39,
101-104)
Empoasca
(Empoasca)
kaicola
Dworakowska,
1982:
46
Empoasca
(Empoasca)
kishtwarensis
Sharma,
1984:
30,
syn.
nov.
1
38
39
FIGURES
38-39.
Asymmetrasca
kaicola,
38,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
39,
aedeagus,
lateral
view.
(all
after
Dworakowska,
1982).
334
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Press
LIU
ET
AL.
Specimens
examined.
China:
Shaanxi
Prov.:
1
a,
Weinan,
31.viii.1980,
coll.
Shaoyou
Liu;
15',
Dali,
3.ix.1980,
coll.
Shaoyou
Liu;
5c3c3,
Yangling,
vii.1986,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang;
la,
Xixiang,
9.vii.2001,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin;
Shandong
Prov.:
15',
Mt.
Kunyu,
Yantai,
10.vii.2001,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin
&
Zhenjiang
Liu;
4c3c3,
Mt.
Meng,
Mengyin,
23.vii.2001,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin
&
Zhenjiang
Liu;
Hunan
Prov.:
3c3c3,
Chenzhou,
ll.viii.1985,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang;
Hainan
Prov.:
1
a,
Lingshui,
6.v.1983,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang,
light
trap;
2c3c3,
Jianfengling,
19.v.1983,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang.
Distribution.
China
(Henan
[type
locality],
Shaanxi,
Shangdong,
Hunan,
Hainan),
Japan.
Host.
Gossypium
(Malvaceae),
Phaseolus
(Fabaceae),
Cinnamomum
camphora
(Lauraceae).
Asymmetrasca
liaoensis,
Liu
and
Zhang,
sp.
nov.
(Figs
40-46,
105-108)
Type
materials.
China:
holotype
a,
Liaoning
Prov.:
Beiling
Park,
Shenyang,
8.viii.2009,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin;
paratypes:
2c3c3,
same
data
as
holotype.
All
in
NWAFU.
Length:
c3
2.9
mm
-3.0
mm.
General
color
of
body
yellow
-greenish
(Fig.
108).
Crown
yellowish,
with
obvious
olive
markings
on
each
side
of
coronal
suture
(Fig.
105).
Pronotum
broad,
with
irregular
patches
of
yellow
-greenish
on
anterior
margin.
Lateral
parts
of
scutellum
with
cream
-yellowish
triangular
spots.
Forewing
and
hind
wing
semitransparent.
Abdomen
yellow.
Legs
pale
yellow
to
pale
green
(Fig.
107).
Abdominal
apodemes
subparallel-sided,
reaching
midlength
of
segment
5
(Fig.
41).
Male
pygofer
slightly
narrowing
caudad,
ornamented
with
7
rigid
setae
on
each
side
of
pygofer
lobe
(Fig.
40);
pygofer
appendage
slightly
curved,
not
exceeding
caudal
margin
of
lobe
in
lateral
view.
Subgenital
plate
in
lateral
view
curved
gradually
caudodorsad
apically,
expanded
apically;
group
A
with
4
moderately
long
setae;
group
B
with
21
short
microsetae,
group
C
arranged
in
two
rows
of
macrosetae,
from
medial
margin
to
apical
margin
of
inner
side,
group
D
irregular,
with
most
setae
short
except
near
apex
(Fig.
46).
Paramere
long,
subapically
curved,
dentifer
with
5
teeth;
3-6
setae
present
preapically
(Fig.
45).
Connective
broad,
with
posterior
margin
slightly
emarginate
medially
(Fig.
42).
Aedeagus
with
preatrium nearly
as
long
as
shaft,
very
broad
in
lateral
view;
dorsal
apodeme
relatively
small;
shaft
somewhat
sinuate,
without
dorsal
denticuli;
apical
process
slender,
nearly
straight,
apex
weakly
bifurcated
(Figs
43,
44).
.........
.......
.
........
40
43
44
I
\
-------------------
41
42
k.
./
1
.
?'"
I
46
45
FIGURES
40-46.
Asymmetrasca
liaoensis,
40,
male
pygofer,
lateral
view;
41,
abdominal
apodemes;
42,
connective;
43,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
44,
aedeagus,
lateral
view;
45,
paramere;
46,
subgenital
plate.
GENUS
ASY
1111VIETRASCA
FROM
CHINA
Zootaxa
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Magnolia
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335
Etymology.
The
specific
epithet
is
based
on
the
province,
Liaoning,
where
the
holotype
was
collected
Diagnosis.
This
species
is
similar
to
A.
lutowa
Dworakowska,
1971,
but
differs
in
the
much
broader
preatrium
and
nearly straight
aedeagal
process.
Asymmetrasca
lutowa
(Dworakowska,
1971),
n.
comb.
(Figs
47-48,
109-111)
Empoasca
lutowa
Dworakowska,
1971:
508;
Chou
&
Ma,
1981:
195
Empoasca
(Empoasca)
lutowa,
Dworakowska,
1982:
44;
Zhang,
Liu
&
Qin,
2008:
66
Specimens
examined.
China:
Shaanxi
Prov.:1
a,
Houhe,
Yangling,
2.vi.1980,
coll.
Ning
Ma;
Zhejiang
Prov.:
1
a,
Wukengling,
Baizushan,
13.viii.2003,
567
m,
light
trap,
coll.
Wu
Dai.
Distribution.
China
(Shaanxi,
Zhejiang),
Korea
[type
locality].
r
-
C
47
48
FIGURES
47-48.
Asymmetrasca
lutowa,
47,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
48,
aedeagus,
lateral
view.
(all
after
Dworakowska,
1982).
Asymmetrasca
mona
(Dworakowska,
1994),
n.
comb.
(Figs
49-50,
112-115)
Empoasca
(Empoasca)
mona
Dworakowska,
1994:
101
Specimen
examined.
China:
Yunnan
Prov.:15',
Xinzhuxiang,
Indian,
Lijiang,
5.xi.1999,
2300
m,
coll.
I.
Dworakawska.
336
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LIU
ET
AL.
Distribution.
China
(Yunnan),
India
(Sikkim
[type
locality]).
I
49
0
'
0
0
0
0
0
I
0
0
...
•••
50
FIGURES
49-50.
Asymmetrasca
mona,
49,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
50,
aedeagus,
lateral
view.
(all
after
Dworakowska,
1982).
Asymmetrasca
nipponica
(Dworakowska,
1982),
n.
comb.
Empoasca
(Empoasca)
nipponica
Dworakowska,
1982:
46
Distribution.
Japan
(Honshu).
Note.
This
species
is
known
only
from
the
type
series
from
Kyoto,
Japan.
Specimens
were
not
examined
for
this
study.
Asymmetrasca
reflexilis,
Liu
and
Zhang,
sp.
nov.
(Figs
51-60,
116-118)
Type
materials.
China:
holotype
a,
Sichuan
Prov.,
Mianning,
8.vi.1999,
coll.
I.
Dworakowska;
paratypes:
4c3c3,
Sichuan
Prov.,
Mianning,
8.vi.1999,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin.
All
in
NWAFU.
Length:
c3
3.2
mm
-3.4
mm.
Ground
colour
of
body
yellowish
(Fig.
118).
Crown
with
light
green
patch
on
each
side
of
coronal
suture
(Fig.
116).
Eyes
brown.
Pronotum
with
irregular
patches
on
anterior
margin
of
pronotum
and
under
eyes.
Forewing
and
hind
wing
semitransparent.
Abdomen
light
yellow.
Legs
light
green
to
yellow
-greenish
(Fig.
117).
Ventral
abdominal
apodemes
well
developed,
reaching
midlength
of
segment
5,
parallel
-sided
to
broadly
rounded
apices
(Fig.
58).
Male
pygofer
slightly
narrowing
caudad,
with
a
few
rigid
setae
on
caudal
-dorsal
angle
(Fig.
51);
ventral
pygofer
appendage
tapering,
slightly
curved,
not
exceeding
lobe
margin
(Fig.
52).
Anal
GENUS
ASYMMETRASCA
FROM
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Zootaxa
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2014
Magnolia
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337
appendage
solid,
with
numerous
serrations
apically
(Fig.
53).
Subgenital
plate
in
lateral
view,
curved
gradually
caudodorsad
apically,
tapering
to
rounded
apex;
with
numerous
macrosetae
and
fine
setae
somewhat
irregularly
scattered;
dorsolateral
margin
group
A
with
5
long
stout
setae,
group
B
with
24-26
short
microsetae
on
apical
2/3
(Fig.
60),
group
C
double
near
base,
with
a
single
row
of
macrosetae
distally,
group
D
irregular
with
numerous
elongate
setae.
Paramere
with
6-7
teeth
on
dentifer,
several
setae
subapically
(Fig.
59).
Connective
broad,
with
anterior
margin
slightly
emarginated
medially
(Fig.
54).
Aedeagus
with
preatrium
straight,
longer
than
shaft;
dorsal
apodeme
well
developed;
shaft
in
lateral
view
curved
dorsad,
with
ventral
notch
adjacent
to
gonopore,
without
dorsal
denticuli;
apical
process
elongate,
slender,
strongly
curved,
apex
tapered
and
serrate
(Figs
55,
56).
Etymology.
The
specific
epithet
is
derived
from
the
Latin
"reflexus"
meaning
"turned
back"
and
refers
to
the
reflexed
aedeagal
process.
Diagnosis.
The
new
species
is
similar
to
A.
kaicola
Dworakowska,
1982,
but
can
be
distinguished
by
the
strongly
curved
aedeagal
appendage
lacking
an
apical
bifurcation.
52
58
51
53
54
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
55
56
60
57
\\\\
59
FIGURES
51-60.
Asymmetrasca
reflexilis,
51,
male
pygofer,
lateral
view;
52,
pygofer
appendage;
53,
anal
tube
appendage;
54,
connective;
55,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
56,
aedeagus,
lateral
view;
57,
paramere;
58,
abdominal
apodemes;
59,
paramere;
60,
subgenital
plate.
Asymmetrasca
rybiogon
(Dworakowska,
1971),
n.
comb.
(Figs
61-62,
119-122)
Empoasca
(Empoasca)
rybiogon
Dworakowska,
1971:
508;
Dworakowska,
1982:
45;
Zhang,
Liu
&
Qin,
2008:
67
Specimens
examined.
China:
Zhejiang
Prov.:1
,
Baizushan,
13.viii.2003,
567
m,
light
trap,
coll.
Wu
Dai;
Fujian
Prov.:3aa,
Sangang,
Wuyi,
18.vii.2003,
coll.
Yani
Duan;
Jiangxi
Prov.:7aa,
Anfu,
10.viii.2002,
coll.
Zhonglin
Yuan;
2c3c3,
Putian,
11.xi.1975,
coll.
Zhonglin
Yuan;
Jiangxi
Prov.:1
,
Ruijin,
16.viii.2004,
208
m,
coll.
Cong
Wei;
Hunan
Prov.:
2c3c3,
Mt.
Shao,
28.vii.2002,
coll.
Zhonglin
Yuan;
Guangxi
Prov.:
2c3c3,
Xinzhai,
18.vii.2005,
coll.
Meixia
Yang;
Hainan
Prov.:
3
c3
,
Yacheng,
16.v.1983,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang;
2c3
,
Changji,
22.v.1983,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang;
2c3c3,
Liangyuan,
29.v.1983,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang;
2c3
,
Jianfengling,
8-18.v.1983,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang;
2c3
,
Haikou,
13.vi.2005,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang;
3c3c3,
Mt.
Wuzhi,
16-20.v.2007,
640
m,
coll.
Yani
Duan;
3c3c3,
Baisha,
22.v.2007,
400
m,
coll.
Yani
Duan;
Guizhou
Prov.:
2c3c3,
Huaxi,
25.vii.2001,
light
trap,
coll.
Qiang
Sun;
Yunnan
Prov.:
1
a,
Mengla,
6.xi.1987,
coll.
Jinian
Feng
&
Yonghui
Chai;
1
a,
Mengla,
28.viii.2005,
600
m,
coll.
Meng
Li;
Shaanxi
Prov.:
1
a,
Wugong,
20.ix.1980,
coll.
Ning
Ma.
338
Zootaxa
3768
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LIU
ET
AL.
Distribution.
China
(Zhejiang
[type
locality],
Fujian,
Jiangxi,
Hunan,
Guangxi,
Hainan,
Guizhou,
Yunnan,
Shaanxi),
Korea.
Host.
Oryza
sativa
(Poaceae),
Gossypium
(Malvaceae),
Phaseolus
(Fabaceae),
Malus
pumila,
Crataegus
(Rosaceae).
e
I
1
-
I
ti
61
62
FIGURES
61-62.
Asymmetrasca
rybiogon,
61,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
62,
aedeagus,
lateral
view.
(all
after
Dworakowska,
1982).
Asymmetrasca
sakaii
(Dworakowska,
1971),
n.
comb.,
new
record
from
China
(Figs
63-64,
123-126)
Empoasca
sakaii
Dworakowska,
1971:
508
Empoasca
(Empoasca)
sakaii
Dworakowska,
1982:
45
Specimens
examined.
China:
Shaanxi
Prov.:
2c3c3,
Huoditang,
14.viii.1984,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang;
2c3c3,
NWAFU,
Yangling,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang,
light
trap;
1a,
Ziyang,
16.v.1981,
coll.
Ning
Ma;
1a,
Dali,
3.ix.1980,
coll.
Shaoyou
Liu;
1a,
Yangling,
2.ix.2000,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin;
Hunan
Prov.:
1a,
Mt.
Heng,
11.viii.1980,
coll.
Yalin
Zhang
&
Yonghui
Chai;
1
a,
Chenzhou,
16.viii.1984,
coll.
Xinwang
Tong;
Sichuan
Prov.:
1
a,
Moxizhen,
Luding,
4.xi.1999,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin;
Yunnan
Prov.:
2c3c3,
Yongren,
22.iii.1981,
coll.
Io
Chou,
Mingtang
Liu
&
Jingruo
Chou;
1a,
Xinzhuxiang,
Indian,
14.xi.1999,
2300
m,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin;
Fujian
Prov.:
1a,
Sangang,
Wuyi,
19.viii.1988,
750
m,
coll.
Zhongqi
Yang;
Shandong
Prov.:
1a,
Mt.
Kunyu,
Yantai,
10.vii.2001,
600
m-700
m,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin
&
Zhenjiang
Liu;
Hubei
Prov.:
2c3c3,
Shennongjia,
27.vii.2001,
coll.
MM
Huang
&
Guiling
Zhang.
GENUS
ASYMMETRASCA
FROM
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Zootaxa
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Distribution.
China
(Shaanxi,
Hunan,
Sichuan,
Yunnan,
Fujian,
Shandong,
Hubei),
India,
Japan
[type
locality].
1
\
I
I
I
1
I
/
I
I/
63
64
FIGURES
63-64.
Asymmetrasca
sakaii,
63,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
64,
aedeagus,
lateral
view.
(all
after
Dworakowska,
1982).
Asymmetrasca
uncus,
Liu
and
Zhang,
sp.
nov.
(Figs
65-74,
127-130)
Type
materials.
China:
holotype
a,
Fujian
Prov.:
Tongmucun,
Wuyi,
3.viii.2009,
coll.
Yanghui
Cao;
paratypes:
2
c3
,
same
data
as
holotype;
Fujian
Prov.:
2
c3
,
Sangang,
9.vii.1984,
coll.
Zhixin
Cui;
Guizhou
Prov.:
1a,
Huaxi,
25.vii.2001,
coll.
Qiang
Sun,
light
trap.
All
in
NWAFU.
Length:
c3
3.5
mm
-3.6
mm.
Ground
colour
of
body
gray
green
(Fig.
130).
Crown
with
light
green
patch
on
each
side
of
coronal
suture
(Fig.
127).
Eyes
brown.
Pronotum
with
irregular
patches
on
anterior
margin
of
pronotum
and
under
eyes.
Forewing
smoky,
hind
wing
hyaline.
Abdomen
yellow.
Legs
pale
yellow
to
green
(Fig.
129).
Ventral
abdominal
apodemes
subparallel-sided,
reaching
midlength
of
segment
5
(Fig.
67).
Male
pygofer
in
lateral
view
with
posterior
margin
broadly
rounded,
ornamented
with
15
rigid
setae
on
each
side
of
pygofer
lobe
(Fig.
65);
pygofer
appendage
not
exceeding
pygofer
margin,
tapering
to
apex
(Fig.
68).
Anal
appendage
swollen
at
base,
narrowing
to
apex,
with
numerous
papillae
apically
(Fig.
71).
Subgenital
plate
in
lateral
view,
curved
gradually
caudodorsad
apically,
expanded
apically;
with
numerous
macrosetae
and
fine
setae
distributed
somewhat
irregularly;
group
A
with
4
long
stout
setae
subbasally,
group
B
with
19
short
microsetae
on
apical
half,
group
C
double
near
base,
with
single
row
of
macrosetae
distally,
group
D
irregular
with
numerous
elongate
setae
(Fig.
74).
Paramere
with
3
teeth
on
dentifer,
7
setae
subapically
(Fig.
73).
Connective
broad,
anterior
margin
concave,
340
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AL.
strongly
sclerotized
along
mid
-line
(Fig.
72).
Aedeagus
with
preatrium
well
developed,
shorter
and
broader
than
shaft;
dorsal
apodeme
well
developed;
shaft
in
lateral
view
nearly
straight,
tapered,
without
dorsal
denticuli;
apical
process
strongly
and
evenly
curved,
apex
expanded
and
slightly
bifid
(Figs
69,
70).
Etymology.
The
specific
epithet
is
based
on
the
Latin
"uncus"
meaning
"hook"
and
refers
to
the
hooklike
apical
aedeagal
process.
Diagnosis.
The
new
species
is
similar
to
Empoasca
cienka
Dworakowska,
1982,
but
differs
in
its
long
hooklike
apical
aedeagal
process.
71
66
65
69
68
72
r
70
67
74
73
FIGURES
65-74.
Asymmetrasca
uncus,
65,
male
pygofer,
lateral
view;
66,
dorsal
bridge;
67,
abdominal
apodemes;
68,
pygofer
appendage;
69,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
70,
aedeagus,
lateral
view;
71,
anal
tube
appendage;
72,
connective;
73,
paramere;
74,
subgenital
plate.
Asymmetrasca
uniprossicae
(Sohi,
1977),
n.
comb.
(Figs
75-81,
131-134)
Empoasca
uniprossicae
Sohi,
1977:
359
Specimens
examined.
China:
Sichuan
Prov.:
2c3c3,
Moxi,
Luding,
4.xi.1999,
1600
m,
coll.
Daozheng
Qin.
Distribution.
China
(Sichuan),
India
[type
locality].
Host.
Cannabis
sativa,
Indian
hemp
(Cannabaceae).
Discussion
At
present,
15
species
of
Asymmetrasca
are
known
from
China.
The
taxonomy
of
the
species
of
Asymmetrasca
would
greatly
benefit
from
additional
collecting
to
elucidate
the
extent
of
geographic
distribution
and
variation
in
species
presently
known
from
a
few
localities.
The
addition
of
molecular
data
may
also
help
determine
whether
the
presently
recognized
species,
many
distinguished
based
on
subtle
differences
in
aedeagal
shape
and
proportion
are
valid.
Improved
knowledge
of
host
plant
associations
may
also
help
establish
the
validity
of
some
previously
described
species.
GENUS
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\
77
76
75
81
80
79
78
FIGURES
75-81.
Asymmetrasca
uniprossicae,
75,
male
pygofer,
lateral
view;
76,
abdominal
apodemes;
77,
anal
tube
and
anal
styli;
78,
paramere;
79,
aedeagus,
ventral
view;
80,
connective;
81,
subgenital
plate.
New
names
for
two
junior
homonyms
of
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca).
Dr.
Sterling
Southern
(Department
of
Entomology,
North
Carolina
University,
USA)
called
our
attention
to
two
homonyms
of
Empoasca
created
in
a
previous
paper
by
Qin
and
Zhang
(2008,
Zootaxa
1817:
18-26)
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
clypeata
Qin
&
Zhang
is
a
primary
junior
homonym
of
Empoasca
clypeata
Gillette
and
Baker
1895
and
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
quadrifida
Qin
&
Zhang
is
a
primary
junior
homonym
of
Empoasca
quadrifida
Southern
1982.
E.
clypeata
Gillette
and
Baker
has
since
been
moved
to
the
genus
Kybos
and
the
elevation
of
Kybos
and
the
movement
of
Empoasca
clypeata
to
Kybos
are
accepted
by
most
workers.
However,
according
to
the
International
Code
of
Zoological
Nomenclature
(4
th
Ed.),
article
57.2
(Primary
homonyms),
"Identical
species
-group
names
established
for
different
nominal
taxa
when
originally
combined
with
the
same
generic
name
are
primary
homonyms
and
the
junior
name
is
permanently
invalid".
In
this
case,
both
nominal
species
were
placed
in
Empoasca
when
originally
described.
Article
57.4
(Subgeneric
name
irrelevant)
states
"The
presence
of
different
subgeneric
names
placed
in
parentheses
between
the
same
generic
name
and
identical
species
-group
names
is
irrelevant
to
the
homonymy
between
the
names
concerned.
The
same
two
ICZN
articles
cited
above
apply
here
for
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
clypeata
Qin
&
Zhang
as
well.
We
propose
new
names
for
the
two
species
as
follows.
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
southerni
Zhang,
nom.
n.
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
clypeata
Qin
&
Zhang,
2008:
20
(nec
Empoasca
clypeata
Gillette
and
Baker
1895)
Note.
This
new
name
is
in
honor
of
Dr.
Sterling
Southern
for
his
kind
help
in
pointed
out
the
homonyms.
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
qini
Zhang,
nom.
n.
Empoasca
(Matsumurasca)
quadrifida
Qin
&
Zhang,
2008:
24
(nec
Empoasca
quadrifida
Southern
1982)
Note.
This
new
name
recognizes
Dr.
Daozheng
Qin,
first
author
of
the
homonymic
species
name.
342
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LIU
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X
.
82
"
4
84
83
85
FIGURES
82-85.
Asymmetrasca
cienka,
82,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
83,
face;
84,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
85,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
86
87
88
89
FIGURES
86-89.
Asymmetrasca
dahaituoensis,
86,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
87,
face;
88,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
89,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
GENUS
ASYMMETRASCA
FROM
CHINA
Zootaxa
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©
2014
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343
r
7
...•1••••
90
91
4111111"111
bEl
92
f•
93
FIGURES
90-93.
Asymmetrasca
decedens,
90,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
91,
face;
92,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
93,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
94
96
95
r
;
97
FIGURES
94-97.
Asymmetrasca
helica,
94,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
95,
face;
96,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
97,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
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AL.
98
99
100
FIGURES
98-100.
Asymmetrasca
hypercurvata,
98,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
99,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
100,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
101
102
JOP
103
104
FIGURES
101-104.
Asymmetrasca
kaicola,
101,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
102,
face;
103,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
104,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
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ASYMMETRASCA
FROM
CHINA
Zootaxa
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105
106
107
108
FIGURES
105-108.
Asymmetrasca
liaoensis,
105,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
106,
face;
107,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
108,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
109
FIGURES
109-111.
Asymmetrasca
lutowa,
109,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
110,
whole
body,
dorsal
view;
111,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
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AL.
112
113
114
115
FIGURES
112-115.
Asymmetrasca
mona,
112,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
113,
face;
114,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
115,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
116
117
118
FIGURES
116-118.
Asymmetrasca
reflexilis,
116,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
117,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
118,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
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FROM
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119
120
121
122
FIGURES
119-122.
Asymmetrasca
rybiogon,
119,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
120,
face;
121,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
122,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
123
124
61
11
11
111......
125
4the
t
126
FIGURES
123-126.
Asymmetrasca
sakaii,
123,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
124,
face;
125,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
126,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
127
128
129
130
FIGURES
127-130.
Asymmetrasca
uncus,
127,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
128,
face;
129,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
130,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
348
Zootaxa
3768
(3)
02014
Magnolia
Press
LIU
ET
AL.
131
132
FIGURES
131-134.
Asymmetrasca
uniprossicae,
131,
head
and
thorax,
dorsal
view;
132,
face;
133,
whole
body,
lateral
view;
134,
whole
body,
dorsal
view.
1
4,
133
Acknowledgements
134
We
are
very
grateful
to
Dr.
Sterling
Southern
(Department
of
Entomology,
North
Carolina
University,
USA)
for
calling
our
attention
to
the
two
homonyms
of
Empoasca
species
in
the
previous
paper
by
Qin
and
Zhang,
and
also
to
Drs.
J.
R.
Schrock
(Emporia
State
University,
USA)
for
his
valued
comments
on
the
manuscript.
This
study
is
supported
by
The
National
Natural
Science
Foundation
of
China
(30770262),
the
Ministry
of
Education
of
China
(TS2011XBNL061),
Natural
Science
Foundation
of
Northwest
University
(12NW16)
and
the
Scientific
Research
Program
Funded
by
Shaanxi
Provincial
Education
Department
(Program
No.
2013JK0716).
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