Effect of high-pressure homogenization on droplet size distribution and rheological properties of ice cream mixes
Innocente, N.; Biasutti, M.; Venir, E.; Spaziani, M.; Marchesini, G.
Journal of Dairy Science 92(5): 1864-1875
The effect of different homogenization pressures (15/3 MPa and 97/3 MPa) on fat globule size and distribution as well as on structure-property relationships of ice cream mixes was investigated. Dynamic light scattering, steady shear, and dynamic rheological analyses were performed on mixes with different fat contents (5 and 8%) and different aging times (4 and 20 h). The homogenization of ice cream mixes determined a change from bimodal to monomodal particle size distributions and a reduction in the mean particle diameter. Mean fat globule diameters were reduced at higher pressure, but the homogenization effect on size reduction was less marked with the highest fat content. The rheological behavior of mixes was influenced by both the dispersed and the continuous phases. Higher fat contents caused greater viscosity and dynamic moduli. The lower homogenization pressure (15/3 MPa) mainly affected the dispersed phase and resulted in a more pronounced viscosity reduction in the higher fat content mixes. High-pressure homogenization (97/3 MPa) greatly enhanced the viscoelastic properties and the apparent viscosity. Rheological results indicated that unhomogenized and 15/3 MPa homogenized mixes behaved as weak gels. The 97/3 MPa treatment led to stronger gels, perhaps as the overall result of a network rearrangement or interpenetrating network formation, and the fat globules were found to behave as interactive fillers. High-pressure homogenization determined the apparent viscosity of 5% fat to be comparable to that of 8% fat unhomogenized mix.