Pharmacologic studies with pentamidine aerosol in HIV patients

Vöhringer, H.F.; Arasteh, K.; Hardtmann, E.; Hornscheidt, M.

Medizinische Klinik 85(Suppl. 2): 248-50, 291


1. After multiple intravenous and inhaled application of pentamidine a steady state of plasma concentrations and of urinary excretion amounts is suggested to occur between the sixth and eighth day of the treatment. An elimination half life of at mean four days and a great volume of distribution of greater than 100 l/kg body weight could be evaluated. However, a deep compartment with a delayed elimination and/or a biotransformation of the drug cannot be excluded. 2. The daily elimination of unchanged pentamidine via urine is small: 3 to 4% of the daily dose after intravenous infusion vs. 0.06 to 0.12% after inhaled application, respectively. The smaller excretion amounts after inhalation correspond to mostly non detectable plasma concentrations and to by far fewer side effects compared to intravenous treatment. 3. With a jet nebuliser system up to 40% of the dose are left in the nebuliser chamber and in the exhalation filter, whereby a dose related retention seems to exist.