Efficacy of levamisole pour-on compared with levamisole subcutaneous injection against Dictyocaulus viviparus infection in calves


Vanparijs, O.; Quick, J.M.

Veterinary Parasitology 38(1): 75-79

1991


The efficacy of levamisole pour-on against Dictyocaulus viviparus was compared to that of subcutaneous levamisole injection. Eighteen calves were raised individually and artifically infected with D. viviparus larvae. Faecal samples were collected 27 and 28 days later and larvae per gram (l.p.g.) determined. The animals were then divided into three comparable groups. Group 1 animals remained untreated as controls. Group 2 animals received levamisole 10% w/v subcutaneous injection at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 and Group 3 received levamisole pour-on 20% w/v at a rate of 10 mg kg-1 applied transdermally. Results of l.p.g. measurements from faecal samples taken 7 and 8 days post-treatment indicated a dramatic reduction in the worm burden of animals in both treatment groups. Necropsies at 14 days post-treatment revealed few adult worms in these groups, indicating a 99 and 98% kill rate for pouron and subcutaneous injection, respectively.

letei
mail'
Parasitology,
38
(1991)
75-79
75
Elsevier
Science
Publishers
B
V.,
Amsterdam
Short
Communication
Efficacy
of
levamisole
pour
-on
compared
with
levamisole
subcutaneous
injection
against
Dictyocauhts
viviparus
infection
in
calves
0.
Vanparijs'
and
J.M.
Quick'
'Janssen
Pharmaceutica
N
r
;
TurnhoutseReg
30,
B2340.
Beerse
(Belgium)
'Janssen
Pharmaceutical
Ltd
.
Grove,
It
antage
(Gt
Britain)
(
Accepted
for
publication
8
August
1990
)
ABSTRACT
Vanparns
0
and
Quick,
J
M.,
1991
Efficacy
of
levamisole
pour
-on
compared
with
levamisole
sub-
cutaneous
injection
against
Diet_vocaulus
vmparus
infection
in
calves
Vet
Parasitol
,
38
75-79
The
efficacy
of
levamisole
pour
-on
against
Dietyocaulus
viviparus
was
compared
to
that
of
subcu-
taneous
levamisole
injection
Eighteen
calves
were
raised
indiv
idually
and
artifically
infected
with
D
t
iv
i
pat
us
larvae.
Faecal
samples
were
collected
27
and
28
days
later
and
larvae
per
gram
(
I.p
g
)
de-
termined
The
animals
were
then
divided
into
three
comparable
groups
Group
1
animals
remained
untreated
as
controls,
Group
2
animals
received
levamisole
10%
w/v
subcutaneous
injection
at
a
dose
of
5
mg
kg
-
'
and
Group
3
received
levamisole
pour
-on
20
0
,
w/v
at
a
rate
of
10
mg
kg'
applied
transdermally
Results
of
I
p
g.
measurements
from
faecal
samples
taken
7
and
8
days
post
-treatment
indicated
a
dramatic
reduction
in
the
worm
burden
of
animals
in
both
treatment
groups
Necropsies
at
14
days
post
-treatment
revealed
few
adult
worms
in
these
groups,
indicating
a
99
and
98%
kill
rate
for
pour
-
on
and
subcutaneous
injection,
respectively.
INTRODUCTION
Levamisole
pour
-on
is
now
widely
used
around
the
world
for
the
preven-
tion
and
treatment
of
cattle
helminthosis.
It
is
the
second
most
used
cattle
anthelmintic
in
the
United
Kingdom.
The
bioequivalence
of
levamisole
pour
-on
and
levamisole
injection
at
dose
rates
of
10
mg
kg
-1
transdermally
and
5
mg
kg
-
'
subcutaneously
has
been
demonstrated
(Michiels
et
al.,
1984
).
Similarly
the
efficacy
of
levamisole
pour
-on,
as
well
as
being
established
in
its
own
right,
has
been
proven
to
be
comparable
to
that
of
the
subcutaneous
injectable
formulation
(Bogan
and
Armour,
1981;
Newcomb
et
al.,
1983;
Guerrero
et
al.,
1984
).
0304-4017/91
/$03
50
©
1991
Elsevier
Science
Publishers
B
V
76
0
N.
XNPAR1JS
AND
J
M
cif
a
Is
The
incidence
of
lungworm
(Dictvocaulus
viviparus)
disease
in
the
U.K.
has
increased
recently.
Ministry
of
Agriculture
Veterinary
Investigation
Di-
agnostic
Analysis
(
VIDA
)
returns
indicate
102
reports
of
clinical
disease
in
1988
compared
with
88
during
1985
(J.
Wilesmith,
personal
communication,
1990
).
There
are
two
possible
reasons
for
the
apparent
recent
increases
in
incidence.
First,
the
warm,
wet
summers
of
1987
and
1988
have
resulted
in
proliferation
of
the
parasite,
which
can
subsequently
overwinter
on
the
pas-
ture.
Second,
there
has
been
a
50%
reduction
in
vaccination
of
young
calves
against
lungworm
infection
over
the
last
4
years
(Sly,
1989).
Protection
against
lungworm
infection
therefore
depends
on
an
effective
anthelmintic
dosing
strategy
and
pasture
management.
The
efficacy
of
Ripercol®
pour
-on
against
Dictyocaulus
vivipartis
has
re-
cently
been
confirmed
in
a
controlled
study
conducted
in
Belgium,
and
com-
pared
to
that
of
levamisole
subcutaneous
injection.
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
Animals
and
artificial
infection
Eighteen
calves
of
mixed
breeds,
weighing
about
150
kg,
were
purchased
from
local
markets.
Each
was
housed
individually
and
the
absence
of
lung
-
worm
was
confirmed
by
coprological
examination.
The
trial
schedule
is
sum-
marized
in
Table
1.
Each
calf
was
artificially
infected
by
gavage
with
4000
L3
D
viwparus
lar-
vae
on
Day
0.
One
calf
died
on
Day
20
from
acute
dyspnoea
resulting
from
infection.
Faecal
samples
were
collected
from
the
remaining
17
calves
on
Days
27
and
28,
once
the
infection
had
reached
the
patent
phase.
The
mean
num-
ber
of
larvae
per
gram
(1.p.g.
)
of
faeces
was
determined
using
the
Baermann
method
(
Ministry
of
Agriculture,
Fisheries
and
Food,
1986
).
The
calves
were
then
allocated
into
groups
of
six,
six
and
five
animals,
on
the
basis
of
infection
level,
to
form
three
comparable
groups.
Anthelmintic
treatment
Group
1
(
five
calves)
was
left
untreated
and
served
as
control.
On
Day
28
Group
2
was
treated
with
levamisole
10%
w/v
subcutaneous
injection
(
Ri-
T.kBLE
1
Trial
schedule
Day
Action
0
Artificial
infection
27
28
Faecal
sampling
28
Treatment
(Groups
2
and
3
)
35
36
Faecal
sampling
42
Necrops3.
EFFICACN
OF
LEVAMISOLE
POUR
-ON
77
percol
®
injection)
at
a
dose
rate
of
5
mg
kg
-
'.
Group
3
was
treated
with
levamisole
pour
-on
20%
w/v
(Ripercol
®
pour
-on)
at
a
dose
rate
of
10
mg
kg
-
'
applied
over
a
6
-inch
area
along
the
back
between
the
pin
bones.
Clinical
symptoms
During
the
experimental
period
calves
were
observed
for
clinical
signs
of
lungworm
infection.
Rectal
temperatures
and
signs
of
local
reactions
at
the
site
of
the
injection
or
pour
-on
administration
were
monitored
daily.
Faecal
examinations
and
necropsies
Two
faecal
samples
were
collected
from
each
calf
on
Days
35
and
36
(
7
and
8
days
after
treatment)
and
the
mean
l.p.g.
determined.
On
Day
42
(14
days
post
-treatment)
all
calves
were
necropsied
and
the
number
of
adult
D
vivi-
parus
worms
in
the
lungs
was
counted.
RESULTS
Results
of
the
parasitological
examinations
are
presented
in
Table
2.
Deaths
Two
calves
died
in
Group
1
(control)
on
Days
20
and
35,
respectively,
and
were
immediately
necropsied.
Both
died
as
a
direct
result
of
the
lungworm
infection,
which
was
evident
by
the
number
of
adult
D
viviparus
present
in
the
lungs.
Necropsy
of
the
first
calf
revealed
extensive
lesions
of
typical
pri-
mary
parasitic
bronchitis
with
severe
interstitial
emphysema.
The
second
calf.
which
died
on
Day
35,
suffered
acute
pneumonia,
showing
severe
alveolar
and
interstitial
emphysema
of
the
dorsal
lobes
and
catarrhal
to
fibrous
pneu-
monia
of
the
apical
and
ventral
part
of
the
diaphragmatic
lobes.
One
calf
in
Group
2
(
subcutaneous
injection)
died
on
Day
35,
also
from
acute
pneu-
monia.
No
worms
were
discovered
in
the
lungs
of
this
calf,
and
the
faecal
larvae
count
was
negative.
Clinical
symptoms
Typical
symptoms
of
lungworm
infection
-
high
respiratory
rates
and
se-
vere
coughing
-
were
evident
in
all
calves
until
treatment
at
Day
28.
On
Day
21
after
infection
the
temperatures
of
the
calves
were
raised
to
between
39
and
40.8°C.
By
the
end
of
the
experiment
temperatures
were
reduced
to
nor-
mal
levels
(
38.3-39°C
)
in
all
groups.
No
local
reactions
were
evident
at
the
site
of
drug
administration.
78
0
VANPARUS
.kND
1
M
QUICK
T-113LE
2
Individual
results
of
parasitological
examinations
of
cakes
infected
with
D
tvtipanis
Group
Mean
I
p
g
Mean
1
p
g
No
worms
Remarks
Days
27
and
28
Days
35
and
36
at
necropsy
Day
42
Controls
279
1230'
925'
(Group
1)
51
15
27
-
263'
8
20
24
25
21
23
8
19
18
Mean
74
259
213
Levamisole
7
0
1
5
mg
kg
-
'
body
277
19
21
weight
subcutaneous
24
0
1
(Group
2
)
9
0'
0'
5
0
0
76
0
U
Mean
66
3
4
%
Reduction
98
vs
controls
Le‘
amisole
15
0
2
_
10
mg
kg
-1
body
212
2
_
3
weight
transdermal
6
0
0
(Group
31
80
3
4
26
0 0
7
0
0
Mean
58
1
2
-
%
Reduction
99
vs
controls
Died
on
Day
35
Died
on
Day
20
Died
on
Day
35
'
at
Day
35
only
=
Necropsy
on
Day
35
'Necropsy
on
Day
20
Faecal
examinations
The
mean
l.p.g.
in
Groups
1.
2
and
3
were
comparable,
yet
variable,
at
the
time
of
treatment.
Within
7
to
8
days
of
dosing,
animals
in
the
treatment
groups
showed
a
dramatic
reduction
in
1.p.g.
(
Table
2
).
Necropsy
results
The
worm
recovery
at
necropsy,
14
days
post
-treatment,
also
differed
dra-
matically
between
the
two
treatment
groups
and
the
untreated
control
group
EFFICAC\
OF
LEV.kNIISOLE
POUR
-ON
79
(
Table
2
).
These
necropsy
results
indicated
a
99
and
98%
kill
rate
of
adult
D.
vivipants
for
levamisole
pour
-on
and
subcutaneous
injection,
respectively.
DISCUSSION
The
results
of
this
trial
indicate
that
the
levamisole
pour
-on
20%
w/v
for-
mulation
was
as
efficacious
as
levamisole
10%
w/v
injectable
in
treating
D.
vivipants
infections
at
dose
rates
of
10
mg
kg
-
and
5
mg
kg
-
'
body
weight,
respectively.
This
indication
is
evident
from
the
reductions
in
1.p.g.
at
Days
7
and
8
post
-treatment,
when
any
eggs
layed
by
adult
worms
surviving
treat-
ment
would
have
developed
into
larvae.
Similarly,
necropsy
at
42
days
after
initial
infection
and
14
days
post
-treatment
revealed
a
minimal
worm
burden
in
the
lungs
of
animals
in
both
treatment
groups.
It
is
concluded
that
levami-
sole
pour
-on
(Ripercol
®
pour
-on)
is
an
effective
drug
for
the
treatment
of
lungworm
infections.
REFERENCES
Bogan,
J
A
and
Armour,
J.,
1981
The
efficacy
of
a
pour
-on
preparation
of
levamisole
(
RYPA/
1
I
against
the
bovine
parasite
Ostertagra
compared
to
levamisole
(
Nilverm'
)
administered
subcutaneously
University
of
Glasgow
Research
Report
V4077,
7
pp.
(unpubl
)
Guerrero.
J.,
Campbell
Seibert,
B.P
,
Newcomb,
K
M
,
Michael,
B
F.,
Garcia
-Naranjo,
F
and
Rogiers,
M
,
1984.
Controlled
and
clinical
evaluations
of
the
anthelmintic
activity
of
a
leN-
amisole
pour
-on
formulation
against
gastrointestinal
nematodes
in
cattle
Vet
Parasitol
,
45
1086-1089
Michiels,
M.,
Woestenborghs,
R
,
Michielsen,
L.
and
Heykants,
J
,
1984.
Levamisole
compar-
atiN,
e
plasma
level
study
in
cattle
after
treatment
with
levamisole
pour
-on
or
with
Le‘
asole'
injectable
solution.
Janssen
Pharmaceutica
Research
Report
V5098,
15
pp
(
unpubl.
)
Ministry
of
kgriculture,
Fisheries
and
Food,
1986
Reference
Book
418,
Manual
of
Veterinary
Parasitological
Laboratory
Techniques.
HMSO.
Newcomb.
K
M.,
Guerrero,
J
and
Ostmann,
0.W
,
1983.
Efficacy
study
of
levamisole
pour
-on
(
)
formulation
as
compared
to
Levasole
®
injectable
in
cattle
Pitman
Moore,
Inc
,
Research
Report
V4527,
10
pp.
(
unpubl.
)
Sly.
D
,
1989
Complacency
aids
lungworm,
What's
New
in
Farming,
February,
pp
41-42