Age, provenance and tectonostratigraphic status of the Mesoproterozoic Blefjell Quartzite, Telemark sector, Southern Norway


Andersen, T.; Laajoki, K.; Saeed, A.

Precambrian Research 135(3): 217-244

2004


The Blefjell quartzite is ca. 40X6-10 km gneissic metasupracrustal occurrence deposited on a 1159+ or -8 Ma old felsic volcanite. It is part of a mature beach--shallow shelf complex deposited between ca. 1155 and 1145 Ma. LAM-ICPMS U-Pb ages of single, detrital zircons range from 1.40 to 2.07 Ga, with frequency maxima in the age-range 1.65-1.90 Ga. Younger zircons (1.53-1.64 and 1.40-1.50 Ga are less abundant. Present-day (super 176) Hf/ (super 177) Hf ranges from 0.2814 to 0.2822, corresponding to epsilon (sub Hf) (t) between -8 and +14. The minor and trace element distribution of the zircons suggest derivation from a range of mafic to granitic protosources, characterized by distinct, relative LREE enrichment or HREE depletion. The data confirm the presence of important 1.7-1.9 Ga protosources for Precambrian sediments in S Norway, indistinguishable in age and crustal history from rocks of the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt. This lends further support to regional tectonic models in which southern Norway west of the Oslo Rift has been an integral part of the Baltic Shield since the formation of the regional protolith in the Paleoprotoerozoic.

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ELSEVIER
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7
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Age,
provenance
and
tectonostratigraphic
status
of
the
Mesoproterozoic
Blefjell
quartzite,
Telemark
sector,
southern
Norway
Tom
Andersena
,
*,
Kauko
Laajokib,
Ayesha
Saeedc
a
Department
of
Geosciences,
University
of
Oslo,
P.O.
Box
1047,
Blindern,
N-0316
Oslo,
Norway
b
Department
of
Geology,
University
of
Oulu,
P.O.
Box
3000,
FIN
-90014
Oulun
yliopisto,
Finland
'
GEMOC,
Department
of
Earth
and
Planetary
Sciences,
Macquarie
University,
NSW
2109,
Australia
Rece
ved
8
December
2003;
accepted
26
August
2004
Abstract
The
Blefjell
quartzite
is
ca.
40
x
6
10
km
gneissic
metasupracrustal
occurrence
deposited
on
a
1159
±
8
Ma
old
felsic
volcanite.
It
is
part
of
a
mature
beach
shallow
shelf
complex
deposited
between
ca.
1155
and
1145
Ma. LAM
ICPMS
U
Pb
ages
of
single,
detrital
zircons
range
from
1.40
to
2.07
Ga,
with
frequency
maxima
in
the
age
range
1.65
1.90
Ga.
Younger
zircons
(1.53
1.64
and
1.40 1.50
Ga
are
less
abundant.
Present
day
176
Hf/
177
Hf
ranges
from
0.2814
to
0.2822,
corresponding
to
s
Hf
(t)
between
—8
and
+14.
The
minor
and
trace
element
distribution
of
the
zircons
suggest
derivation
from
a
range
of
mafic
to
granitic
protosources,
characterized
by
distinct,
relative
LREE
enrichment
or
HREE
depletion.
The
data
confirm
the
presence
of
important
1.7
1.9
Ga
protosources
for
Precambrian
sediments
in
S
Norway,
indistinguishable
in
age
and
crustal
history
from
rocks
of
the
Transscandinavian
Igneous
Belt.
This
lends
further
support
to
regional
tectonic
models
in
which
southern
Norway
west
of
the
Oslo
Rift
has
been
an
integral
part
of
the
Baltic
Shield
since
the
formation
of
the
regional
protolith
in
the
Paleoprotoerozoic.
©
2004
Elsevier
Inc.
All
rights
reserved.
Keywords
Ba
t
c
Sh
e
d;
Quartz
te;
Detr
to
z
rcon;
Provenance;
U
Pb;
Lu
Hf;
Laser
ab
at
on
ICPMS
1.
Introduction
Clastic
sediments
preserve
a
memory
of
the
age,
composition
and
history
of
the
exposed
continen-
tal
crust
at
the
time
of
their
deposition
(e.g.
Taylor
and
McLennan,
1985).
Well-preserved
sedimentary
se-
*
Correspond
ng
author
E-mail
address
tom
Andersen@geo
og u
o
no
(T
Andersen)
030
-9268/$
see
front
matter
©
2004
E
sev
er
Inc
A
r
ghts
reserved
do
0 0
6/j
precamres
2004
08
006
quences
are
comparatively
rare
within
Precambrian
shield
areas,
but
where
available,
they
are
important
indicators
of
continental
evolution.
Detrital
zircons
in
such
sediments
are
of
particular
interest,
as
they may
be
used
to date
and
characterize
the
proto
sourc
e(s)
(i.e.
the
rock(s)
in
which
a
zircon
originally
crystallized;
Pell
et
al.,
1997;
Fedo
et
al.,
2003
and
references
therein).
The
Precambrian
crustal
evolution
of
the
SW
part
of
the
Baltic
Shield
has
been
much
debated
in
recent
2
8
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
years.
Controversial
topics
include
the
relative
impor-
tance
of
Mesoproterozoic
("Gothian")
and
Grenvil-
lian/Sveconorwegian
tectonics
and
metamorphism,
the
age,
nature
and
history
of
the
regional
protolith,
the
timing
and
nature
of
magmatic
arc
evolution
and
ac-
cretionary
orogenic
events,
and
the
status
of
SW
Nor-
way
as
an
exotic
microcontinent
or
an
integral
part
of
the
Baltic
Shield
(e.g.
Knudsen
et
al.,
1997;
Ahall
and
Gower,
1997;
Ahall
et
al.,
1998,
2000;
Ahall
and
Larson,
2000;
Haas
et
al.,
1999;
Karlstrom
et
al.,
2001;
Bingen
et
al.,
2001, 2003;
Andersen
et
al.,
2001, 2002,
2004;
Soderlund
et
al.,
2002).
Mesopro-
terozoic
metasedimentary
rocks
are
widespread in
S
Norway
(Dons
and
Jorde,
1978;
Berthelsen
et
al.,
1996;
Sigmond,
1998;
Nordgulen,
1999).
Tectonos-
tratigraphic
correlation
between
isolated
metasedimen-
tary
sequences,
and
identification
of
their
protosources
may
help
resolve
some
of
the
controversial
points
in
the
continental
evolution
of
SW
Baltica.
This
paper
presents new
data
on
the
tectonostratigraphic
status
of
the
B
le
fj
ell
quartzite,
southern
Norway,
and
its
relation-
ship
to
other
Proterozoic
supracrustal
rocks
in
the
re-
gion.
Methods
used
include
stratigraphic
mapping
and
evaluation
ofU—Pb,
Lu—Hf
and
trace
element
systemat-
ics
of
detrital
zircons
using
laser
-ablation,
inductively
coupled
plasma
source
mass
spectrometry
(ICPMS),
and
electron
microprobe
analysis.
2.
Geological
setting
The
Baltic
Shield
is
composed
of
an
Archaean
core
in
the
northeast,
and
Proterozoic
crustal
domains
to-
wards
the
southwest
(e.g.
Gaal
and
Gorbatschev,
1987).
The
youngest
part,
the
Southwest
Scandinavian
Do-
main
(SSD)
(Fig.
1)
is
separated
from
the
Paleoprotero-
zoic
Svecofennian
domain
by
a
roughly
north
—south
belt
of
granitoid
intrusions
and
rhyolitic
porphyries
(the
Transscandinavian
Igneous
Belt
TIB),
which
was
emplaced
in
the
period
1.85-1.65
Ga
(Ahall
and
Larson,
2000
and
references
therein;
Andersson
and
Wikstrom,
2001).
An
important
component
of
the
SSD
formed
in
the
period
ca.
1.75-1.5
Ga,
known
as
the
Gothian
or
Kongsbergian
(Starmer,
1993;
Ahall
et
al.,
1998,
2000;
Connelly
and
Ahall,
1996;
Ahall
and
Gower,
1997;
Brewer
et
al.,
1998;
Andersen
et
al.,
2002,
2004),
but
older
crustal
components
(1.7-1.9
Ga)
are
also
present
in
the
region
(Haas
et
al.,
1999;
An
-
Western
gneiss
region
oga-
land
-
Vest
Agder
secto
SMEAR
20
Ga
ff
e
(
C\
''
85
des
TIB
1.85-
1.65
Dala
ss
Sveco-
fen
ru
Fig.
2
C
Western
eg
NES
ment
A.
Svecofennian
frontal
Go
deformation
zone
B
astern
B.
Mylonite
zone
egmen
C'.
Ostfold-Marstrand
C".
knot-Vardelell
D.
Mandal-Ustaoset
E.
Kristiansand-Porsgrunn
Fig.
1.
Sketch
map
of
the
Sveconorwegian
province
(modified
from
B
ngen
et
a
,
200
)
The
area
covered
by
F
g
2
s
framed
Numbers
,
2,
and
3
refer
to
the
Bamb
e,
Kongsberg,
and
Te
emark
sectors,
re-
spect
ve
y
Southwest
Scand
nav
an Doma
n
compr
ses
the
segments
and
sectors
west
of
the
Transscand
nav
an
Igneous
prov
nce
(TIB)
dersen
and
Knudsen,
2000;
Andersen
et
al.,
2001,
2002,
2004;
Bingen
et
al.,
2001).
Sveconorwegian
(1.2-0.9
Ga)
processes
include
sedimentation,
volcan-
ism,
metamorphism
(amphibolite-
to
granulite
facies),
deformation,
mafic
to
granitic
magmatism
and
possible
large-scale
terrane
displacement.
In
the
present
paper,
the
regional
terminology
for
the
SSD
of
Andersen
and
Knudsen
(2000)
is
used
(Fig.
1).
This
is
a
geographic
and
non
-genetic nomen-
clature
which
does
not
assign
tectonostratigraphic
ter-
rane
status
to
any
of
its
units
(Andersen,
2003;
An-
dersen
et
al.,
2004),
which
are
referred
to
as
sec-
tors.
This
study
is
concerned
with
the
northeastern
part
of
the
Telemark
Sector
in
central
south
Norway,
which
is
separated
from
the
Kongsberg
Sector
in
the
east
and
the
Rogaland-Vest
Agder
sector
in
the
west
by
Sveconorwegian
shear
zones
(Fig.
1;
Sigmond,
1998;
Nordgulen,
1999;
Bingen
et
al.,
2001).
The
Kristiandsand-Porsgrunn
shear
zone
(E
in
Fig.
1),
sep-
arating
the
Telemark
Sector
from
the
structurally
over-
lying,
higher
-grade
rocks
of
the
Ramble
Sector
to
the
southeast,
is
a
Sveconorwegian
thrust
(Starmer,
1993).
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
2
9
X
x
X
x
X
X
Rogalard
is
-
9FN
Vest
Agder
t
It
sector
6000
4
+
+
a
o
2
X
15
Kalhovd
Hoydaismo,
-
7*4-
Red
berg
1
v1
a
2
Rjukan
2
x
Tuddal
Hiaricial
fp+
2
!Brunkeberg
Vravatn
complex
1
11
H
-11
m
to
K
I
_Norefjel
I
Egr
i
o
dal
a
11
Eiddal
1146:5
Ma
I
N
-NQ
Go!
Fl
a
granite
NQ
r
Begna
sector
ongs-
berg
complex
Lithodemic
units
-.71-
Post-orogenic
granite
r r
B
B
Diverse
g
ransIcects
Diverse
°ON:gneiss.
Bol
Immo
gneiss
BIO
ell
quartzite
Nor
4
ell
quertale
1311
,
:loderee
gneiss
linivehl
complex
I
th
vg
wmplex
B
Kai
-
vd
area
Saulandj
Heddal
(
a
B
8
7
-/
1'
10
Ion
West
15
Goyst
complex
tli4M1
16
E.4
Redberg
-
Bieljell
area
i
Heddal
gr.
_112
g
13
Y
14
3
Vindeggen
1=IRjukan
gr.
W
South
of
RJ
°km
E
Eidaborg
fin.
I
9
IMIOdalgr.
6
M7
4
11;
7
,2
,IBruke-
berg
fin.
Vindeggen
gr.
1
Rjukan
gr.
Fig.
2.
Simplified
geological
map
of
the
Rjukan
rift
basin
in
central
Telemark
(compiled
and
modified
from
S
gmond
et
a
,
997;
S
gmond,
998;
Nordgu
en,
999)
The
thostrat
graph
c
nomenc
ature
s
from
Laajok
et
a
(2002)
and
B
ngen
et
a
(2003)
The
area
covered
by
F
g
3
is
framed
and
the
locations
of
the
road
section
studied
across
Norefjell
(hatched
curve)
and
the
structural
profile
(A
—B
—C)
n
F
g
4
are
shown
Number
ng
of
the
thostrat
graph
c
un
ts
sta
ts
from
the
ma
n
study
area
south
of
the
town
of
Rjukan
and
coot
nues
v
a
the
Rodberg-B
efje
area
n
the
east
to
the
Ka
hovd
area
n
the
northwest
( )
Rjukan
group,
(2)
V
ndeggen
group,
the
Upper
Brattefje
format
on
exc
uded,
(3)
upper
Brattefje
format
on,
(4)
Oftefje
group,
(5)
Brunkeberg
format
on,
(6)
floyda
smo
group,
(7)
Transtau
hogd
supracrusta
s,
(8)
L
fje
group,
(9)
E
dsborg
format
on,
(
0)
and
( )
Skogsaa
porphyry
and
and
ff
erent
ated
metased
ments
of
the
Hedda
group,
respectively,
(12)
and
(13)
felsic
and
mafic
volcanics
of
the
Nore
group,
respectively,
(14)
Sorkjevatn
formation,
(15)
and
(16)
felsic
volcanics
and
metased
ments
(Ka
hovd
format
on)
of
the
Ka
hovd
area,
respect
ve
y
H
and
R
Hag
ebu
and
Ro
ag
metaputons,
respect
ve
y
Locat
ons
and
age
resu
ts
of
E
dda
metap
uton
(B
ngen
et
a
,
200
)
and
Eggeda
quartz
to
are
a
so
g
ven
Th
ck
nes
on
the
map
and
dashed
nes
n
the
egend
refer
to
a
fau
t
and
an
unconform
ty,
respect
ve
y
FN
and
HF
(
n
the
Roga
and
Vest
Agder
sector)
ocat
ons
of
the
dated
(B
ngen
et
a
,
200
)
Fest
ngsnutan
and
Hettefjorden
group
samp
es
220
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
In
most
of
south
Norway,
Sveconorwegian
deforma-
tion
and
metamorphism
have
obliterated
primary
strati
-
graphic
relationships
(e.g.
Starmer,
1993).
This
is
also
true
of
the
eastern
and
southern
parts
of
the
Telemark
sector
(Figs.
1
and
2),
which
are
made
up
of
strongly
de-
formed
and
metamorphosed
supracrustals
and
granitic
gneisses
of
uncertain
age
and origin:
The
central
part
of
the
Telemark
sector
is
much
less
severely
affected
by
Sveconorwegian
tectonothermal
events.
2.1.
Metasupracrustal
sequences
of
the
Telemark
sector
The
northeastern
margin
of
the
Telemark
sector
is
occupied
by
the
Hallingdal
complex
(Nordgulen,
1999),
which
is
made
up
mainly
of
gneissic
quartzite,
called
the
Norefjell
quartzite
by
Bugge
(1928).
The
youngest
detrital
zircon
analysed
from
a
sample
of
orthoquartzite
collected
near
Eggedal
has
an
age
of
1716±
16
Ma
(Bingen
et
al.,
2001).
A
separate
body
of
quartzite
cropping
out
SE
of
Gol,
30-40
km
NW
of
the
outcrop
area
of
the
Norefj
ell
quartzite,
is
crosscut
by
a
1492
±
3
Ma
granitic
intrusion
(Nordgulen
et
al.,
1997).
This
quartzite
was
assigned
to
the
Hallingdal
complex
by
Nordgulen
(1999),
but
to
the
Seljord
(i.e.
Vindeggen)
group
by
Sigmond
(1998).
Migmatitic
mica
gneisses
(KrOderen
gneiss
in
this
study)
border
the
Hallingdal
complex
to
the
east
(Nordgulen,
1999).
The
Blefjell
quartzite,
the
main
tar-
get
of
this
study,
lies
SW
of
the
Hallingdal
Complex.
Bugge's
Telemark
granite
cuts
its
northern
part
(Bugge,
1928,
p.
32).
Bingen
et
al.
(2003)
called
it
the
Rol
-
lag
metapluton,
and
included
it
into
their
1.19-1.13
Ga
metapluton
suite
covering
the
area
between
the
Blef-
jell
and
Norefjell
quartzites
(Fig.
2).
The
intrusive
age
of
the
Eiddal
pluton,
ca.
15
km
to
NE
from
the
Rollag
pluton
(Fig.
2),
is
1146
±
5
Ma
(op.
cit.).
It
is
said
to
cut
the
quartzites
and
gneisses
of
the
Hallingdal
complex
(Nordgulen
et
al.,
1997).
A
belt
of
Precambrian
low
grade
metasedimentary—
metavolcanic
rocks,
known
as
the
"Telemark
Super-
group"
or
the
"Telemark
supracrustals"
(Sigmond
et
al.,
1997)
makes
up
the
area
west
of
the
Blefjell
quartzite
and
Hallingdal
Complex
(Fig.
2).
The
ca.
1500
Ma
old
felsic
metavolcanic
rocks
of
the
Rjukan
group
and
diverse
plutonic
rocks
form
the
core
of
the
belt.
The
quartzite
-dominated
Vindeggen
group
rims
this
oldest
part
of
the
belt,
and
is
overlain
by
the
sedimentary
—volcanic
Oftefjell
(<1153
±
3
Ma,
Laajoki
et
al.,
2002)
and
Nore
(<1169
±
9,
Bingen
et
al.,
2003)
groups,
in
the
southwest
and
east,
re-
spectively.
The
1155
±
2
Ma
Brunkeberg
formation
(Laajoki
et
al.,
2002)
rims
the
belt
in
the
south,
whereas
the
SOrkjevatn
formation
(1159
±
8
Ma,
Bingen
et
al.,
2003)
borders
the
western
and
southern
margins
of
the
Blefjell
quartzite.
The
Brunkeberg
formation
as
well
as
the
Vindeggen
group
are
overlain
by
the
or-
thoquartzitic
Lifjell
group,
which
occurs
in
the
south-
eastern
corner
of
the
Telemark
belt.
The
stratigraphi-
cally
lowest
unit
is
the
Vallar
bru
formation
with
dis-
tinctive
conglomerates
to
be
discussed
later.
In
the
southeast,
the
1145
±
4
Ma
old
SkogsUa
porphyry
over-
lies
the
Lifjell
orthoquartzite.
The
youngest
sedimen-
tary
units
include
quartzites
of
the
Eidsborg
formation
(<1118
±
38
Ma,
Haas
et
al.,
1999),
and
the
sandstones
of
the
Heddal
group
(<1121
±
15
Ma,
Bingen
et
al.,
2003),
and
the
Kalhovdformation
(<1065
±
11
Ma,
op.
cit.),
which
border
the
Telemark
belt
in
the
southwest,
east,
and
west,
respectively.
The
Mandal-Ustaoset
fault
zone
separates
the
Telemark
belt
from
the
gneisses
and
granitoids
of
the
Rogaland-Vest-Agder
sector,
which
contains
Festingsnutan
and
Hettefjorden
group
parag-
neisses
(Fig.
2)
whose zircons
have
similar
age
distri-
butions
to
that
of
the
orthoquartzite
of
the
Hallingdal
complex
(Bingen
et
al.,
2001,
2003).
3.
Previous
descriptions
of
the
Blefjell
quartzite
Werenskiold
(1910,
p.
31)
described
the
Blefjell
(Blefjeld)
quartzite
(BQ)
to
lie
discordantly
above
the
"quartz-augen
granulite"
(Sorkjevatn
formation
in
present
nomenclature)
in
the
west,
and
to
be
possibly
correlated
with
the
Lifjell
quartzite. Bugge
(1928)
included
the
Blefjell
quartzite
and
Werenski-
old's
granulites
into
his
Telemark
formation.
Subse-
quently,
Bugge
(1937)
treated
the
rocks
east
of
the
Blefjell
quartzite
as
fi
ne-grained
gneisses,
whose
con-
tact
with
the
quartzite
was
said
to
be
gradational.
Dons
and
Jorde
(1978)
mapped
Werenskiold's
"quartz-
augen
granulite"
and
Bugge's
fi
ne-grained
gneiss
as
metarhyolite/metamorphic
tuff
and
fi
ne-grained
gneiss
of
supracrustal
origin,
respectively.
Nordgulen
(1999)
included
the
northern
part
of
the
BQ
into
the
Hallingdal
complex,
which
he
considered
to
be
older
than
the
tradi-
tional
Seljord
group.
Bingen
et
al.
(2003)
followed
this
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
22
idea
and
stated
that
the
BQ
lies
under
the
Sorkjevatn
formation.
4.
Geology
of
the
Blefjell
area
Blefjell
is
a
N
—S
trending
mountain
ridge
ca.
40
km
long
and
6-10
km
wide
consisting
mainly
of
highly
metamorphosed
and
deformed
quartzite
quartzite
gneiss
called
simply
the
Blefjell
quartzite
(BQ)
(Figs.
2
and
3).
Schematic
lithostratigraphy
of
the
Blefjell
area
is
given
in
Table
1.
The
Sarkjevatn
forma-
tion
(SF)
rimming
the
BQ
in
the
west
consists
of
mas-
sive,
but
lineated
porphyritic
rhyolite,
whose
weighted
average
zircon
Pb—Pb
age
is
1159
±
8
Ma
(based
on
15
concordant
or
near
-concordant
analyses
with
an
age
range
of
1171
±
28
to
1143
±
27
Ma;
Bingen
et
al.,
2003).
No
distinctive
evidence
for
volcanic
features
has
been
detected,
so
a
subvolcanic
origin
for
the
rock
is
not
excluded.
Bingen
et
al.
(2003)
state
that
the
Sorkjevatn
porphyry
overlies
the
BQ,
which
they
correlate
with
the
Hallingdal
complex.
Observations
from
this
study
indicate,
however,
that
the
BQ
stratigraphically
over-
lies
the
SF
and
that
a
conglomerate
—quartzite
—schist
unit,
called
the
Surtetjorn
formation,
occurs
between
the
SF
and
BQ.
Metadiabases
of
unknown
age
occur
along
the
SF/BQ
contact
and
intrude
the
BQ
(Dons
and
Jorde,
1978).
Massive,
weakly
metamorphosed
and
deformed
sandstones
of
the
Heddal
group
(Hss)
occupy
the
area
west
of
the
SF.
The
depositional
age
of
the
Heddal
group
sandstone
near
Haglebu,
ca.
40
km
north
of
Ble-
fjell,
is
<1121
±
20
Ma
(Bingen
et
al.,
2003);
that
is
at
least
30
Ma
younger
than
the
age
of
the
SF.
Bingen
et
al.
(2003)
stated
that
the
Hss
overlies
both
the
SF
and
BQ.
However,
Dons
and
Jorde
(1978)
delineated
the
SF/Hss
contact
as
a
thrust.
As
the
top
and
bedding
observations
in
the
south
support
this
choice
(station
3224
in
Fig.
3),
this
interpretation
is
accepted
in
this
study
and
the
structure
is
named
as
the
Tinne
thrust.
Bugge's
(1937)
fi
ne-grained
gneisses
east
of
the
BQ
are
treated
as
Bolkesjo
sandstones
(Bss)
in
this
paper.
The
main
rock
type
is
gneissic
feldspathic
sandstone.
As
the
BQ/Bss
contact
is
gradational
the
Bss
seems
to
conformably
overlie
the
BQ
(Bugge,
1928,
1937).
In
the
east,
the
Bss
passes
to
gneisses
and
granitoids
of
Bugge's
(1937)
Telemark
granite.
In
the
north,
the
BQ
is
cut
by
the
Rollag
metapluton
(see
above).
-
'59
0
51:r58"..'}
f
/
X/A
1159t8Max:\
Bingen
et
al.
2003
taper-
vatn
3
o4
orkje
0
Fig.
4
Blefjell
'ffrtaplutpn
2
'
4
Fig.
6E
40
Litholociv
Granitoids
Gneiss
&
gr.
Heddal
ss.
Bolkosjo
ss.
14
Blefjell
gzte
T.
ls
t
„--
sorkjevatn
frn,
2
4-
7
-
3232
'-Fig,
6C-
_590441.58"-
37
-,Station
6054
Figs
5F,
Bolkesla
—37,
-Station
322
cn
19"
30
,s.i9
r
Fig.
3.
Geological
map
of
the
Blefjell
area
(modified
after
Dons
and
Jorde,
978;
Nordgu
en,
999)
Structura
observat
ons,
th
s
study
For
symbo
s
see
F
g
4
whose
area
s
framed
Locat
ons
of
the
BQ
samp
e
3232,
the
Sorkjevatn
porphyry
samp
e
dated
by
B
ngen
et
a
(2003),
and
outcrops
n
F
g
SF
and
G
and
F
g
6C
and
E
are
shown
The
average
age
of
the
SF
referred
to
above
is
within
the
error
limits
identical
to
that
of
the
volcanic
Brunk-
eberg
formation
(1155
±
2
Ma,
Laajoki
et
al.,
2002),
which
underlies
the
quartzites
of
the Lifjell
group
in
Brunkeberg
and
Seljord
(Fig.
2).
Hence,
provided
that
the
SF
is
volcanic,
the
BQ
can
be
correlated
chronos-
222
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
Tab
e
Schemat
c
thostrat
graphy
of
the
B
efje
,
B
unkeberg
Sau
and,
and
Norefje
areas
Brunkeberg-
Sauland
area
Blefjell
area
West
East
Norefjell
area
Heddal
group
sandstone
Heddal
group
sandstone
<1112±
20
Ma
l)
TECTONIC
CONTACT
=
TINNE
THRUST
Rollag
metapiuton
Bolkesj0
sandstone
Eiddal
metapluton
1146
±5
Ma
l)
Skogsaa
fm.
1145
±
4
Ma
e)
Norefjell
quarzite
<1716
±
16
Ma
4)
&
KrOderen
gneiss
Blefjell
quartzite
<1404
±
111Ma
3
-
Surtetjon
fi
n,
Lifjell
group
Brunkeberg
fm.
1155
±
2
Ma
l/
Sorkjevatn
fm
1159
+
8
Ma
l)
Vo
can
c
and
p
uton
c
un
is
are
shaded
Age
references
( )
B
ngen
et
a
tratigraphically
with
the
Lifjell
group
(Table
1).
The
similar,
rather
monotonous
orthoquartzitic
lithologies
of
these
two
quartzite
units
support
this
interpretation
(Section
6).
5.
Geology
of
the
Surtetjorn
area
The
relationship
between
the
SF
and
BQ
was
stud-
ied
in
more
detail
in
the
Surtetjorn
area,
southwest
corner
of
the
Blefjell
mountain
(Figs.
3
and
4).
This
area
was
selected
on
the
basis
of
mapping
by
Dons'
and
Jorde
(1978)
who
identified
a
solitary
conglom-
erate
occurrence
at
Surtetjornasen.
In
our
study,
this
Surtetjornasen
conglomerate
(SuC)
was
detected
to
lie
on
the
SF
and
to
pass
gradually
to
a
muscovite
-rich
schist.
A
similar
conglomerate
schist
unit,
called
in-
formally
the
Surtetjorn
formation
(SuF),
was
detected
also
east
of
Surtetjorn,
where
it
passes
to
the
overly-
ing
BQ.
This
unit
pinches
out
to
the
east,
where
the
SF
passes
gradually
to
an
arkosite
and
this
again
to
the
orthoquartzite
of
the
BQ
(Fig.
4,
Table
1).
These
units
are
described
in
lithostratigraphic
order
below.
5.1.
Sarkjevatn
formation
The
SF
consists
of
homogeneous,
recrystallized
quartz
and
feldspar
porphyritic
rhyolite
(inset
in
(2003),
(2)
Laajok
eta
(2002),
(3)
th
s
study,
(4)
B
ngen
eta
(200
)
Fig.
5A)
(Bingen
et
al.,
2003).
The
rock
contains
pla-
gioclase
phenocrysts
and
polycrystalline
quartz
and
plagioclase
aggregates
in
a
recrystallized,
granoblas-
tic
quartz-microcline
blastogroundmass.
It
is
perva-
sively
deformed
with
a
subhorizontal,
ca.
N
—S
trending
stretching
lineation.
Near
the
contact
with
the
SuF,
the
porphyry
passes
gradually
to
a
banded
rock,
which
is
considered
to
be
detritus
of
the
underlying
porphyry
(Fig.
5A).
5.2.
Surtetjarn
formation
The
gradational
contact
between
the
SuF
and
the
SF
is
exposed
at
Flceun
(Fig.
4),
where
the
SF
porphyry
passes
gradually
over
1-2
m
to
a
massive
arkosite
with
larger
feldspar
and
polycrystalline
feldspar
-aggregate
clasts
interpreted
as
felsic
volcanic
detritus
derived
from
the
underlying
SF
porphyry.
Feldspathic
sericite
quartzite
with
orthoquartzitic
laminae
(Fig.
5B)
oc-
curs
just
below
the
BQ
orthoquartzite.
A
similar
gradual
change
from
the
SF
to
BQ
can
be
seen
also
near
Bolkesjo
(near
station
6054
in
Fig.
3).
At
Surtetjornasen,
the
SF/SuF
transition
contact
is
incom-
pletely
exposed,
but
bedding
and
top
determinations
indicate
that
the
basal
conglomerate
of
the
SuC
lies
directly
on
the
SF
porphyry
or
is
separated
from
it
by
a
thin
(<1-2
m)
unit
of
volcanic
detritus
(Fig.
5A).
The
lowermost
conglomerate,
only
a
few
metres
thick,
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
223
Geitevenutenia
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4tp_Z"
TB'
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Figs.5B,
6D
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506
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6626.07
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400
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Fig.
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Symbols
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508.60
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700
600
500
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g
4
Geo
og
ca
map
of
the
Surtetjam
area
and
the
Su
tetjamasen
Geitevenuten
profile
(lower
part,
folding
of
the
Surtetjorn
formation
is
sketched)
L
thostrat
graph
c
un
is
( )
Sorkjevatn
fm,
(2)
Surtetjam
fm,
(3)
B
efie
qua
tz
te,
(4)
Metad
abase
St
uctura
symbo
s
( )
bedd
ng
and
d
p,
(2)
bedd
ng,
d
p,
and
top
d
rect
on,
(3)
fo
at
on
and
d
p,
(4)
neat
on
and
p
unge,
(5)
m
nor
fo
d
ax
s
and
p
unge,
(6)
other
outcrop
Locat
ons
of
outcrops
n
F
g
5A
E
and
F
g
6B
and
D
are
shown
is
clast-supported
with
stretched
and
fl
attened
ortho-
quartzite
and
acid
volcanite
cobbles
(Fig.
5C).
This
is
overlain
by
sericite
quartzite
schist
with
quartzite
cob-
bles
and
pebbles
(Fig.
5D);
volcanic
clasts
are
miss-
ing
in
this
part.
The
rock
is
pervasively
foliated,
but
primary
parallel
-lamination
is
locally
preserved.
This
passes
to
a
cobble
-free,
parallel
laminated
(Fig.
5E),
locally
cross
-bedded
sericite
quartzite.
The
conglom-
erate
also
occurs
east
of
Surtetjorn,
where
it
is
thicker
and
contains
sericite
quartzite
interbeds.
A
pervasively
foliated
unit,
at
least
several
tens
of
meters
thick,
of
sericite
schist
sericite
quartzite
with
feldspar
-mica
gneiss
interbeds
occurs
between
the
conglomerate
and
the
BQ.
At
station
6054,
the
conglomerate
is
missing,
but
crenulated
sericite
schist
a
few
meters
thick,
lies
between
the
SF
and
the
BQ.
6.
Sedimentary
and
structural
features
of
the
Blefjell
and
Norefjell
quartzites
The
BQ
was
studied
in
its
southern
and
northern
parts
(Fig.
3).
It
the
south,
in
the
Bolkesjo
and
Surtetjorn
areas,
the
quartzite
in
the
lower
part
of
the
unit
is
less
deformed
and
well
preserved
parallel
-lamination
can
often
be
seen
(Fig.
5F).
Cross
-bedding
was
noted
at
one
locality
indicating
that
the
quartzite
is
right
side
up
(Fig.
5G).
North
of
the
Rollag
metapluton
(Fig.
3),
the
quartzite
contains
muscovite,
which
defines
gneis-
sic
lamination.
These
observations
indicate
that
the
BQ
consists
mainly
of
parallel
-laminated
orthoquartzite
muscovitic
quartzite
and
resembles
in
this
respect
the
Lifjell
orthoquartzite interpreted
as
a
beach
deposit
(Laajoki
et
al.,
2002).
The
Norefj
ell
quartzite
was
studied
along
a
road
across
the
Norefjell
Mountain
(Fig.
2).
As
it
is
mostly
gneissic,
primary
features
have
mostly
been
destroyed.
Its
gneissic
banding
is
straight
and
no
relics
of
possible
cross
-bedding
were
observed.
On
top
of
the
Norefjell
Mountain
and
in
the
west,
near
Eggedal,
the
rock
is
better
preserved
and
is
considered
to
be
orthoquartzite
with
primary
parallel
-lamination
(Fig.
5H).
No
signif-
icant
schist
layers
or
units
were
seen
along
the
section.
Thus,
with
respect
to
both
composition
and
primary
structures,
the
Norefj
ell
quartzite
resembles
the
BQ
and
the
Lifjell
orthoquartzite.
The
most
prominent
structural
features
in
the
Ble-
fjell
area
are:
(1)
a
subhorizontal,
approximately
N
—S
L,
=
16"/5"
.
11
cm
(A)
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Photographs
of
the
tho
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es
n
the
Sorkjevatn
(A)
and
Surtetjorn
format
ons
(SuF)
(B
E)
and
the
B
efje
(BQ)
(F
G)
and
Norefje
(H)
qua
tz
tes
For
ocat
ons
see
F
gs
3
and
4
The
s
ze
of
the
compass
s
6
5
cm
x
2
5
cm
Photograph
(Aut)
and
stat
on
numbers
and
UTM
coord
nates
are
g
ven
at
the
bottom
of
the
photographs
D
p
d
rect
on
and
ang
e
of
bedd
ng
(So,)
and
fo
at
on
(Si),
and
p
unge
d
rect
on
and
ang
e
of
neat
on
(L
i)
are
a
so
g
ven
(A)
Sorkjevatn
porphyry
(
nset)
pass
ng
gradua
y
to
a
am
nated
rock
(above
the
dotted
ne)
nterpreted
as
detr
tus
of
the
porphyry
Note
the
stretch
ng
neat
on
(Li)
(B)
Basa
SuF
ser
c
te
quartz
te
w
th
fe
dspar
fe
dspar
aggregate
c
asts
(wh
te
spots)
and
quartzite
laminae
(q).
Fleeun.
(C)
Lowermost
SuF
conglomerate
with
fl
attened
and
stretched
quartzite
and
minor
felsic
volcanite
clasts.
Surtetjornasen
(D)
Pervas
ve
y
fo
ated
ser
c
te
quartz
te
w
th
so
to
y
quartz
te
cobb
es
and
pebb
es
(q)
Surtetjornasen
(E)
Fo
ded
and
pe
vas
ve
y
fo
ated
para
e
am
nated
SuF
ser
c
te
qua
tz
te
Lam
nat
on
s
out
ned
Surtetjornasen
(F)
Para
e
am
nated
BQ
orthoqua
tz
te
The
st
ck
s
4
m
ong
Bo
kesjo
Hote
(G)
Large
cross
-bedded
un
t
n
BQ
Top
up
The
hammer
(arrow)
s
60
cm
ong
Road
37,
Bo
kesjo
(H)
Para
e
-
am
nated
g
assy
Norefje
orthoqua
tz
te
Norefje
road
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
225
a
LLI
0
O.
0
1
0
o
o
-
11
O
0'
I I
G/3
;RYA
it
fi
,„
632/6620664
z
a
,
40
S
sal
a
(ID
6319
Kt
-ti
Aut
16057
532057/6673215
co
0
_k
,
1
.'
14
4
-
cry
s•—...••••••
00
226
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
trending
lineation,
which
can
be
seen
in
all
lithologies
(Fig.
5A,
C
and
D
and
Fig.
6A)
and
is
parallel
to
F1
fold
axes
(Fig.
6A
and
B)
and
(2)
a
penetrative
foli-
ation,
which
in
the
Surtetjorn
area
dips
shallowly
to
the
east—northeast
and
represents
a
pervasive
Si
ax-
ial
plane
foliation
(Fig.
6B
and
C),
that
has
been
re
-
(A)
N
=
21
Mean
=
1679'
West
_
Ea
S,
=
78°127'
Auti
5084/6104
506262
6625890
folded
coaxially
around
Fi
(Fig.
6D).
The
strain
clearly
increases
upwards
in
the
stratigraphy
as
the
primary
sedimentary
features
have
been
preserved
only
in
the
very
lower
parts
of
the
SF
and
BQ
(Fig.
5A
and
E
—G,
Fig.
6B),
whereas
in
most
parts
of
the
BQ
bedding
has
been
either
destroyed
or
transposed
parallel
to
the
•-);
oPC‘..
•fi•-v•:_
_.-a
Jai
*
(D)
-Ai
`
1
1.
1
Tr.
.
r
'
ttl
104[81
507451
6625914
F
g
6
(A)
L
neat
on
obse
vat
ons
n
the
southern
pa
t
of
the
B
efje
area
(B
F)
Photographs
of
deformat
on
n
the
B
efje
(B
E)
and
Norefje
(F)
areas
For
structura
symbo
s,
see
F
g
5
The
s
ze
of
the
compass
s
6
5
cm
x
2
5
cm
Photograph
(Aut)
and
stat
on
numbers
and
UTM
coord
nates
are
g
ven
at
the
bottom
of
the
photographs
(B)
Ser
c
te
quartz
te
w
th
a
ess
deformed
doma
n
w
th
fo
ded
bedd
ng
between
two
pervas
ve
y
fo
ated
doma
n
(wh
te
nes)
nt
uded
by
quartz
ve
ns
Upper
part
of
the
Surtetjorn
format
on
(C)
pervas
ve
y
fo
ated
B
efje
quartz
te
w
th
subhor
zonta
neat
on
Upper
pa
t
of
the
BQ
(D)
F2
fo
d
w
th
vert
ca
ax
a
p
ane
Basa
arkos
c
part
of
the
Surtetjorn
format
on
(E)
Fo
ded
gne
ss
Road
46,
east
of
B
efje
(F)
T
ght,
open
y
refo
ded,
recumbent
fo
ds
n
gne
ss
c
quartz
te
Norefje
road
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
227
4.4
C
Ls
eSt
.npr
et
-
0
(F)
•••
184°4°
I
-
4.
'
7
.
,
Au1.16071/6325
.
24480
6677806
F
g
6
(Continued)
foliation
(Fig.
6C).
Gneisses
east
of
and
structurally
above
the
BQ
show
structural
style
similar
to
that
in
the
Blefjell
area
(Fig.
6E
versus
Fig.
6B).
Nordgulen
(1999)
observed
that
in
Norefjell
and
in
its
surround-
ings,
the
main
structural
elements
are
also
inconsistent,
the
N
—S
trending
lineation
and
N
—S
striking
foliation
are
either
vertical
or
dipping
with
variable
angles.
Our
observations
along
the
Norefjell
road
indicate
that
the
Norefjell
quartzite
is
tightly
folded
(Fig.
6F).
It
is
also
refolded
as
foliation
observations
(N=
8)
give
an
aver-
age
fi
axis
plunging
to
185°,
which
is
close
to
lin-
eation
(Fig.
6A)
and
F2
(Fig.
6D)
in
the
Blefjell
area.
Although
structures
in
the
Blefjell
and
Norefjell
areas
have
not
been
studied
systematically,
the
observations
given
above
and
Nordgulen's
(1999)
map
data
indicate
that
the
areas
are
structurally
similar.
7.
Age
and
provenance
of
detrital
zircons
from
the
Blefjell
orthoquartzite
7.1.
Analytical
methods
Sample
processing
was
done
at
the
Laboratory
of
Isotope
Geology,
Mineralogical
-Geological
Museum,
University
of
Oslo,
with
zircon
imaging
and
isotopic
analyses
performed
at
the
GEMOC
Centre,
Depart-
ment
of
Earth
and
Planetary
Sciences,
Macquarie
Uni-
versity,
NSW,
Australia.
Zircons
from
gneissic
BQ
or-
thoquartzite
sample
KL
3232
(Fig.
3)
were
separated
from
the
<250
pm
size
-fraction
using
standard
heavy
liquid
and
magnetic
separation
methods.
Selected
zir-
cons
were
mounted
in
epoxy
and
polished
prior
to
imaging
and
analysis.
All
zircons
were
imaged
using
228
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
a
Cameca
SX50
electron
microprobe,
using
a
combi-
nation
of
backscattered
electron
and
cathodolumines-
c
ence
imaging.
U—Pb
analyses
were
made
using
a
Hewlett-Packard
4500
quadrupole
ICPMS,
coupled
to
a
specially
de-
signed
266
nm ultraviolet
laser
microprobe,
which
in-
corporates
a
high
-quality
viewing
system.
Analytical
methods
follow
Jackson
et
al.
(2004)
and
Andersen
et
50
virli
1750±13
Ma
5
100
I_Lrn
13
1802±8
Ma
50
µnri
,
a)
31
2033±7
Ma
al.
(2004).
Common
lead
corrections
were
made
using
the
algorithm
of
Anders
en
(2002),
assuming
recent
lead
loss.
Lu—Hf
analyses
were
made
using
a
NU
Plasma
multicollector
ICPMS
in
the
time
-resolved
mode,
with
a
Merchantek/New
Wave
213
nm
ultraviolet
laser
mi-
croprobe.
Epsilon
Hf
values
were
calculated
assuming
A(176Lu)
—1.93
x
10
-11
a
-1
and
the
CHUR
parame-
ters
of
Blichert-To
ft
and
Albarede
(1997).
The
depleted
100
pm
411160.
7
W
11111
1814±7
Ma
100
1..LM
lib
1747±.9
Ma
21
50
lam
46
1708±10
Ma
F
g
7
BSE/CL
mages
of
detr
to
z
rcons
from
the
B
efje
quartz
to
(a)
z
rcons
o
der
than
650
Ma;
(b)
z
rcons
between
550
and
650
Ma
n
age;
(c)
z
rcons
younger
than
550
Ma
Numbers
on
nd
v
dua
frames
are
NOTA32-xx
numbers
from
Tab
e
2
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
229
100
p
m
1554123
Ma
100
,um
6
1544±9
Ma
100
um
17
1534±12
Ma
(b)
100
pm
1563±15
Ma
100
pm
16
1584±7
Ma
50
iim
40
-
--
-
1639±10
Ma
F
g
7
(Continued)
mantle
model
of
Griffin
et
al.
(2000)
was
adopted.
This
curve
is
very
similar
to
theft
=
0.16
curve
of
Vervoort
and
Blichert-Toft
(1999).
Isoplot
3.00
(Ludwig,
2003)
was
used
for
plotting
of
radiogenic
isotope
data.
Analyses
of
ZrO2,
SiO2,
HfO2
and
Y203
were
made
with
the
SX50
electron
microprobe.
U
and
Th
concen-
trations
were
determined
by
calibrating
the
observed
ICPMS
counts
for
masses
238
and
232
to
the
inter-
national
standard
91500
(Wiedenbeck
et
al.,
1995).
Y
and
Lu
concentrations
were
calculated
from
observed
176yb/177Hf
and
176
LU/
177
Hf
ratios,
using
the
Hf
con-
centration
determined
by
electron
microprobe
as
an
in-
ternal
standard.
7.2.
Zircon
morphology
and
internal
structure
Zircons
show
variable
degree
of
rounding
and
sur-
face
abrasion,
and
a
variety
of
internal
structures
230
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
50
i_trn
9
1
1475
±
9
Ma
100
,LAM
1485
±
9
Ma
416
14
50
um
411111
1
44
1490
±
12
Ma
(c)
F
g
7
(Continued)
(Fig.
7a,
b
and
c).
As
the
internal
structure
is
in
part
correlated
with
age,
it
is
convenient
to
discuss zircons
according
to
their
age
at
this
stage.
Zircons
older
than
ca.
1650
Ma
are
in
general
well
rounded,
and
show
low
-amplitude,
short
wavelength
oscillatory
zoning
in-
terpreted
as
magmatic
(grains
7,
13
and
21
in
Fig.
7a).
Few
grains
show
evidence
of
primary
crystal
habits,
but
those
which
do
appear
to
be
fragments
of
quite
elongated
crystals
(e.g.
grain
46
in
Fig.
7a).
Metamict
grains
are
common
in
the
old
group;
these
are
frac-
tured
(grain
5
in
Fig.
7a),
embayed,
and
show
irregu-
lar
patterns
of
BSE
bright
and
dark
domains
(grains
5
and
31
in
Fig.
7a).
Most
zircons
with
ages
between
1550
and
1650
Ma
are
either
unzoned
in
BSE/CL,
or
show
large
amplitude
long
wavelength
oscil-
latory
zoning
or
sector
-zoning
(Fig.
7b).
Grains
with
dense,
low
-amplitude
oscillatory
zoning
are
less
com-
mon
than
in
the
older
group
(grain
2
in
Fig.
7b).
Zircons
younger
than
1500
Ma
are
sub
-angular
and
in
general
less
rounded
than
the
older
zircons
(Fig.
7c,
grains
9,
14
and
38),
but
well-rounded
grains
have
been
also
found
in
this
age
group
(grain
44).
Internal
structures
include
complex
sector
-zoning
(Fig.
7c,
grains
9
and
14).
7.3.
U—Pb
data
Analyses
of
46
detrital
zircons
from
the
BQ
are
listed
in
Table
2.
The
zircons
range
from
concordant
to
ca.
20%
normally
discordant
(Fig.
8).
207
pb/
206
pb
ages
of
single
zircons
range
from
ca.
1.4-2.07
Ga
(Table
2).
Thirty-four
zircons
(74%
of
the
grains
anal-
ysed)
have
ages
between
1.65
and
1.90
Ga;
an
accumu-
lated
probability
density
diagram
shows
a
maximum
at
1.76
Ga,
with
subsidiary
peaks
at
1.80
and
1.86
Ga
(Fig.
9a).
Younger
zircons
fall
in
two
207
pb/
206
pb
age
groups:
1.53-1.64
Ga
(six
zircons,
i.e.
13%)
and
younger
than
1.50
Ga
(four
zircons,
i.e.
9%).
Paleo-
proterozoic
zircons
are
rare
(two
grains
at
2033
±
8
and
2069
±
52
Ma,
respectively);
no
late
Archaean
zir-
cons
ages
were
obtained.
The
overall
age
distribution
Tab
e
2
LAM-ICPMS
U
Pb
data
on
z
rcons
from
samp
e
KLN3232,
B
efje
quartz
to
Common
206Pb
(%)
a
D
scordance
207pb/206pb
a
207Pb/235U
a
206
pb/238u
208
Pb/232Th
a
Centra
(%)
M
n
mum
r
m
(%)
N0132-0
0.57
0.
5
-
8.3
-
5.9
0.0964
0.0023
2.96
4
0.0628
0.2229
0.0024
0.88
0.0654
0.0007
N0132-02
0.4
0.09
-7.7
-5.9
0.0968
0.00
7
3.38
9
0.0502
0.2534
0.002
0.88
0.0742
0.0006
N0132-03
0.35
0.
-
7.2
-
5.8
0.
07
0.00
9
4.
007
0.0597 0.2687
0.0022
0.89
0.0777
0.0006
N0132-04
.
7
0.06
-8.3
-6.8
0.
068
0.00
5
4.2005
0.0478
0.2852
0.0023
0.88
0.0827 0.0007
N0132-05
.
5
0.07
-20.
-
8.2
0.
07
0.0020
3.68
4
0.056
0.2493
0.0028
0.88
0.0723
0.0009
N0132-06
-
.8
0.0958
0.00
3.5
5
0.0356 0.2686 0.0025
0.90
0.0799
0.0008
N0132-07
-
.2
0.
09
0.00
2
4.9076
0.0443
0.3244
0.0028
0.90
0.
037
0.0009
N0132-08
-0.9
0.
089
0.00
3
4.734
0.0532
0.3
77
0.0032
0.90
0.0945
0.00
N0132-09
-0.5
0.0924
0.00
0
3.2588
0.0356
0.2574
0.0026
0.90
0.0772
0.0008
NOT32-
0
-0.6
0.
06
0.00
5
4.4854
0.0563
0.3090 0.0030
0.90
0.0927
0.00
6
NOT32-
.2
0.
076
0.00
2
4.7099
0.043
0.3
80
0.0026
0.90
0.0957
0.0008
NOT32-
2
0.7
0.
068
0.00
2
4.6
38
0.0490
0.3
4
0.0030
0.90
0.096
0.00
0
NOT32-
3
-0.2
0.
0
0.00
2
4.8847
0.0473
0.3224
0.0029
0.90
0.0980
0.0009
NOT32-
4
-0.
0.0929
0.00
0
3.3
45
0.0337
0.2595
0.0024
0.90
0.08
7
0.0008
NOT32-
5
0.65 0.05
-5.3
-3.9
0.
03
0.00
4
4.654
0.0457
0.3060
0.0022
0.89
0.0885
0.0007
NOT32-
6
-0.4
0.0979
0.00
3.7452
0.03
7
0.2776
0.002
0.90
0.0872
0.0008
NOT32-
7
-0.7
0.0953
0.00
4
3.5049
0.0473
0.2677
0.0028
0.90
0.0803
0.00
3
NOT32-
9
-0.3
0.
07
0.00
4
4.5932
0.0588
0.3
9
0.0033
0.90
0.0934
0.00
4
N0132-20
-0.4
0.
084
0.00
3
4.7078
0.0529
0.3
59
0.003
0.90
0.0964
0.00
N0132-2
-0.
0.
069
0.00
2
4.5783
0.0485
0.3
3
0.0030
0.90
0.0983
0.00
N0132-22
-0.5
0.
37
0.00
2
5.2
0
0.0493
0.3329
0.0030
0.90
0.
224
0.00
2
N0132-23
-0.
0.
43
0.00
2
5.2933
0.0473
0.3360
0.0028
0.90
0.
096
0.00
0
N0132-24
-0.4
0.
065
0.00
4.5295
0.04
0
0.3087
0.0026
0.90
0.0943
0.0008
N0132-25
0.6
0.
057
0.00
4.4982
0.04
3
0.3089
0.0027
0.90
0.092
0.0008
N0132-26
-
.9
0.
076
0.00
3
4.5694
0.0496
0.3080
0.0029
0.90
0.0900
0.00
0
N0132-27
-0.4
0.
30
0.00
2
5.
546
0.0477
0.3308
0.0029
0.90
0.
75
0.00
2
N0132-28
-0.2
0.
074
0.00
2
4.6260
0.0453
0.3
25
0.0029
0.90
0.0903
0.0008
N0132-29
0.3
0.
0
0.00
2
4.9037
0.0506
0.3233
0.003
0.90
0.0955
0.0009
N0132-30
-0.9
0.
097
0.00
2
4.8
57
0.0494
0.3
84
0.0030
0.90
0.0936
0.0009
N0132-3
-0.
0.
253
0.00
4
6.4029
0.0579
0.3707
0.0030
0.90
0.
464
0.00
3
N0132-32
-0.
0.
074
0.00
3
4.6298
0.0525
0.3
27
0.003
0.90
0.0903
0.00
N0132-33
0.
4
0.06
-2.6
-0.5
0.
7
0.0022
4.9
46
0.0724
0.3
9
0.0040
0.9
0.092
0.00
N0132-34
0.2
0.07
-
.8
-
0
0.
08
0.002
4.37
5
0.0640
0.2863
0.0034
0.9
0.0827
0.00
0
N0132-35
-2.7
0.
078
0.00
4.5432
0.0544 0.3064
0.0037
0.90
0.0840
0.0009
N0132-36
-3.5
0.
07
0.00
4.4408
0.0540
0.30
3
0.0037
0.90
0.0840
0.0009
N0132-37
-9.2
-6.7
0.
067
0.00
3
4.
498
0.0562
0.2825 0.0036
0.90
0.0828
0.00
T
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et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
N0132-38
N0132-39
N0132-40
N0132-4
N0132-42
N0132-43
N0132-44
N0132-45
N0132-46
N0132-47
5.05
0.44
-0.2
0.9
3.8
0.6
3.5
3.6
2.6
.4
-5.2
0.9
0.6
-7.3
-3.2
0.0890
0.
027
0.
008
0.
083
0.
03
0.
279
0.093
0.
064
0.
046
0.
053
0.00
0
2.9804
0.00
0
4.2348
0.00
4.
76
0.00
4
4.75
0.00
4.3862
0.0063
5.7709
0.00
3.4268
0.00
4.6072
0.00
4.2926
0.00
4.2079
0.0363
0.2432
0.0506
0.2995
0.052
0.3006
0.0650
0.3
76
0.053
0.3087
0.269
0.3272
0.0473
0.2672
0.0577
0.3
40
0.0533
0.2975
0.05
7
0.2897
0.0029
0.0036
0.0036
0.0039
0.0037
0.0054
0.0034
0.0038
0.0036
0.0035
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.77
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.0674
0.0007
0.08
4
0.0008
0.0822
0.0009
0.0908
0.00
4
0.0845
0.0008
0.0932
0.0048
0.0748
0
0008
0.0870
0.0009
0.0863
0.0008
0.08
2
0.0008
238
u/
232
Th
o
-
Intercept
age
cr
207
pb/206pb
o
-
207
pb/235u
cr
206
pb/238u
Cr
208Pb/232Th
Cr
N0132-0
.59
0.09
554
23
555
46
398
6
297
3
279
3
N0132-02
.95
0.
563
5
563
33
500
2
456
448
N0132-03
.66
0.
8
0
4
8
3
654
2
534
5
2
N0132-04
3.92
0.23
745
9
746
26
674
9
6
7
2
606
4
N0132-05
5.22
0.3
750
3
750
35
567
2
435
4 4
6
N0132-06
2.
3
0.
3
544
9
530
8
534
3
554
4
N0132-07
4.27
0.25
8
4
7
804
8 8
4
994
6
N0132-08
.67
0.
78
9
773
9
779
6
825
20
N0132-09
.94
0.
475
9
47
8
477
3
502
5
NOT32-
0
2.5
0.
5
733
728
0
736
5
793
29
NOT32-
.68
0.
759
7
769
8
780
3
847
5
NOT32-
2
.6
0.09
746
9
752
9
76
4
855
9
NOT32-
3
.
9
0.07
802
8
800
8
80
4
890
6
NOT32-
4
3.07
0.
8
485
9
484
8
487
2
587
6
NOT32-
5
4.22
0.25
804
8
804
23
759
8
72
7
3
2
NOT32-
6
3.44
0.2
584
7
58
7
579
690
5
NOT32-
7
.89
0.
534
2
528
529
4
562
24
NOT32-
9
.75
0.
75
748
750
6
805
26
N0132-20
.54
0.09
772
9
769
9
770
5
859
2
N0132-2
.7
0.
747
9
745
9
747
5
896
20
N0132-22
3.54
0.2
859
8
854
8
852
4
2334
2
N0132-23
2.87
0.
7
869
7
868
8
867
3
2
03
9
N0132-24
.44
0.08
740
7
736
8
734
3
822
5
N0132-25
.6
0.09
726
8
73
8
735
3
780
5
N0132-26
.44
0.09
760
9
744
9
73
4
74
9
N0132-27
3.3
0.
9
848
8
845
8
842
4
2245
22
N0132-28
.65
0.
755
8
754
8
753
4
747
5
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)217-244
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
233
H
b
b
b
a
b
H
Tab
e
2
(Continued)
,D
Cc,
Cc,
V1
,C) ,C)
V1
CO
kr, kr,
71
-
Cc,
OC,
,C)
O
n
CO
GO
,C)
7
GO
71
-
,
C)
71
-
VD
0
Cc, Cc,
0
OC,
CT
kr,
Cc,
0
kr,
CO
C--
00
CO
,C)
Cc,
kr, kr,
r
,C)
GO71
-
,C)
kr,
kr, kr,
71
-
kr,
0
CO CO CO
kr,
CO CO
CT
CO
,C)
CT
CO
,
C)
N
rn
71
-
kr,
Cc, Cc,
CO
71
-
Cc,
CT
71
-
GO71
-
kr,
,C)
CT
0
0
CO
rn
kr,
CO
N N
CT
0 0
CO
(7
,
Cc,
,
C)
71
-
CO
V,
CT CT
CO
CT
N
CI
0 0
CT
0 0 0
07
1-
0 0 0
Cc,
CO
Cc,
kr, kr,
CT
O71
-
Cc,
,
C)
0
CI
N ,
C)
0
CO
Cc,
kr,
0 0
Cc,
CI
,
C)
0
CO
,
C)
kr,
CT
C--
00
71
-
(3
,
kr,
CO CO
,C)
kr,
0 0 0 0 0
CT
CI
0 0 0
Cc,
Cc,
GO
0
kr,
Cc,
,
C)
CI
0 t t
Cc,
CT CT
0
CT
CO
0
0
CT
Cc,
kr,
CI
1-
CO CO
,
kr,
71
-
Cc,
,
C)
CT
Cc,
0
CI
71
-
,C)
7
CO
N
,C)
kr, kr,
Cc,
CI
71
-
CT CT
Cc,
kr,
CI
CI
0
000 0000 000
O
OOOO OOOO
‘.0
(-1
GO
M
kr,
‘.0
CT
CI
V,
0 0
.
CO
.
I"-
.
(-1
.
rn
. . .
c)
.
M
. . .
N
.
,
C)
.
Cc,
.
CT
.
0
.
0
. .
Cc";
N
N71
-
Cc,
N N N N
Cc,
CI
Cc,
0
(-1
M
kr
-
, ,
C)
CO
CT
0
CI
Cc,
71
-
kr,
,
C)
(-1
c-!1 c-!1 c-!1 c-!1 c-!1 c-!1 c-!1 c-!1 c-!1 c-!1
(-1 (-1 (-1 (-1 (-1 (-1 (-1 (-1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
remains
unchanged
if
discordant
zircon
data
are
re-
moved.
The
youngest,
common
-lead
free
zircon
in
the
data
set
has
a
concordant
age
of
1404
±
11
Ma.
It
is
an
angular
fragment
of
a
larger
zircon
(grain
38
in
Fig.
7c).
The
accumulated
probability
density
age
spectrum
for
detrital
zircon
ages
in
the
BQ
(Fig.
9a)
is
very
similar
to
that
of
the
matrix
of
the
Vallar
bru
conglomerate,
as
reported
by
Haas
et
al.
(1999),
but
differs
notably
from
that
of
the
Hallingdal
complex,
which
does
not
contain
zircons
younger
than
1.71
Ga,
and
which
con-
tains
a
small
but
significant
proportion
of
late
Archaean
detrital
zircons
(Fig.
9c,
data
from
Bingen
et
al.,
2001).
7.4.
Lu—Hf
data
The
detrital
zircons
from
the
BQ
have
176
Lu/
177
Hf
ratios
<0.003,
and
a
range
of
present-day
176Hf/177Hf
ratios
from
0.2814
to
0.2822
(Table
3,
Fig.
10),
which
is
comparable
to
the
overall
range
of
Hf
isotopic
com-
position
of
zircons
from
1.5
Ga
and
older
rocks
from
southern
Norway
(Andersen
et
al.,
2002).
Epsilon-Hf
values
at
the
time
of
crystallization
range
from
ca.
+14
to
—8
(Fig.
11),
i.e.
from
close
to
the
depleted
man-
tle
curve
to
well
within
the
range
of
pre
1.7
Ga
Baltic
Shield
crust,
as
defined
by
Andersen
et
al.
(2002).
There
is
no
correlation
between
the
age
and
the
initial
Hf
isotope
composition
of
the
zircons,
except
that
zircons
younger
than
ca.
1650
Ma
all
have
epsilon-Hf
values
of
+5
or
higher,
i.e.
well
above
the
range
of
compositions
expected
for
source
rocks
with
a
significant
crustal
his-
tory
at
this
time
(Fig.
11).
7.5.
Trace
element
data
Trace
element
compositions
of
detrital
zircons
are
given
in
Table
4.
The
zircons
show
significant
ranges
in
all
elements
analysed.
Yb
is
highly
positively
corre-
lated
with
Lu,
and
to
a
lesser
extent
with
Y,
and
Th
with
U;
variations
in
the
other
elements
are
not
highly
corre-
lated,
nor
are
trace
element
concentrations
highly
cor-
related
with
either
age
or
epsilon-Hf
(Table
5).
The
six
-
element
CART
classification
algorithm
of
Belousova
et
al.
(2002)
suggests
that
the
zircons
were
derived
from
source
rocks
ranging
in
composition
from
dolerite
to
low-
to
intermediate
SiO2
"granitoids";
zircons
with
Hf
<10,150
ppm
classifying
as
"doleritic".
One
zircon
(NOTA32-26)
suggests
a
carbonatitic
source.
This
is,
however,
strongly
dependent
on
the
Lu
concentration.
234
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
0.14
1750-1800
Ma
1800
1750
1900
0.12
700
170
0.10
1500
data
-point
error
ellipses
are
2
izy
1300
0.08
2
3
238
U/
206
Pb
4
5
F
g
8
Tera-Wasserburg
concord
a
d
agram
show
ng
detr
to
z
rcons
from
the
B
efje
qua
tz
to
(data
from
Tab
e
2)
The
nset
shows
an
en
arged
part
of
the
d
agram,
w
th
z
rcons
between
ca
80
and
75
Ga
The
broken
ne
s
a
ead-
oss
ne
to
a
Svecono
weg
an
ower
ntercept
By
increasing
the
Lu
by
1
ppm
(which
is
probably
well
within
analytical
error),
the
classification
changes
to
"granitoid
<65%
SiO2".
Zircons
with
different
sug-
gested
source
-rock
types
have
overlapping
ranges
of
crystallization
age
and
exf.
8.
Discussion
8.1.
Stratigraphic
correlation
of
the
Blefjell
quartzite
The
SF/BQ
relation
is
similar
to
that
between
the
Brunkeberg
formation
and
the
overlying
Lifjell
group
in
the
Seljord
area
(Fig.
2).
The
basal
unit
of
the
Lifjell
group
is
the
Vallar
bru
formation;
between
this
forma-
tion
and
the
underlying
Brunkeberg
porphyry
a
gradual
basal
volcanic
detritus
zone
is
developed
(Laajoki
et
al.,
2002).
This
is
overlain
by
a
conglomeratic
unit,
where
the
amount
and
thickness
of
the
conglomer-
ate
beds
and
associated
quartzite
sericite
schist
in-
terbeds
varies
from
place
to
place,
but
where
the
low-
ermost
conglomerate
contains
both
quartzite
and
acid
volcanite
clasts,
whereas
higher
up
in
the
stratigraphy
solely
quartzite-clasts
occur.
As
in
the
Blefj
ell
area,
the
conglomerate
unit
passes
upward
to
parallel
-laminated
orthoquartzite.
On
the
basis
of
this
lithological
sim-
ilarity
and
indistinguishable
ages
for
the
underlying
volcanic
units
(1159
±
8
Ma
Sorkjevatn
formation
ver-
sus
1155
±
2
Ma
Brunkeberg
formation,
Table
1),
it
is
logical
to
correlate
the
BQ
with
the Lifjell
quartzite,
as
suggested
earlier
by
Werenskiold
(1910).
who
also
correctly
determined
that
the
BQ
overlies
the
SF.
As
the
BQ
was
deposited
on
the
SF
porphyry,
the
1159
±
8
Ma
age
of
the
latter
(Bingen
et
al.,
2003)
gives
the
maximum
depositional
age
of
the
BQ.
On
the
ba-
sis
of
similar
geochemical
compositions
(op.
cit.),
it
is
likely
that
the
Rollag
metapluton
belongs
to
the
same
igneous
suite
as
the
nearby
1146
±
5
Ma
(op.
cit.)
Eid-
dal
metapluton
(for
location
see
Fig.
2).
As
the
former
cuts
the
BQ
(Bugge,
1928)
these
data
appear
to
bracket
the
deposition
age
of
the
BQ
between
1159
±
8
and
1146
±
5
Ma.
This
is
identical
within
error
limits
to
the
estimated
deposition
age
of
the
Lifjell
group
as
defined
by
the
ages
of
the
Brunkeberg
and
Skogsaa
formations
(i.e.
between
1155
±
2
and
1145
±
4
Ma;
Laajoki
et
al.,
2002).
8.2.
Detrital
zircons,
timing
of
deposition
and
stratigraphic
correlations
Data
from
detrital
zircons
in
a
sedimentary
rock
mainly
indicate
what
protosources
were
available
for
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
235
(a)
"A/hp?'
quailzite
0.8
1.0
(b)
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
28
3.0
3.2
Magmatism.
TIB
a
Svecofennian
domain
9.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6 1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
24
3.2
3.2
34
Pebbles
Vallar
Stu
fm.
Matrix
Hedclal
group
Inherited
zrcons,Slemmestad
metarhyokle
_
rAk
06trold
metapekte
Skagerrak
group
Verne
quartztte
f
n
Halltngdal
complex,
Eggedal
-
/
7
\
4-Ariv
Ostfold
metegteywecke
Ltora
Le
-
klarst
,
and
Modum
complex
A_
Sells
banded
gneiss
A
Sambre
sector
quartzites
Kalhovd
Faurrelell
Hetleflord
(C)
Festningsnuten
0.0
1
12
1.2
1.4
1.0
18
20
22
2.4
26
24
3.3
32
34
Single
zircon
age,
Ma
F
g
9
Accumu
ated
probab
ty
dens
ty
d
agrams
of
z
rcon
U
Pb
ages
(a)
detr
ta
z
rcons
from
the
B
efje
quartz
te;
(b)
U
Pb
ages
of
gneous
rocks
from
the
Transscand
nay
an
Igneous
Be
t,
from
the
comp
at
on
of
Aha
and
Larson
(2000);
(c)
summary
of
detr
ta
z
rcon
ages
(ma
n
y
by
SIMS)
from
Precambr
an
metased
ments
of
S
No
way
and
SW
Sweden
Sources
of
data
Knudsen
et
a
(
997),
Aha
et
a
(
998),
Haas
et
a
(
999),
B
ngen
eta
(200
,
2003)
236
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)217-244
Tab
e
3
LAM-ICPMS
Lu
Hf
data
on
z
rcons
from
samp
e
KLN3232,
B
efje
quartz
to
76
Hf/
77
Hf
76
1.11/
77
Hf
76
Yb/
77
Hf
s
20
(
Th
Lul
77
H0
p
,
T
c
Ga
0 0 0
Ga
0 0
N0132-0
0
28
960
0
0000
6
0
00
409
0
000008
0
063275
0
000240
5.53
4
84
9
N0132-02
0
282
80
0
0000
8
0
002570
0
0000
3
0
32895
0
00
600
2.28
28
52
5
N0132-03
0
28
786
0
0000
3
0
000388
0
00000
0 0
5960
0
000066
6.4
0
92
2
0
2
05
N0132-04
0
28
722
0
00002
0
000506
0
000004
0
02295
0
000
70
2.48
49
2
5
2
24
N0132-05
0
28
8
6
0
000020
0
00
685
0
000034
0
052
03
0
00
200
4.49
42
2
06
2 2
N0132-06
0
282092
0
0000
9
0
00
967
0
000054
0
089950
0
000390
9.39
35
64
67
N0132-07
0
28
76
0
0000
0 0
000727
0
0000
7
0
03277
0
00
00
5.
9
0
7
2
07
2
3
N0132-08
0
28
7
4
0
0000
0
000786
0
000040
0
025955
0
000580
2.68
0
78
2
7
2
25
N0132-09
0
282060
0
0000
2
0
00
700
0
000027
0
078356
0
000860
7.0
0
85
7
76
NOT32-
0 0
28
90
0
000030
0
00308
0
000
30
0
03630
0
000670
5.45
2
3
99
2
05
NOT32-
0
28
902
0
0000
6
0
00
272
0
0000
6
0
050494
0
000570
8.26
4
88
90
NOT32-
2
0
28
77
0
0000
5
0
000847
0
000006
0
035
22
0
0002
0
3.83
07
2
09
2
6
NOT32-
3
0
28
424
0
0000
6
0
00
76
0
000045
0
050499
0
002200
-7.62
4
2
69
2
88
NOT32-
4
0
28
99
0
0000
8
0
00
095
0
000033
0
044364
0
00
300
5.4
28
79
86
NOT32-
5
0
28
730
0
0000
5
0
0006
0 0
0000
7
0
026707
0
000940
4.00
07
2 2 2
9
NOT32-
6
0
28
959
0
0000
5
0
000680
0
000003
0
033234
0
000
50
6.98
06
80
84
NOT32-
7
0
282003
0
0000
4
0
000920
0
0000
8
0
04
23
0
000670
7.
3
0
99
75
80
NOT32-
9
0
28
84
0
0000
0 0
00
63
0
000048
0
043
5
0
000960
6.04
0
7
98
2
03
N0132-20
0
28
824
0
0000
4
0
00 00
0
0000
2
0
044679
0
000420
6.
2
0
99 99
2
04
N0132-2
0
28
828
0
0000
2
0
00
53
0
000025
0
05
886
0
00
400
5.50
0
85
2
00
2
06
N0132-22
0
28
794
0
0000
0
000634
0
000006
0
028538
0
0003
0
7.52
0
78
2
00
2
02
N0132-23
0
28
6
3
0
0000
3
0
00070
0
0000
9
0
034637
0
00
200
.23
0
92
2
3
2
4
N0132-24
0
28
889
0
0000
5
0
00
308
0
0000
5
0
057892
0
000430
7.32
07
9
94
N0132-25
0
28
749
0
0000
0
0009
4
0
000008
0
04
064
0
000630
2.5
0
78
2
3
2
22
N0132-26
0
28
524
0
0000
4
0
000228
0
000003
0
008804
0
000
80
-3.86
0
99
2
47
2
63
N0132-27
0
28
637
0
0000
2
0
00
809
0
000
00
0
066039
0
002600
0.
7
0
85
2
35
2
45
N0132-28
0
28
845
0
0000
5
0
000753
0
000007
0
033602
0
000570
6.78
07
95
99
N0132-29
0
28
849
0
0000
7
0
00
305
0
000068
0
066996
0
003400
7.26
2
96
99
N0132-30
0
28
69
0
0000
4
0
00
3
4
0
000025
0
053562
0
000700
.53
0
99
2
24
2
33
N0132-3
0
28
8
5
0
0000
4
0
000389
0
000003
0 0
8560
0
000
0
2.65
0
99
88
85
N0132-32
0
28
864
0
00002
0
00
062
0
000027
0
050486
0
000970
7.
0
49
93
97
N0132-33
0
28
800
0
0000
3
0
00054
0
000002
0
025
40
0
000
80
7.
0
92
99
2
02
N0132-34
0
28
792
0
0000
3
0
000928
0
00003
0
044650
0
00
800
5.96
0
92
2
03
2
08
N0132-35
0
28
775
0
0000
7
0
000633
0
000002
0
028827
0
0002
0
4.60
2 2
06
2 2
N0132-36
0
28
753
0
0000
5
0
00065
0
000003
0
028523
0
000
60
3.52
07
2
0
2
8
N0132-37
0
28
797
0
0000
0
0007
6
0
000008
0
032937
0
000560
4.86
0
78
2
03
2
09
N0132-38
0
282
96
0
0000
7
0
002894
0
000040
0
37274
0
00
000
9.
0
2
55
58
N0132-39
0
28
757
0
0000
2
0
0006
0 0
0000
2
0
028444
0
000750
.93
0
85
2 2 2 2
N0132-40
0
28
880
0
0000
5
0
000686
0
000028
0
030
72
0
00
400
5.43
06
92
98
N0132-4
0
28
745
0
0000
0
0003
7
0
00000
0 0
3780
0
000075
4.
3
0
78
2
09
2
6
N0132-42
0
28
869
0
0000
2
0
00
079
0
000028
0
050459
0
00
00
5.55
0
85
95
2
00
N0132-43
0
28
743
0
0000
9
0
000478
0
000003
0
02
655
0
000
80
0.80
35
2
00
99
N0132-44
0
282022
0
0000
4
0
000785
0
000033
0
03
7
3
0
00
300
6.94
0
99
72
77
N0132-45
0
28
835
0
0000
3
0
000543
0
000003
0
024
28
0
0002
0
6.3
0
92
96
2
00
N0132-46
0
28
852
0
0000
2
0
00
4
3
0
00002
0
06
8
4
0
00
600
5.
6
0
85
99
2
05
N0132-47
0
28
907
0
0000
6
0
00
5
8
0
0000
0 0
07235
0
000940
7.26
4
89
93
5
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
Tab
e
4
Trace
e
ement
data
on
z
rcons
from
samp
e
KLN3232,
B
efje
qua
tz
te
217-244
237
Hf
EMP
Y
Lu
MCICPMS
(ppm)
Yb
Th
QICPMS U
(Lu/YbcH)ps
Source
rock
type
(Be
ousova
et
a
,
2002)
NOT32-0
2
09
520
2
6
35
49
0
5
Gran
to
d
70
75%
S
02
N0T32-02
8599
3236
57
665
53
276
0
44
Do
er
te
NOT32-03
0897
65
30
253
25
2
0
56
Gran
to
d
<
65%
S
0
2
NOT32-04
3
35
252
47
439
28
294
0
50
Gran
to
d
<
65%
S
0
2
N0T32-05
2788
008
53
97
44
6
2
0
74
Gran
to
d
70
75%
S
02
N0T32-06
00
5
2425
40
3
2
46
259
0
50
Do
er
te
N0T32-07
354
685
59
542
54
6
5
0
5
Gran
to
d
70
75%
S
02
NOT32-08
227
425
63
424
27
22
0
69
Gran
to
d
<
65%
S
0
2
N0T32-09
4 4
3890
38
303
82
424
0
50
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
NOT32-
0
0566
2520
232
595
2
79
0
68
Gran
to
d
70
75%
S
02
NOT32-
0566
984
96
777
66
295
0
58
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
NOT32-
2
8
32
0
49
4
6
24
04
0
55
Do
er
te
NOT32-
3
770
976
98
866
93
295
0
53
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
NOT32-
4
77
7
535
60
499
46
374
0
57
Do
er
te
NOT32-
5
058
646
48
430
53
600
0
52
Gran
to
d
<
65%
S
0
2
NOT32-
6
4280
953
69
69
42
385
0
47
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
NOT32-
7
009
906
66
606
20
99
0
5
Do
er
te
NOT32-
9
9336
032
77
586
25
4
0
62
Do
er
te
NOT32-20
0829
8
77
705
27
0 0
5
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
NOT32-2
009
8
9
83
763
35
57
0
5
Do
er
te
NOT32-22
9608
6
4
43
399
3
296
0
5
Do
er
te
N0T32-23
8073
606
40
407
4
05
0
46
Do
er
te
NOT32-24 9820
66
9
828
47
8
0
52
Do
er
te
N0T32-25
5696
575
02
939
94
402
0
5
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
NOT32-26
2287
402
20
58
28
09
0
59
Carbonat
tea
N0T32-27
3602
787
75
308
04
9
3
0
63
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
NOT32-28
8548
055
46
4
8
7
3
2
0
5
Do
er
te
N0T32-29
0
84
850
95
994
60
488
0
45
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
N0T32-30
3000
252
22
0
4
56
3
4
0
56
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
NOT32-3
346
433
3
307
20
02
0
48
Gran
to
d
<
65%
S
0
2
N0T32-32
9523
024
72
700
23
70
0
48
Do
er
te
NOT32-33
03
5
2
40
378
2
37
0
49
Gran
to
d
<
65%
SO2
N0T32-34
3
6
283
87
856
46
406
0
48
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
N0T32-35
2
8
528
55
509
24
64
0
50
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
NOT32-36
97
8
646
45
404
2
9
0
52
Do
er
te
N0T32-37
0557
346
54
507
28
5
0
50
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
N0T32-38
9209
96
90
84
30
90
0
48
Do
er
te
NOT32-39
070
606
46
443
3
260
0
49
Gran
to
d
<
65%
S
0
2
N0T32-40
906
66
58
523
30
9
0
52
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
NOT32-4
2253
39
28
246
35
205
0
53
Gran
to
d
<
65%
S
0
2
N0T32-42
2
43
268
93
893
58
256
0
49
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
NOT32-43
0693
323
36
337
9
80
0
5
Gran
to
d
<
65%
S
0
2
N0T32-44
87
7
339
49
403
43
05
0
57
Do
er
te
NOT32-45
0523
024
4
370
23
26
0
5
Gran
to
d
<
65%
S
0
2
N0T32-46
0227
8
03
92
53
68
0
52
Gran
to
d
70
75%
5
02
N0T32-47
9
33
2236
99
963
56
304
0
48
Do
er
te
a
Gran
t
od
<
65%
S
f
Lu
2
ppm
238
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
0.2824
0.2822
0.2820
0.2818
0.2816
0.2814
0.2812
data
-point
error
boxes
are
as
0.000
0.001
0.002
176
Lf1
177
Ht
0.003
0.004
F
g
0
Lu
Hf
cone
at
on
d
agram
for
detr
ta
z
rcons
from
the
B
efje
quartz
te
Data
from
Tab
e
3
erosion
at
the
time
of
sediment
deposition.
Whereas
this
type
of
information
is
critically
important
for
under-
standing
crustal
evolution
within
a
continental
terrane,
such
data
should
not
be
overinterpreted,
and,
in
partic-
ular,
inferences
on
timing
of
deposition
and
on
strati
-
graphic
correlations
of
sedimentary
sequences
within
or
between
sedimentary
basins,
based
on
zircon
age
data
only,
should
be
regarded
with
scepticism.
Whereas
it
is
true
that
the
youngest
detrital
zircon
in
a
sedimentary
rock
defines
a
maximum
deposition
age
of
the
host
sediment
(e.g.
Williams,
2001),
it
should
be
stressed
that
this
is
strictly
a
maximum
limit
and
should
not
be
interpreted
as
the
age
of
sediment
de-
position.
There
is,
of
course,
no
inherent
coupling
be-
tween
the
timing
of
zircon
-forming
igneous
processes
in
a
source
terrane
and
the
deposition
of
elastic
material
eroded
from
that
terrane.
From
the
present
U—Pb
data,
a
concordant
and
common
-lead
free
zircon
suggests
a
maximum
age
of
ca.
1.40
Ga
for
the
deposition
of
the
BQ.
This
limit
is,
however,
inferior
to
estimates
of
depositional
ages
made
from
stratigraphic
correlation
and
from
the
relationship
between
the
BQ
and
date-
able
igneous
rocks.
Data
from
the
latter
specifically
(the
Sorkjevatn
porphyry
and
the
Eiddal
metapluton)
indicate
that
the
BQ
was
deposited
close
to
1.15
Ga,
i.e.
ca.
250
Ma
later
than
the
"maximum
age
of
depo-
15
e-
Dergeted
manfie
10-
o
f
o
(14o
—CHLIR
Calc-alkaline
gneiss
complexes
°
0o
•0
0
0 0
Detrital
&
inherited
zircons,
Ostf
Oc
,
0
0
10
1200
1400 1600 1800
2000 2200
Age
(Ma)
F
g
In
t
a
Hf
sotope
compos
t
on
of
detr
ta
z
rcons
from
the
Y
-
r.
B
efje
quartz
te,
p
otted
at
the
r
207
D/
206
Pb
ages
The
dep
eted
mant
e
cu
ye
s
taken
from
Griffin
et
al.
(2000),
and
the
approx
-
mate
upper
m
t
for
Ba
t
c
crust
from
Andersen
et
a
(2002)
F
e
ds
for
z
rcons
from
ca ca
ka
ne
gne
ss
comp
exes
n
southern
Norway
and
for
detr
ta
and
nher ted
z
rcons
n
55
60
Ga
magmat
c
-arc
re
ated
supracrusta
rocks
from
Ostfo
d,
southeastern
Norway
(north-
ernmost
part
of
the
Western
Segment
n
F
g
are
based
on
data
from
Andersen
et
a
(2002,
2004)
sition"
derived
from
the
detrital
zircon
data.
The
only
inference
to
be
made
from
the
age
of
the
youngest
de-
trital
zircon
is
that
the
BQ
cannot
be
a
time
-equivalent
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
239
Tab
e5
Trace
e
ement
cone
at
ons
for
z
rcons
from
the
B
efje
quartz
to
Correlation
coefficients
Hf
Y
Lu
Yb
Th
Age
EHf
Hf
Y
—0.
79
Lu
0.
3
0.66
Yb
0.060
0.735
0.958
Th
0.338
0.274
0.377
0.406
U
0.387
0.056
0.329 0.299
0.7
5
Age
0.
72
—0.472 —0.378
—0.46
—0.
5
0.020
EHf
—0.339
0.200
0.088
0.
83
—0.28
—0.
72
—0.
8
of
the
quartzites
assigned
to
the
Hallingdal
complex
in
the
Gol
area,
which
must
have
been
deposited
be-
fore
the
emplacement
of
the
1492
±
3
Ma
Gol
granite
(Bingen
et
al.,
2001).
The
absence
of
a
particular
age
fraction
in
a
given
sedimentary
rock
is
not
sufficient
evidence
to
conclude
that igneous
rocks
of
that
age
were
absent
from
the
source
terrane.
Such
rocks,
or
sediments
derived
from
them,
may
have
been
covered,
submerged
or
otherwise
unavailable
to
erosion
and
transport
when
the
sedimen-
tary
unit
in
question
was
deposited.
Moreover,
a
single
sample
represents
only
a
short
time
interval
of
the
de-
positional
history
of
a
basin,
during
which
the
lithology
and
age
of
the
provenance
bedrock
could
have
changed
drastically;
i.e.
by
formation
of
inverted
stratigraphy
or
changes
in
river
system(s)
entering
the
basin.
The
ab-
sence
of
zircons
younger
than
1.71
Ga
from
the
Nore-
fjell
quartzite
(Bingen
et
al.,
2001)
and
younger
than
1.40
Ga
from
the
BQ
thus
neither
justifies
different
de-
positional
ages
for
the
quartzites,
nor
shows
that
they
belong
to
different
tectonostratigraphic
units.
The
in-
terpretation
that
the
Norefj
ell
quartzite
is
older
than
1.49
Ga
is
based
on
an
assumed stratigraphic
con
-
e-
lation
with
the
quartzite
crosscut
by
the
Gol
granite
(Bingen
et
al.,
2001).
However,
this
assumption
can
be
neither
disproved
nor
confirmed
by
detrital
zircon
data
alone.
Several
of
the
metasediments
summarized
in
Fig.
9c
contain
important
detrital
zircon
fractions
with
ages
around
1.90
Ga
(pebbles
from
Vallar
bru
con-
glomerate,
Modum
and
Hallingdal
complexes,
Hette-
fjorden
and
Festningsnutan
groups).
Again,
this
indi-
cates
that
material
derived
from
protosources
of
sim-
ilar
ages
have
been
available
to
erosion
at
the
time
of
deposition
it
is
not
evidence
of
the
tectonostrati-
graphic
equivalence
(or
lack
thereof)
of
any
of
these
deposits.
8.3.
Age
and
nature
of
the
protosource(s)
8.3.1.
U—Pb
ages
The
dominant
age
fraction
(1.67-1.87
Ga)
among
the
analysed
detrital
zircons
of
the
BQ
generally
over-
laps
with
the
age
interval
of
the
Transscandinavian
Ig-
neous
Belt
(e.g.
Ahall
and
Larson,
2000).
However,
TIB
magmatism
is
generally
thought
to
fall
in
two
distinct
intervals,
"TIB
1"
between
ca.
1.85
and
1.76
Ga,
and
"TIB
2
and
3"
at
1.72-1.66
Ga
(op.
cit.),
the
existence
of
an
age
hiatus
between
1.76
and
1.72
Ga
is,
how-
ever,
not
universally
accepted
(Andersson
and
Wik-
strom,
2001).
The
distribution
of
published
TIB
zircon
ages
is
disticntly
bimodal
(Fig.
9b,
based
on
the
com-
pilation
of
Ahall
and
Larson,
2000;
see
discussion
of
potential
sources
o
f
bias
in
these
data
by
Andersson
and
Wikstrom,
2001).
The
main
age
population
in
the
BQ
generally
overlaps
with
the
age
range
of
TIB
1
magma-
tism,
but
the
highest
peak
of
the
detrital
zircons
at
ca.
1.76
Ga
is
younger
than
the
peak
defined
by
TIB
1
in-
trusions
at
1.80
Ma
(Fig.
9b).
This
difference
need
not,
however,
be
significant
in
terms
of
protosource
iden-
tity,
as
ca.
1.80
Ga
zircons
affected
by
incipient
Sve-
conorwegian
lead
loss
may
be
slightly
displaced
along
a
discordia
line
to
a
ca.
1.10
Ga
lower
intercept,
giving
207
pb/206Pb
ages
between
1750
and
1800
Ma,
while
remaining
concordant
within
the
2a
error
of
the
anal-
yses
(Fig.
8,
inset).
Similar
incipient
Sveconorwegian
resetting
has
been
observed
in
SIMS
studies
of
detrital
zircons
in
metasediments
from
the
region
(Knudsen
et
al.,
1997).
240
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
8.3.2.
Hf
isotopes
Detrital
zircons
with
ages
between
1550
and
1650
Ma
have
initial
Hf
isotope
compositions
within
the
range
of
mid
-Proterozoic
metaintrusive
calc-
alkaline
gneisses
from
the
region
(Andersen
et
al.,
2004),
suggesting
a
magmatic
arc
-related
protosource
(Fig.
11).
Few
Hf
isotope
data
have
been
published
from
potential
protosources
within
the
TIB
and
Svecofennian
domains,
and
no
data
at
all
from
TIB
1
granitoids,
so
that
direct
comparison
of
Hf
isotope
signatures
of
detrital
zircons
with
these
reservoirs
is
currently
not
possible.
However,
a
majority
of
detrital
zircons
older
than
1650
Ma
plot
at
or
below
the
limit
for
Baltic
crust,
which
is
constrained
by
data
from
Svecofennian
granitoids
(Patchett
et
al.,
1981;
Vervoort
and
Patchett,
1996)
and
younger
TIB
(Andersen
et
al.,
2002).
Material
derived
from
a
proto-
source
with
similar
Hf
isotope
characteristics
has
also
been
identified
as
a
minor,
but
significant
component
in
magmatic
arc
related
metasurpracrustal
gneisses
from
the
Ostfold
area
of
southeastern
Norway
(Andersen
et
al.,
2004).
Further
constraints
on
the protosource
can
be
obtained
by
comparing
crustal
residence
ages
(Tc)
of
the
protosource
derived
from
the
single
zircon
data
with
published
whole
-rock
Nd
model
ages
of
TIB
and
Svecofennian
rocks.
The
crustal
residence
age
of
the
Hf
contained
in
a
single
zircon
is
given
by
the
intersection
of
the
depleted
mantle
curve
with
a
growth
curve
at
constant
(
176
Lu/
177
f1f)
ps
through
a
point
defined
by
the
age
and
initial
176
Hf/
177
Hf
of
the
zircon;
the
significance
of
Tc
is
equivalent
to
that
of
the
model
age
calculated
from
Sm—Nd
data
on
whole
-rocks
(T
DM
(Nd)).
Tc
has
been
calculated
for
an
average
crustal
source
with
176
Lu/
177
Hf
=
0.015,
and
a
more
evolved,
felsic
source
with
176
Lu/
177
Hf=
0.010
(Table
3).
The
felsic
model
yields
protosource
ages
peaking
around
2.0
Ga,
whereas
the
average
crustal
source
model
gives
somewhat
longer
residence
times,
with
a
peak
at
2.2
Ga
(Fig.
12).
TIB
granitoids
typically
give
T
DM
(Nd)
between
1.9
and
2.2
Ga,
and
Svecofennian
granitoids
yield
TDM(Nd)
>2.15
Ga
(Fig.
12,
bottom
frame),
using
the
depleted
mantle
model
of
DePaolo
(1981)
and
data
from
Andersson
(1997).
The
peak
of
the
protosource
ages
based
on
a
felsic
source
overlap
very
well
with
the
range
of
TIB
granitoids,
which
indicates
that
rocks
with
a
crustal
residence
history
equivalent
to
the
TIB
have
been
an
15
-
10
-
(
176
Lu/
177
Hf
ps
)
0.010
(
176
Lu/
177
Hf
)ps,
0.015
TIB
Svecofennian
T T
I
I
I
\\\\v
I
74
(
N
d)
1.5
2.0
2.5
Age
of
protosource
(Ga)
F
g
2
Protosource
crusta
res
deuce
ages,
der
ved
from
Hf
sotope
data
on
detr
to
z
rcons
important
protosource
for
detrital
zircons
older
than
1.65
Ga.
8.3.3.
Lu/Yb
ratio
of
the
protosource
The
high
positive
correlation between
Yb
and
Lu
concentrations
in
the
detrital
zircons
from
the
BQ
(Table
5)
shows
that
the
two
heavy
rare
earth
elements
Yb
and
Lu
have
behaved
coherently
in
the
protosource.
Assuming
that
partition
coefficients
for
Lu
and
Yb
be-
tween
zircon
and
melt
are
similar
for
all
individual
grains,
the
concentration
data
in
Table
4
can
be
used
to
constrain
the
chondrite-normalized
Lu/Yb
ratio
of
the
protosource
((Lu/Ybcx)
ps
),
which
can
be
used
as
a
proxy
for
the
slope
of
the
heavy
part
of
its
REE
distribu-
tion
pattern.
(Lu/Ybc
D
)
ps
is
given
by
the
expression:
(
Lu
(
176
Lu
,177
Hf)K
D
(Yb)Cc
H
(Yb)IA(
176
Yb)
yb)
ps
(176yb/177HoKD(L
U)CcH(Lu)IA(
176Lu)
in
which
KD
's
represent
zircon
-melt
partition
coef-
fi
cients,
CcH's
element
concentrations
in
chondritic
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
24
150
100
50
Blefiell
quartzite
Mafic
rocks
I
I
Granitoids
Calc-alkaline
rocks
0.0
0.5
(LuNb
CH)ps
1.0
F
g
3
Chondr
to
norma
zed
Lu/Yb
rat
o
of
z
rcon
protosources,
der
ved from
176
Lu/
I77
Hf
and
176
Yb/
I77
Hf
data
from
z
rcons
meteorites
and
IA's
isotopic
abundances.
Values
for
(Lu/Ybol)ps
are
given
in
Table
4,
based
on
K
D
's
for
dacitic
systems
from
Fujimaki
(1986)
and
chondrite
normalization
factors
from
Boynton
(1984).
All
zircons
have
crystallized
from
melts
with
Lu/Yb
ratios
less
than
chondritic,
with
(Lu/Ybol)
ps
between
0.44
and
0.74.
These
values
are,
of
course,
dependent
on
the
choice
of
KD's,
and
should
therefore
be
used
with
care.
However,
when
compared
to
(Lu/Yba)ps
values
calculated
for
zircons
from
Precambrian
rocks
from
southern
Norway,
using
the
same
assumptions
and
data
from
Andersen
et
al.
(2002),
the
BQ
yields
consistently
lower
Lu/Yb
ratios
than
both
mafic
rocks
and
calc-alkaline
and
potassic
granitoids
(Fig.
13).
The
protosource
of
the
Blefj
ell
detrital
zircons
thus
had
a
quite
evolved
REE
chemistry,
with
pronounced
LREE
enrichment
(or
HREE
depletion).
This
applies
equally
to
zircons whose
trace
element
compositions
suggest
granitic
and
doleritic
source
rocks.
The
lack
of
correspondence
between
source
-rock
type
and
any
of
the
other
geochemical
or
isotopic
parameters
discussed
here
is
either
an
indication
that
the
sim-
plified
six
element
CART
classification
scheme
of
Belousova
et
al.
(2002)
cannot
conclusively
identify
the
source
-rock
type
for
these
zircons,
or
that
mafic
protosource
rocks
had
anomalously
steep
HREE
patterns.
8.4.
Regional
and
tectonic
implications
The
present
fi
eld
observations
and
analytical
data
demonstrate
that
the
BQ
was
deposited
at
ca.
1.15
Ga,
and
that
it
can
be
correlated
with
the
quartzite
of
the
Lif-
jell
group
in
central
Telemark,
which
indicates
a
wider
eastward
distribution
of
sedimentary
rocks
of
this
age
and
type
than
is
indicated
by
the
1:250,000
bedrock
maps
of
the
region
(Dons
and
Jorde,
1978;
Nordgulen,
1999).
The
Lifjell
group
and
the
BQ
represent
a
stage
of
mature
beach
sand
deposition
in
the
time
period be-
tween
the
ca.
1155
Ma
Brunkeberg-Sorkjevatn
and
ca.
1145
Skogsaa
volcanic
events.
Highly
evolved
crustal
rocks
whose
age
and
crustal
history
are
indistinguishable
from
TIB
granitoids
(or
sediments
derived
from
such
rocks)
must
have
been
present
within
the
source
terrane
of
the
BQ.
In
the
present
crustal
configuration,
the
Telemark
sector
is
separated
from
outcropping
TIB
by
a
domain
of
Meso-
proterozoic,
subduction-related
rocks,
which
appear
to
have
made
only
a
minor
contribution
of
detrital
zir-
cons
to
the
BQ.
This
distribution
of
material
derived
from
different,
identifiable
protosources
is
in
full
agree-
ment
with
tectonic
models
in
which
central
and
western
south
Norway
originated
in
a
more
northerly
position
along
the
Baltic
margin
than
its
present
position,
and
moved
southward
during
Sveconorwegian
time
(Haas
et
al.,
1999;
Bingen
et
al.,
2001).
The
Hallingdal
complex
was
interpreted
by
Nordgulen
(1999)
to
be
older
than
the
Rjukan
group
and
by
Bingen
et
al.
(2001)
to
be
an
early
Mesoproterozoic
sedimentary
sequence
deposited
before
the
Vindeggen
group
in
central
Telemark.
These
interpretations
were
based
on
the
fact
that
quartzite
of
the
Hallingdal
com-
plex
(the
Norefj
ell
quartzite
in
this
study)
was
corre-
lated
with
a
gneissic
quartzite
cut
by
the
1492
±
3
Ma
granite
in
Gol.
This
quartzite
occurs,
however,
ca.
40
km
NW
of
Norefjell,
at
the
northern
extension
of
the
Vindeggen
group,
and
may
instead
correlate
with
the
orthoquartzitic
Upper
Brattefjell
formation
(Fig.
2,
cf.
Sigmond,
1998).
However,
a
ca.
10
km
wide
zone
of
diverse
granitoids,
e.g.
the
1153
±
2
Ma
(Bingen
et
al.,
2003)
Haglebu
metapluton
(H
in
Fig.
2),
and
Hed-
dal
group
rocks
separate
it
from
the
Norefjell
quartzite
242
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
SW
A
Moderate
metamorphism
NE
Tinne
Biunke-
Seljords-
Litell
Skog
berg
SL
voinet
Lilian
group
1155
±
2
Ma'
Degree
of
metamorphism
increases
up
to
upper
amphbolite
fades
NNE
B
a
m
s
ss
SB
1
,-
1145
±
4
Ma'
)
Bletjell
Blefjellado
. . .
1159
±
8
Ma
n
C
50
km
Pollag
Norefjell
h
"<"-`-----
OTS-ir
-
'
:
'--';'-"
-
...:-
Norer
ell
cgre
°
rn
r
:
611
PQ
-
.
_'_
:.-
-
__
J
.
-
Jr
f
teLD
4
-5°Q
-
.'_*
-
_
-
_
-
..tri-ie
n'
.. ,*,*,
1146
±
5
Ma'
)
F
g
4
Cross
-sect
on
from
Brunkeberg
v
a
L
fje
and
B
efje
to
Norefje
(for
ocat
on
see
F
g
2
approx
mate
y
a
ong
reg
ona
,
sha
ow
y
to
NE
-NNE
p
ung
ng
F
t
/F
2
ax
s
Unconform
t
es
SB,
sub
-B
efje
;
SH,
sub-Hedda
;
SL,
sub
-L
fje
References
( )
B
ngen
et
a
(2003),
(2)
Laajok
eta
(2002)
(Nordgulen,
1999).
A
major
N
—S
trending
fault
zone
may
be
situated
east
of
Rodberg
(Fig.
2,
profile
A
—A'
in
Nordgulen,
1999),
which
might
separate
these
two
ar-
eas
tectonically.
Consequently,
the
quartzites
in
Nore-
fjell
and
Gol
cannot
be
reliably
correlated
by
means
of
standard
lithostratigraphic
methods.
On
the
other
hand,
the
sedimentological
and
structural
data
presented
here
support
the
correlation
between
the
BQ
and
the
Nore-
fj
ell
quartzite
(Nordgulen,
1999).
In
conclusion,
the
available
data
indicate
that
the
Lifj
ell
group
and
Blefjell
and
Norefjell
quartzites
are
fragments
of
an
at
least
100
km
wide
Mesoproterozoic
beach
shallow
shelf
complex
(Fig.
14).
9.
Conclusions
The
BQ
consists
of
laminated
and
cross
-bedded
quartzites
deposited
between
ca.
1155
and
1145
Ma.
It
is
correlated
with
the
Lifj
ell
group
to
the
SW
and
the
gneissic
Norefjell
quartzite
to
the
N,
which
together
represent
fragmental
relics
of
a
Mesoproterozoic
beach
shallow
shelf
complex
originally
at
least
100
km
wide.
Detrital
zircons
in
the
BQ
show
age
populations
of
1.65-1.87,
1.55-1.65
and
1.5-1.4
Ga,
the
oldest
of
which
is
dominant.
This
points
to
an
important
pro-
tosource
with
an
age
corresponding
to
that
of
early
TIB
granitoids
in
south
and
central
Sweden
(TIB
1).
Lu—Hf
systematics
indicate
that
the
protosource
has
a
crustal
residence
time
comparable
to
that
derived
from
Nd
model
ages
on
TIB
granitoids,
and
a
low
Lu/Yb
ratio,
suggesting
a
quite
LREE
enriched
(or
HREE
de-
pleted)
bulk
chemistry,
i.e.
highly
evolved
crustal
rock.
Other
protosources
are
mid
-Proterozoic
rocks
compa-
rable
in
age
and
Hf
isotope
character
to
arc
-related
metaigneous
rocks
ofthe
region,
and
post
-1.5
Ga
rocks,
possibly
extension
-related
igneous
rocks
from
the
Tele-
mark
sector.
Whereas
detrital
zircon
data
only
provide
vague
lim-
its
for
the
timing
of
deposition
of
sediment,
and
cannot
easily
be
used
for
stratigraphic
correlation
within
or
between
sedimentary
basins,
they
are
highly
important
as
keys
to
protosource
identification
and
as
indicators
of
crustal
evolution
in
the
source
terrane.
In
the
present
case,
the
data
confirm
the
presence
of
a
1.7-1.9
Ga
pro-
tosource
for
Precambrian
sediments
in
S
Norway,
in-
distinguishable
in
age
and
crustal
history
from
rocks
of
the
Transscandinavian
Igneous
Belt.
This
lends
further
support
to
regional
tectonic
models
in
which
southern
Norway
west
of
the
Oslo
Rift
has
been
an
integral
part
of
the
Baltic
Shield
since
the
formation
of
the
regional
protolith
in
the
Paleoproterozoic
(e.g.
Haas
et
al.,
1999;
Bingen
et
al.,
2001).
Acknowledgements
KL's
fi
eldwork
was
supported
by
the
Geological
Survey
of
Norway
and
by
the
Project
154219/432
of
the
Research
Council
of
Norway.
The
laboratory
work
was
supported
by
a
Collaborative
Research
project
between
the
University
of
Oslo
and
Macquarie
University.
Gun-
borg
Bye-Fj
eld
(Oslo),
Ashwini
Sharma,
Suzy
Elhlou
and
Tom
Bradley
(Sydney)
gave
invaluable
techni-
cal
assistance.
The
laboratory
work
benefited
greatly
from
the
advice
and
supervision
of
Dr.
Norman
Pear-
son.
Mrs.
Kristiina
Karjalainen
helped
in
drawing
the
Figs.
1-4.
Thanks
to
John
Ketchum
for
critical
com-
ments
and
assistance
with
the
English
language,
and
to
Oystein
Nordgulen
and
Karl
-Inge
Ahall
for
construc-
tive
reviews.
This
is
GEMOC
contribution
no.
364.
T
Andersen
et
al.
/
Precambrian
Research
135
(2004)
217-244
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