Surface runoff and sediment dynamics in arid and semi-arid regions
Lange, J.; Leibundgut, C.
International Contributions to Hydrogeology 23: 115-150
Surface flow plays an important role in the ecological balance of dry areas, being responsible for the distribution of renewable water resources and for enhanced sediment dynamics. The present chapter first provides an overview of dominant processes, followed by a practical concept which applies process knowledge to water harvesting. Different techniques for quantifying surface runoff and sediment dynamics are then introduced. Direct measurements are compared with indirect estimation tools, the latter providing valuable alternatives in areas with missing data. Finally, to illustrate the general characteristics as they are now known, case studies from different parts of the globe are presented. Since the processes occurring and methods applied are pre-defined by scale and climate, the studies are grouped accordingly. To a certain degree all the presented findings are site specific. However, if the scale and climatic regime are similar, the principal results may be translated to other locations. They then are of particular value in the search for adequate research tools or for first approximations.