A revised key to the Enicospilus antefurcalis (Szepligeti) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) species-group of the Afrotropical region Enicospilus polemus, Enicospilus watshami, morphology, new taxa


Gauld, I.D.

Bulletin of Entomological Research 72(1): 33-38

1982


A revised key is given to the Enicospilus antefurcalis (Szepl.) speciesgroup, some species of which are parasites of Lepidoptera of economic importance, of the Afrotropical region. One Oriental species, E. laqueatus (End.), is recorded for the first time from Africa and two species, E. watshami sp. n. and E. polemus sp. n., are described.

Bull.
ent.
Res.
72,
33-38
33
Published
1982
A
revised
key
to
the
Enicospilus
antefurcalis
(Szepligeti)
(Hymenoptera:
Ichneumonidae)
species
-group
of
the
Afrotropical
region
I.
D.
GAULT)
*
Commonwealth
Institute
of
Entomology,
c/o
British
Museum
(Natural
History),
Cromwell
Road,
London
SW7
5BD,
UK
Abstract
A
revised
key
is
given
to
the
Enicospilus
antefurcalis
(Szepl.)
species
-
group,
some
species
of
which
are
parasites
of
Lepidoptera
of
economic
importance,
of
the
Afrotropical
region.
One
Oriental
species,
E.
laqueatus
(End.),
is
recorded
for
the
fi
rst
time
from
Africa
and
two
species,
E.
watshami
sp.
n.
and
E.
polemus
sp.
n.,
are
described.
Introduction
Enicospilus
Stephens
is
a
very
large
genus
of
ophionine
Ichneumonidae
with,
world-
wide,
probably
more
than
650
species.
The
majority
are
nocturnal
or
crepuscular
insects
frequently
coming
to
light
in
large
numbers.
They
are
primarily
endophagous
protelean
parasites
of
larval
Lepidoptera.
Oviposition
may
be
into
an
early
or
later
instar
larva
(depending
on
species
of
Enicospilus),
and
the
parasitoid
generally
consumes
the
host
at
about
the
time
of
pupation.
It
spins
a
characteristic
brown
cocoon
with
a
pale
equatorial
band,
which
may
be
free
in
the
soil
or
concealed
in
the
host
cocoon.
Many
Enicospilus
species
parasitise
economically
important
pests
and
may
prove
to
be
of
value
in
biological
control.
The
Afrotropical
(=
Ethiopian)
species
of
Enicospilus
have
recently
been
revised
(Gauld
&
Mitchell,
1978),
and
subsequent
collecting
in
central
-southern
Africa
has
only
revealed
three
species
not
covered
by
this
work.
Rather
surprisingly,
all
belong
to
the
E.
antefurcalis
(Szepligeti)
species
-group.
This
group
is
characterised
by
having
a
central
sclerite
and
a
diagonal
furrow
on
the
outer
surface
of
the
mandible.
Some
species
of
this
group
are
known
to
parasitise
economically
important
lepidopterous
larvae
so
it
was
thought
advisable
to
amend
the
existing
key
to
incorporate
the
new
species.
Morphological
terminology
and
indices
used
in
this
work
follow
Gauld
&
Mitchell
(1978).
The
E.
antefurcalis
group
runs
to
couplet
144
in
Gauld
&
Mitchell's
(1978)
key
where
it
is
split
from
some
of
the
E.
capensis
(Thunberg)
group,
species
of
which
always
have
a
broader
face,
longer
mandibles
with
a
very
elongate
upper
tooth
and
shorter,
stouter
fl
agellar
segments.
The
E.
antefurcalis
group
is
then
keyed
to
species
level
in
couplets
148
and
149.
The
key
given
below
is
numbered
so
as
to
fi
t
in
the
existing
key.
Present
address:
Department
of
Entomology,
British
Museum
(Natural
History),
London
SW7
5BD,
UK.
(5308)-2
34
I.
D.
GAULD
REVISED
KEY
TO
AFRICAN
SPECIES
OF
THE
Enicospilus
antefurcalis
GROUP
148
(144)
Distal
sclerite
confluent
with
proximal
sclerite
(Fig.
1-2);
fl
agellum
with
56
or
fewer
segments
149a
Distal
sclerite
widely
separated
from
proximal
sclerite
(Fig.
3-6);
fl
agel-
lum
with
58
or
more
segments
149b
149a
(148)
Terminal
segments
of
gaster
black
;
central
sclerite
small,
separated
from
Rs+2r
by
more
than
own
maximum
diameter
(Fig.
1)
bicoloratus
Cameron
Terminal
segments
of
gaster
reddish
;
central
sclerite
larger,
often
separa-
ed
from
Rs+2r
by
less
than
its
maximum
diameter
(Fig.
2)
.
.
antefurcalis
(Szepligeti)
149b
(148)
Central
sclerite
large,
its
minimum
diameter
greater
than
the
distance
separating
it
from
Rs+2r
(Fig.
3)
;
pecten
of
hind
-tarsal
claw
of
a
with
teeth
very
fi
ne
and
close
together
laqueatus
(Enderlein)
Central
sclerite
much
smaller,
its
minimum
diameter
very
much
less
than
distance
separating
it
from
Rs+2r
(Fig.
4-6)
;
hind
-tarsal
claw
of
t
with
teeth
of
pecten
not
particularly
close
(a
of
watshami
unknown)
..
149c
149c
(149b)
Terminal
segments
of
gaster
black,
contrasting
with
anterior
segments
;
fore
-tibia
with
about
30
spines
of
moderate
size
arranged
on
outer
surface
from
near
base
to
distal
apex
(Fig.
7);
head
behind
eyes
with
genae
quite
long
(Fig.
9)
watshami
sp.
n.
Terminal
segments
of
gaster
not
black,
at
most
brownish
but
then
gaster
is
gradually
infuscate
towards
hind
end
;
fore
-tibia
usually
with
less
than
12
spines,
always
with
these
confined
to
distal
half
(Fig.
8)
;
head
behind
eyes
with
genae
shorter
and
strongly
narrowed
(Fig.
10)
149d
149d
(149c)
Central
sclerite
oval
with
longest
axis
parallel
with
Rs+2r
(Fig.
5);
lower
face
yellowish
-white
except
centrally
;
mandibles
fairly
sparsely
hairy
polemus
sp.
n.
Central
sclerite
suboval
to
oval
with
longest
axis
at
90°
to
Rs+2r
(Fig.
6)
;
lower
face
orange
-yellow
;
mandibles
with
dense
brush
of
hair
ruscus
Gauld
&
Mitchell
Enicospilus
bicoloratus
Cameron
Redescribed
by
Gauld
&
Mitchell,
1978:
145-6.
Widely
distributed
throughout
Africa
south
of
the
Sahara,
and
Madagascar.
Enicospilus
antefurcalis
(Szdpligeti)
Redescribed
by
Gauld
&
Mitchell,
1978:
146-7.
Distribution
similar
to
E.
bicolora-
tus.
Recorded
as
a
parasite
of
Eldana
saccharina
Walker
(Lepidoptera:
Pyralidae)
and
Perigea
sp.
(Lepidoptera:
Noctuidae).
Enicospilus
antefurcalis
is
closely
related
to
E.
bicoloratus.
These
two
species
in
turn
are
themselves
related
to
an
Indo-Australian
complex
of
species
which
includes
the
widespread
E.
melanocarpus
Cameron
(Gauld
&
Mitchell,
1981).
Enicospilus
laqueatus
(Enderlein)
Redescribed
by
Gauld
&
Mitchell,
1981:
396-7.
This
relatively
common
species
was
previously
only
known
from
Asia
where
its
range
has
been
found
to
extend
from
Taiwan
and
the
Philippines
westwards
to
India
and
the
Maldive
Is.
In
a
collection
recently
received
from
Zambia,
two
examples
of
this
species
were
discovered.
Material
examined.
ZAMBIA
:
2
9
,
15
km
E.
of
Lusaka,
i.80
(R.
A.
Beaver)
(BM
NH).
It
seems
rather
surprising
that
this
species,
if
native
to
Africa
as
well
as
Asia,
should
THE
ENICOSPILUS
ANTEFURCALIS
SPECIES
-GROUP
4
7•111111LIMMIlmommom
4
1.
6
5
Fig.
1-6.—Forewings.
central
area;
1,
Enicospilus
bicoloratus
Cameron;
2,
E.
ante-
furcalis
(Szepligeti);
3,
E.
laqueatus
(Enderlein);
4,
E.
watshami
sp.
n.;
5,
E.
polemus
sp.
n.;
6,
E.
ruscus
Gauld
&
Mitchell.
35
not
have
been
noticed
in
earlier
collections.
Perhaps
it
has
recently
been
accidently
introduced
to
this
area.
Enicospilus
watshami
sp.
n.
Mandibles
quite
long,
distally
parallel
-sided,
twisted
15-20°,
with
upper
tooth
slightly
compressed,
about
1
.
5
times
as
long
as
the
lower
;
outer
mandibular
surface
with
a
diagonal
impressed
groove
extending
from
upper
proximal
corner
to
between
bases
of
teeth,
the
groove
bearing
conspicuous
hairs
;
proximal
concavity
quite
deep
with
rim
hirsute.
Labrum
0.3-04
times
as
long
as
broad
;
malar
space
0
.
3
times
as
36
L
D.
GAULD
long
as
basal
mandibular
width.
Clypeus
in
profile
convex,
margin
impressed,
acute
;
clypeus
in
anterior
aspect
1
-
7-1
.
8
times
as
broad
as
long.
Lower
face
0.75-0
.
78
times
as
broad
as
long,
fi
nely
but
strongly
punctate.
Head
more
quadrate
than
usual
for
species
of
this
genus,
the
genae
long
and
evenly
narrowed
behind
the
eyes;
posterior
ocellus
close
to
eye;
FI
=
60-70%.
Occipital
carina
complete.
Antennae
long
and
slender
with
66-68
fl
agellar
segments
;
1st
fl
agellar
segment
1.7
times
as
long
as
2nd,
20th
segment
2-4-2.5
times
as
long
as
broad.
F
V
p
V
P
I
Dp
p
p
G
Doh
p
9
8
10
Fig.
7
-8.
—Fore
-tibiae;
7,
Enicospilus
watshami
sp.
n.;
8,
E.
polemus
sp.
n.
Fig.
9--10.—Heads,
dorsal;
9,
E.
watshami
sp.
n.;
10,
E.
polemus
sp.
n.
Pronotum
simple
;
mesoscutum
in
profile
evenly
rounded,
notauli
vestigial.
Meso-
pleuron
subpolished,
upper
part
closely
punctate,
ventrally
grading
to
punctocoriaceous
;
epicnemial
carina
curved
towards
anterior
margin
of
pleuron.
Scutellum
in
profile
very
weakly
convex,
carinate
for
its
entire
length,
punctate
and
in
dorsal
view
1
.
7-1.8
times
as
long
as
broad
anteriorly.
Metapleuron
very
closely
and
shallowly
punctate
;
submetapleural
carina
quite
narrow,
parallel
-sided.
Propodeum
in
profile
evenly
rounded,
anterior
transcarina
complete
;
anterior
area
striate,
spiracular
area
smooth,
posterior
area
fi
nely
reticulate
;
margin
of
propodeal
spiracle
not
distinctly
joined
to
lateral
carina.
Forewing
length
13-14
mm
;
discosubmarginal
cell
as
in
Fig.
4
;
AI
=
0-44-0.81
;
CI
=
0-37-0.45
;
ICI
=
0
-
38-0.40
;
SDI
=
1.19-1
.
26
;
cua
proximal
to
base
of
Rs
-FM
by
02
times
its
own
length
;
1st
subdiscal
cell
hirsute
anteriorly
and
distally
and
with
scattered
hairs
centrally.
Hind
-wing
with
6
hamuli
on
R,
1st
and
2nd
abscissae
of
Rs
more
or
less
straight,
NI
=
2.0-2.2.
THE
ENICOSPILUS
ANTEFURCALIS
SPECIES
-GROUP
37
Foreleg
with
tibia
slightly
fl
attened,
bearing
about
30
quite
stout
spines
on
outer
surface
between
proximal
02
and
distal
apex
;
mid
-leg
with
longer
tibial
spur
1
.
5
times
length
of
shorter.
Hind
-leg
with
coxa
in
profile
1.9
times
as
long
as
deep
;
trochantellus
dorsally
0
.
1
times
as
long
as
wide,
simple
;
hind
-tarsus
4
3
.
5-3.7
times
as
long
as
wide
;
claws
symmetrical.
Gaster
long
and
slender
;
thyridia
large
and
elliptical,
separated
from
anterior
margin
of
tergite
by
about
2.5
times
its
own
length.
Ovipositor
straight,
apically
very
slender.
Male
unknown.
Colour
generally
orange
-brown
with
hind
end
of
segment
5
of
gaster
and
6+
entirely
black
;
fl
agellum
distally
infuscate.
Pterostigma
orange.
Remarks.
This
species
superficially
resembles
E.
bicoloratus
but
differs
in
the
form
of
the
sclerites
and
in
having
a
more
spinose
fore
-tibia.
It
could
perhaps
be
confused
with
E.
batus
Gauld
&
Mitchell
but
differs
from
this
species
in
having
a
much
narrower
face
and
more
slender
antennae
as
well
as
having
a
stronger
central
sclerite.
It
is
named
in
honour
of
the
collector
of
the
holotype,
Fr.
A.
Watsham,
in
gratitude
for
the
fi
ne
collection
of
Ophioninae
he
has
made
for
the
BMNH.
Material
examined.
Holotype
,
ZIMBABWE
(Rhodesia):
Salisbury,
Chishawasha,
ii-iii.1978
(A.
Watsham)
(BMNH).
Paratype,
ZAMBIA
:
1
9,
15
km
E.
of
Lusaka,
1.1980
(R.
A.
Beaver)
(BMNH).
Enicospilus
polemus
sp.
n.
Mandibles
moderately
long,
quite
strongly
curved,
twisted
20-25°,
with
upper
tooth
subcylindrical
about
1
.
2-1
.
3
times
as
long
as
the
lower
;
outer
mandibular
surface
with
a
diagonal
impressed
groove
extending
from
upper
proximal
corner
to
between
bases
of
teeth,
the
groove
fi
nely
hirsute
;
proximal
concavity
obsolescent.
Labrum
02
times
as
long
as
broad;
malar
space
0.2
times
as
broad
as
basal
mandibular
width.
Clypeus
in
profile
convex,
margin
apically
impressed
;
clypeus
in
anterior
aspect
1.6-1
.
7
times
as
broad
as
long.
Lower
face
0
.
74-0
.
78
times
as
broad
as
long,
obsoletely
punctate.
Head
transverse,
genae
strongly
constricted
behind
eyes
;
posterior
ocellus
very
close
to
eye
;
FI
=
60-65%.
Occipital
carina
complete.
Antennae
long
and
slender
with
61-64
segments
;
1st
flagellar
segment
1
.
5-1
.
7
times
as
long
as
2nd
;
20th
segment
2
.
3-2
.
5
times
as
long
as
broad.
Pronotum
simple,
mesoscutum
in
profile
evenly
rounded,
notauli
vestigial.
Meso-
pleuron
polished
upper
part
punctate,
ventrally
grading
to
punctostriate
;
epicnemial
carina
subvertical,
its
upper
end
curved
to
anterior
margin
of
pleuron.
Scutellum
in
profile
weakly
convex,
carinate
its
entire
length,
obsoletely
punctate
and
dorsally
1
.
7
times
as
long
as
anteriorly
broad.
Metapleuron
closely
punctate
posteriorly
grading
to
punctostriate
;
submetapleural
carina
parallel
-sided.
Propodeum
in
profile
evenly
rounded,
anterior
transcarina
complete
;
anterior
area
striate,
spiracular
area
obsoletely
punctate,
posterior
area
fi
nely
reticulate
;
margin
of
propodeal
spiracle
not
distinctly
joined
to
lateral
carina.
Forewing
length
12-13
mm,
discosubmarginal
cell
as
in
Fig.
5
;
AI
=
0
.
42-047
;
CI
--
=
040-0
.
45
;
ICI
=
0.42-0
.
53
;
SDI
=
1.35-1.45
;
cua
proximal
to
base
of
Rs&M
by
0-1-0.2
times
its
own
length;
1st
subdiscal
cell
sparsely
hirsute.
Hind
-wing
with
6-7
hamuli
on
R
1
;
1st
and
2nd
abscissae
of
Rs
straight,
NI
=
2
-
1-2
.
5.
Foreleg
with
tibia
subcylindrical
with
a
few
scattered
spines
on
outer
surface
near
distal
0.3
;
mid
-leg
with
longer
tibial
spur
1
.
4
times
length
of
shorter.
Hind
-leg
with
coxa
in
profile
1
.
8
times
as
long
as
deep
;
hind-trochantellus
0.1
times
as
long
as
wide
;
hind
-tarsus
4
3
.
6-3
.
8
times
as
long
as
wide
;
claws
symmetrical.
Gaster
long
and
slender
;
thyridia
elliptical,
separated
from
anterior
margin
to
ter-
gite
by
about
3.5
times
its
own
length.
Ovipositor
straight,
apically
slender,
male
with
sternites
6-8
with
long
fi
ne
pubescence
;
gonosquama
obliquely
subtruncated.
Colour
generally
orange
;
face
except
centrally,
vertex,
posterior
orbits,
and
mesoscutum
in
indistinct
stripes
yellowish
-white
;
fl
agellum
distally
infuscate.
Pterostigma
orange.
38
I.
D.
GAULD
Remarks.
Rather
similar
to
E.
ruscus,
from
which
it
is
most
easily
distinguishable
by
having
the
longest
axis
of
the
central
sclerite
parallel
with
.Rs
-I
-2r.
E.
polemus
is
also
distinct
in
having
a
paler
yellow
-white
head,
having
the
upper
mesopleuron
punc-
tate,
not
at
all
striate,
and
having
a
less
dense
brush
of
hair
on
the
mandibles.
Material
examined.
Holotype
a,
ZIMBABWE
(Rhodesia):
Salisbury,
Chishawasha,
ii—iii.1978
(A.
Watsham)
(BMNH).
Paratypes,
1
9
,
2
8
,
same
locality
as
holotype,
i.1979,
iii.1979
and
xii.1979
(A.
Watsham)
(BMNH).
lEnicospilus
ruscus
Gauld
&
Mitchell
Described
by
Gauld
&
Mitchell,
1978:
145.
Widely
distributed
through
Equatorial
Africa
south
to
Zambia,
Madagascar
and
Mauritius.
Known
to
parasitise
larvae
of
Mythimna
loreyi
(Duponchel)
and
Speia
vuteria
(Stoll)
(Lepidoptera:
Noctuidae).
References
GAULD,
I.
D.
&
MITCHELL.
P.
A.
(1978).
The
taxonomy,
distribution
and
host
preferences
of
African
parasitic
wasps
of
the
subfamily
Ophioninae
(Hymenoptera:
Ichneumonidae).-287
pp.
Slough,
Commonw.
Agric.
Bur.
GAULD,
I.
D.
&
MITCHELL,
P.
A.
(1981).
The
taxonomy,
distribution
and
host
preferences
of
Indo-Papuan
parasitic
wasps
of
the
subfamily
Ophioninae
(Hymenoptera:
Ichneumonidae).-611
pp.
Slough,
Commonw.
Agric.
Bur.
(Received
10
July
1981)
Commonwealth
Agricultural
Bureaux,
1982