The effect of homogenization on the physical properties of whip cream
Noda, M.; Yamamoto, H.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Food Science & Technology 43(8): 896-903
It is known that the physical properties of whip cream vary with homogenization. However few investigators have referred to whipping properties. The effects of homogenization on the physical properties of imitation whip cream were investigated in this study. The whip cream consisted of 40% vegetable fat, 4% skim milk powder, 0.8% emulsifiers, 0.1% phosphate, and was homogenized at 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 MPa using a 3-piston 200 l/h flat-valve homogenizer. The fat globule diameter and the free fat in the whip cream continuously decreased with an increase in homogenization pressures. Agglomeration of fat globules was observed at homogenization pressures higher than 20 MPa. While the whipping time was a maximum at a homogenization pressure of 20 MPa. The reason why the whipping time increased with an increase of homogenization pressures below 20 MPa is that both of the fat globule diameter and the free fat, which is one of the main elements of the structure of typical whipped creams, decreased. The reason why the whipping time decreased at pressures higher than 20 MPa is interpreted to be due to the fact that fat globules agglomerate to contribute to formation of whipped cream structure. Agglomeration of fat globules was not observed in whip creams to which sodium caseinate was added. Consequently, the whipping time increased with an increase of homogenization pressures, and the whip cream became unwhippable at the pressures higher than 20 MPa.