Notes on plant communities of Spitsbergen


Hadac, E.

Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 24(2): 131-169

1989


17 plant associations belonging to 9 alliances from Spitsbergen are discussed; 7 associations, 2 alliances and 1 order are described as new. The percentage of diploids and polyploids in individual plant communities and their relation to ecology is examined.

EMIL
HADA6
Institute
of
Landscape
Ecology,
Czechoslovak
Academy
of
Sciences,
Bofivojova
35,
Praha
3,
Czechoslovakia
Notes
on
Plant
Communities
of
Spitsbergen
Keywords
Arctic
plant
communities,
Spitsbergen,
Ploidy
and
Ecology
Abstract
HADAe
E.
(1989):
Notes
on
plant
communities
of
Spitsbergen.
Point
Geobot.
Phytotax.,
Praha,
24:
131-169.
--
17
plant
associations
belonging
to
9
alliances
from
Spitsbergen
are
discussed;
7
associations,
2
alliances
and
1
order
are
described
as
new.
The
percentage
of
diploids
and
polyploids
in
individual
plant
communities
and
their
relation
to
ecology
is
examined.
INTRODUCTION
In
July
1985
the
author
had
the
opportunity
to
study
plant
communities
in
some
places
in
the
central
part
of
Spitsbergen.
The
"Svalbard
Expedition
1985",
orga-
nized
by
the
Bioclimatological
society
of
the
Slovak
Academy
of
Sciences,
worked
in
the
surroundings
of
Barentsburg
(including
GrOndalen),
in
the
Kongressdalen,
Linnedalen,
Vassdalen
and
the
coast
of
Van
Meijenfjord
from
Vassdalen
to
Kapp
Schollin,
and
in
the
surroundings
of
the
town
Pyramiden.
The
leader
of
the
expedi-
tion
was
Dr.
Josef
TEREK
C.Sc.
from
the
Institute
of
Experimental
Biology
and
Ecology,
Kosice.
The
expedition
was
fi
nanced
by
Slovak
Television,
who
prepared
pictures
of
Arctic
Nature
with
our
help.
Our
bases
were
situated
in
Barentsburg
and
Pyramiden,
thanks
to
the
Trust
Arktikugol.
We
are
thankful
to
all
who
made
our
work
in
the
Arctic
possible.
132
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
NATURAL
CONDITIONS
Geology
Our
working
area
in
Linnedalen
and
around
Kapp
Starostin
is
formed
by
upper
Carboniferous
limestones
and
Permo-Carboniferous
sediments,
mainly
sandstones;
in
the
Kongressdalen
there
are
triassic
and
Jurassic
sediments.
Barentsburg
area
belongs
to
the
Cretaceous
and
Lower
Carboniferous
formations,
Grondalen
is
formed
by
lower
Tertiary
sandstones.
The
coast
between
Vassdalen
and
Kapp
Schollin
in
the
Van
Meijen
fjord
belongs
to
the
Lower
Carboniferous
forma-
tion
and
to
Tertiary
dark
shales.
The
surroundings
of
Pyramiden
consist
of
Devonian
limestones
and
Carboniferous
sediments.
'20
360
1
80
10
10
IC
Jf
13
7
20.4
22
8
2710
,ongyearbyen
1371
5.8
208
(1957
-19761
11
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
720
T
-n-
360
1
80
40
20
-
20
0
--20
10
10
-
16
2
214
Isfjord
radio
(5)
(1951-10751
1
i
'
i
t
'1,
1
1 1 11 1
.
TT
I
-
23.8
2610
-4,7'
435
T
I
IF
I!:
V
VI
VII
VW
IX
X
XI
XII
Fig.
1
Climadiagrams
for
Longyearbyer
and
Isfjord
radio
stations.
40
20
0
HADAC:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
133
Climate
The
climate
of
the
Linnedalen
and
Kongressdalen
is
more
oceanic,
compared
to
other
localities
studied
by
us.
It
corresponds
with
the
data
from
Kapp
Linne
(fig.
1)
meteorological
station.
The
climatogram
of
Longyearbyen
is
given
in
HADAO
(1946).
Kapp
Linne
has
a
mean
annual
temperature
of
about
—7°,
Barentsburg
—6.4°,
Longyearbyen
—5.7°
and
Pyramiden
—5.5°.
The
average
temperature
in
Barentsburg
for
July
is
+5.5°
(absol.
max.
15.8°
),
for
March
—16.6°.
Precipitation
at
Kapp
Linne
is
460
mm/yr.
in
Longyearbyen
250
mm
(1957/61).
In
Barentsburg
there
are
212
cloudy
and
23
sunny
days/year.
A
good
climatic
characteristic
is
the
snow
line;
it
is
at
350-450
m
on
the
W
coast,
in
the
central
area
of
Vestspitsbergen
at
700-800
m
above
sea
level.
We
have
no
meteorological
data
for
Vassadlen,
but
its
climate
seems
to
be
similar
to
the
climate
of
Barentsburg.
The
climate
of
Pyramiden
corresponds
approximately
to
that
of
Longyearbyen.
Population
Barentsburg
has
1
300
inhabitants,
Lyngyearbyen
1
200
and
Pyramiden
800
inhabitants.
METHODS
For
the
assessment
of
abundance
and
dominance
I
have
used
the
11
-grade
scale
of
DOMIN-
HADA6
(cf.
HADA6
1985).
The
nomenclature
of
higher
plants
follows
in
most
eases
A.
and
D.
LovE
(1975)
and
RONNING
(1979).
I
am
indebted
to
prof.
Dr.
J.
VAisIA,
Dr.Sc.,
for
naming
my
mosses
and
to
Dr.
J.
LISKA
for
the
determination
of
lichens.
Soil
samples
from
individual
communities
were
analysed
by
Dr.
S.
GORDIENKO
C.Sc,
from
the
Institute
of
Soil
Biology,
Czechosl.
Academy
of
Sciences
in
Ceske
Budejovice.
5
g
soil
and
25
ml
0.1
N
KCl
was
used
for
pH;
C
ox
and
humus
%
were
found
by
the
method
of
TJURIN
in
samples
of
0.1-0.05-0.01
g.
TAXONOMICAL
COMMENTS
ON
SOME
PLANT
SPECIES
In
phytocenology,
like
in
all
other
sciences,
it
is
necessary
to
deal
with
well
defined
entities,
in
our
case
with
plant
species.
Arctic
botanists
have
considerably
increased
our
knowledge
during
the
forty
and
odd
years
since
my
fi
rst
papers
on
plants
and
plant
communities
of
the
Sassen
Quarter,
Vestspitsbergen
(HADA6
1944,
1946),
especially
in
the
fi
eld
of
cytotaxonomy.
Many
plants
have
changed
their
names,
sometimes
even
their
generic
names.
To
make
the
comparison
between
communities
described
previously
and
the
present
ones
easier,
I
will
try
to
show
some
of
the
changes.
Deschampsia
brevi/olia
s.
str.
with
2n
=
26
grows
in
Arctic
America
and
Greenland;
our
plant
belongs
to
D.
glaura
HARTM.
with
2n
=
52.
Dupontia
fisheri
s.
str.
grows
in
Arctic
America
and
Greenland
and
has
2n
=
132;
our
plants
belong
mostly
to
D.
pelligera
RUPR.
with
2n
=
88.
Puccinellia
phryganodes
s.
str.
grows
in
Alaska
and
Chukotka
and
is
diploid
with
2n
=
14,
whereas
our
plants
are
tetraploid
with
2n
=
28
and
belong
to
P.
vil/oidea
ANDERSS.
(or
Phippsia
vat
oidea
(ANDERss.)
A.
et
D.
LifivE)
with
subsp.
vat
oidea
in
Spitsbergen
and
Arctic
Siberia,
subsp.
sibirica
HADA6
et
LovE
in
N.
Scandinavia
and
Siberia
and
subsp.
beringensis
(A.
et
D.
LovE)
HADAO
in
the
Beringian
region.
In
Greenland
there
grows
yet
another
species
of
this
group,
Puccinellia
neoarctica
(A.
et
D.
LOVE)
HADAO
(based
on
Phippsia
neoarctica
A.
et
D.
LovE
1975:
67).
The
Festuca
rubra
aggreg.
needs
a
thorough
analysis;
WINNING
(1979)
uses
the
name
F.
rubra
var
mutica
HARTM.,
for
the
Spitsbergen
plants,
A.
et
D.
MITE
prefer
the
F.
rubra
subsp.
arctica
(HACKEL)
GovoR.
(previously
named
F.
richardsonii).
As
the
native
plant
from
Spitsbergen
with
134
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
densely
hairy
spikelets
is
fairly
different
from
the
introduced
F.
rubra
s.
str.,
I
prefer
the
name
F.
cryophila
KRECZ.
et
BOBR.
as
before.
Festuca
vivipara
s.
str.
with
2n
=
28
probably
does
not
grow
in
Spitsbergen.
The
viviparous
fescue
has
according
to
FLovIK
(1938)
2n
=
49,
so
it
belongs
to
F.
prolif
era
(PIPER)
FERNALD.
My
Festuca
"supina"
from
Adventdalen
has
been
described
by
HOLMEN
as
F.
hyperborea.
Carex
lachenalii
KRECZETOWICZ
(1935)
identified
this
plant
with
ALLIoxi's
C.
tripartita,
which
is
based
on
Carex
spica
terminali
tripartita.
HALLER
n.
1
356
and
on
Bellardis
specimen
from
St.
Bernard.
In
HALLER'S
description
we
fi
nd
i.a.
the
following
statement:
Culmus...non
asper
ut
neque
folia".
So
it
cannot
be
C.
lachenalii,
which
has
stem
and
leaves
distinctly
rough.
The
specimen
collected
by
BELL
AEDI,
was
scrutinized
by
BIROLI,
who
says
"omnibus
recte
perpensis
suasifuimus
C.
tripartitam
ALL.
nil
aliud
esse
nisi
varietas
insignis
C.
curvulae
ALL."
(viz
HADA('
1944:
22-23).
It
would
be
perhaps
better
to
name
this
species
C.
bipartita
ALL.,
but
I
prefer
at
present
to
use
the
name
of
C.
lachenalz:i
SCHKUHR,
which
is
clear
enough.
Stellaria
longipes
s.
str.
has
2n
=
52;
plants
from
Spitsbergen
have
2n
=
104
(FLoviK
1940),
so
they
belong
to
S.
crassipes
HuLTEx.
Cerastium
"alpinum"
from
Spitsbergen
according
to
R6NNING
I.C.
in
most
cases
probably,
belongs
to
C.
arcticum
LANGE.
The
genus
Minuartia
s.
1.
was
divided
by
A.
et
D.
L5vE
into
several
genera
with
different
basic
numbers.
M.
biliora,
having
2n
=
26
(i.e.
x
=
13)
belongs
thus
to
the
genus
Lidia
as
L.
biliora
(L.)
A.
et
D.
LovE,
whereas
M.
rubella
with
2n
=
24
resp.
x
=
12
is
named
Triphane
rubella
(WO)
RCHB.
Sagina
intermedia
with
2n
=
56
belongs
to
the
genus
Spergella
with
x
=
7
(whereas
Sagina
s.s.
has
x
=
11)
so
it
is
Spergella
intermedia
(FENZL)
A.
et
D.
LoVE.
Silene
acaulis
JAcQ.
from
Spitsbergen
has
(2)-6—(10)
seeds
in
each
capsule,
whereas
the
Icelandic
plants
have
(4)-11—(28)
seeds.
They
are
both
named
by
A.
et
D.
LovE
as
S.
acaulis
subsp.
arctica,
but
they
cannot
be
quite
identical.
Further
studies
of
this
plant
are
necessary.
Melandrium
apetalum
is
now
named
Gastrolychnis
apetala
ToLm.
et
KozH.
Cardamine
pratensis
subsp.
angustifolia
was
identified
with
Cardamine
nymanii
GANDOGER.
Cochlearia
groenlandica
has
2n
=
14
(x
=
7),
so
it
has
been
separated
from
the
Cochlearia
S.
s.
with
x
=
6
as
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
(L.)
A.
et
D.
LovE.
Potentilla
emarginata
PURSH
has
been
identified
by
RoNNING
as
P.
hyparctica
MALTE.
Pedicularis
dasyantha
was
reduced
by
HULTEN
to
subspecies of
P.
lanata,
but
P.
lanata
s.
s.
is
so
clearly
different
from
P.
dasyantha
morphologically
as
well
as
by
its
distribution
that
I
think
it
would
be
best
to
maintain
both
on
the
specific
level.
The
consequences
of
the
above
changes
in
the
syntaxonotnic
nomenclature
will
be
discussed
later.
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
The
following
plant
communities
will
be
discussed:
Puccinellio-Salicornietea
TOPA
1939
Puccinellietalia
phryganodis
HAD/AC
1946
Puccinellion
phryganodis
HADAa
1946
Puccinellietum
vilfoideae
HAD/AC
(1946)
1989
Caricetum
subspathaceae
HADAa
1946
Caricetum
ursinae
HADAC
1946
8cheuchzerio-Caricetea
fuscae
Tx.
1937
Caricetalia
fuscae
Kocx
1926
Eriophorion
scheuchzeri
HAD/AC
1939
Bryo-Dupontietum,
pelligerae
HADA6
1946
corr.
1989
Deschampsio
alpine-Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
HAD/AC
1989
Saxifrago
foliolosae-Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
HADAe
1989
Montio-Cardaminetea
BR.
-BL.
et
Tx.
ex
KLIKA
et
HADA6
1944
Montio-Cardaminetalia
PAWL.,
SOKOL.
et
WALL.
1928
HADAO:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
135
Cardamino
nymanii-Saxifragion
folioloscte
HADA6
1989
Drepanoclado-Ranunculetum
hyperborei
HAD/0
1989
Alcrpecurus
alpinus-Aulacomnium
palustre
community
Saxifraga
cernua-Philonotis
tomentella
community
Equisetetum
borealis
HAD/0
1946
subass.
saxifragetosum
rsvularis
HADA6
1989
Thlaspietea
rotundifolii
BR.
-BL.
1948
Androsacetalia
alpinae
BR.
-BL.
1926
Cerastio-Saxifragion
cernuae
HARTMANN
1980
Chrysosplenium
tetrandrum
community
Polemonium
boreale
community
Saxifraga
caespitosa
community
Ranunculo-Oxyrion
NORDHAGEN
1936
Saxifrago-Ranunculenion
nivalis
NORDHAGEN
1943
Oxymo-Trisetetum
spicati
HAD/0
(1946)
1989
typicum
Oxyrio-Trisetetum
spicati
poetosurn
arcticae
HAD/0
1989
Ranunculo
pyymaei-Caricetum,
lachenalii
HAD/0
1989
Salicetea
herbaceae
BR.
-BL.
1948
Salicetalia
herbaceae
BR.
-BL.
in
Bu.
-13L.
et
JENNY
1926
Salicion
polaris
DURIETZ
1942
emend.
HAD/0
1989
Luzulo
confusae-Salicetum
polaris
HAD/0
1989
Pediculari
hirsutae-Gymnomitrietum
coralloidis
HAD0
1989
Cerastium
arctium-Anthelia
juratzkana
community
Salix
polarsi-Cetraria
delisei
community
Juncetea
trifidi
HAD/0
in
KLIKA
et
HAD/0
1944
Caricetalia
curvulae
BR.
-BL.
1926
Juncion
trifich
KRAJINA
1933
Sphaerophoro-Racomitrietum
lanuginosi
(HAD/0
1946)
HOFMANN
1968
Carici
rupestris-Kobresietea
OHBA
1974
Kobresio-Dryadetalia
OHBA
1974
Caricion
nardinae
NORDHAGEN
1935
Dryadeturn
minoris
HADAL
1946
Dryado-Caricetum
rupestris
Ri5NNING
1965
(nomen
inversum)
Dryado-Cctssiopetum
tetragonae
(HADA
1946)
RoNNING
1965
(nomen
inversum)
Chenopodietea
BR.
-BL.
1952??
Phippsio-Cochleariopsietalia
HADA6
1989
Corhleariopsion
groenlandicae
HADA6
1989
Ph
ippsio-Cochleariopsietum
groenlandicae
HADA6
1989
Puccinellia
angustata
community
Oxyria-Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
community
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica-Poa
arctica
community
PUCCINELLIO-SALICORNIETEA
TOPA
1939
Puccinellietalia
phryganodis
HAD/Co
1946
Puccinellion
phryganodis
HADA6
1946
Halophytic
plant
communities
on
sheltered
sea
shores
in
clayey
to
silty
soil
poor
in
humus,
in
Arctic
and
Subarctic
regions.
Characteristic
species:
Stetlaria
hunttfusa,
Puccinellia
phryganodes
s.
1.,
Carex
subspathacea.
Distribution:
Spitsbergen,
Jan
Mayen,
N.
Scandinavia,
Greenland,
NE
Canada.
136
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
Table
1.
Puceinellietum
vilfoideae
HADA6
(1946)
nomen
novum
Releve
nr.
44
45
79
81
0
slope,
aspect
cover
%,
vascular
pl.
80
90
30
60
65
bryophytes
10
2.5
number
of
vascular
pl.
spec.
2
3
4
2
3
number
of
bryophyte
spec.
1
Puecinellia
vilfoidea
(ANDERs.)
A.
et
D.
LOVE
8
8
5
8
7.0
Stellaria
humifusa
ROTTB.
4
5
4
3
4.0
Coehleariopsis
groenlandica
(L.)
A.
et
D.
LovE
2
0.5
Carex
subspathacea
WORMSKJ.
2
0.5
Carex
ursina
DEW.
1
0.2
Bryum
sp.
4
1.0
Localities:
44.
delta
of
the
Mimer
river
at
the
sea
shore,
10m
2
,
10.7.
85,
pligcl
7
.
45,
humus:
2.0
%,
C
ox
1.16
45.
ca
100
m
W
from
nr.
44.
10
m
2
,
10.7.
85,
pH
K
cl
7.34,
humus:
2.85
%,
C
ox
1.65
79.
Finneset,
2
m
2
,
18
.
7
.
85
81.
Finneset,
ca
20
m
from
n.79,
18.7.85
Puccinellietum
vilfoideae
HADA6
(1946)
nomen
novum
Basionym:
Puccinellietum
phryganodis
HADA6
1946:
142
Tab.
1.
Puccinellia
phryganodes
is
a
heterogeneous
taxon,
as
shown
by
SORENSEN
(1953),
but
all
the
species
of
this
aggregate
have
a
very
similar
ecology,
so
it
will
be
best
to
maintain
the
name
of
the
alliance
and
order
unchanged,
accepting
P.
phryganodes
sensu
lato,
but
it
is
necessary
to
change
the
name
of
the
Spitsbergen
community.
Puccinellietum
vilfoideae
is
very
poor
in
species.
P.
vilfoidea
has
its
optimum
in
this
association.
It
is
known
from
Isfjord
and
Kongsfjord
(THANNHEISER
et
HOFMANN
1977),
Barentsiiya
and
Edgeoya
(HoFmANN
1969).
I
have
observed
this
association
in
the
neighbourhood
of
Barentsburg
and
Pyramiden.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(
%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
83
17
with
respect
to
abundance:
92
8
Caricetum
subspathaceae
HADAo
1946
Tab.
2.
MOLENAAR
(1974),
who
found
this
community
in
SE
Greenland,
characterises
its
ecology
as
follows:
"...on
the
sea
and
fjord
shores
on
mudflats
near
the
outlets
of
rivers
and
brooks,
in
general
near
the
mean
high
water
level...
It
is
subjected
to
infiltration
of
fresh
water
through
the
substrate...
The
substrate
consists
of
clayey,
silty
or
silty
-sandy
deposits..
.
pH
5.0-6.5-7.0".
This
fi
ts
well
also
for
the
Isfjord
ecotops
of
this
association.
In
this
community
Carex
subspathacea
has
its
optimum,
HAD,O:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
137
the
differential
species
against
other
communities
of
the
alliance
is
Dupontia
pelligera.
It
occurs
also
in
NW
and
NE
Greenland
and
in
Yakutia
(MOLENAAR
1974).
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(
%):
H
Ch
G
1111
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
45
10
45
with
respect
to
abundance:
68
7
25
Table
2.
Caricetum
.subspathaceae
HADAo
1946
Releve
nr.
slope,
aspect
cover
%,
vascular
plants
80
70
82
90
85
80
A
0
80
bryophytes
1
10
20
10
number
of
vascular
plant
species
5
4
3
4
number
of
bryophyte
species
2
2
1
2
Carex
subspathacea
WORMSKJ.
8
9
9
8.7
Carex
ursina
DEW.
2
1
2
1.7
Puccinellia
vilfoidea
(ANDERs.)
A.
et
D.
LovE
2
3
1.7
Dupontia
pelligera
RUPR.
1
3
1.3
Stellaria
humifusa
ROTTB.
+ +
0.3
Bryum
sp.
3
1
1.3
Leptobryum
pyriforme
(HEDW.)
Wits.
4
1.3
Drepanocladus
exannulatus
(B.
S.
G.)
WSTF.
5
1.7
D.
uncinatus
(HEDW
.
)
WARNSTF.
1
0.3
Localities:
80.
Finneset,
2
m
2
,
18.7.
85
82.
Finneset,
ca.
20
m
distant
from
n.
80.5
m
2
,
18.7.
85
85.
Brattdalen-delta,
5
m
2
,
18.7.
85
Caricetum
ursinae
HADA6
1946
Tab.
3.
Table
3.
Caricetum
ursinae
HADA6
1946
Releve
nr.
86
slope,
aspect
cover
%,
vascular
plants
80
bryophytes
10
number
of
vascular
plant
species:
5
number
of
bryophyte
species:
1
Carex
ursina
DEW.
C.
subspathacea
WORMSKJ.
Stellaria
humifusa
ROTTB.
Dupontia
pelligera
RUPR.
Puccinellia
viiioidea
(ANDEas.)
A.
et
D.
LovE
Drepanocladus
exannulatus
(B.
S.
G
.
)
WSTF.
7
5
3
2
1
4
Locality:
86.
Grondalselven-delta,
4
m
2
,
18.7.
85
138
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
This
halophytic
association
was
observed
only
once,
in
the
Grondalselven
delta.
It
is
characterized
by
the
optimum
of
Carex
ursina.
It
is
known
also
from
Barent-
soya
(HOFMANN
1969),
NE.
Greenland
and
NE.
Canada
(MOLENAAR
1974).
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
68
16
16
with
respect
to
abundance:
73
9
IS
SCHEUCHZERIO-CARICETEA
FUSCAE
Tx.
1937
Caricetalia
fuscae
KocH
1926
Eriophorion
scheuchzeri
HADAO
1939
This
alliance
was
described
in
SW
Iceland,
containing
two
associations:
Eleocha-
retum
palustris
islaudicum
and
Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
islandicum.
Later
on
Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
islandicum
was
found
in
the
Kaldidalur
area
WSW.
Iceland
and
renamed
according
to
the
Code
Triglochino-Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
(HADA6
1985).
Although
there
is
a
considerable
distance
between
the
Icelandic
and
Spitsbergen
communities,
their
ecology
is
very
similar
and
I
fi
nd
it
possible
to
include
the
Spitsbergen
Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
in
this
alliance.
The
alliance
Dupontion
fisheri,
described
tentatively
in
the
Sassenquarter,
Spitsbergen,
with
a
single
association
Bryo-Dupontietum
fisheri,
shows
a
high
similarity
to
Eriophorion
scheuchzeri;
it
would
be
better
to
include
it
in
Eriophorion
scheuchzeri.
The
alliance
may
be
characterized
in
Spitsbergen
by
Eriophorum
scheuchzeri,
Dupontia
pelligera
and
Bryum
pallescens.
Eriophorion
scheuchzeri
is
known
from
Iceland,
Spitsbergen,
from
Arctic
Canada
THANNHEISER
1976)
and
the
Alps
(GuiriocHET
1938).
Bryo-Dupontietum
pelligerae
HAD/0
(1946)
nom.
corr.
Basionym:
Bryo-Dupontielum
fi
sheri
HADA6
1946:
142
Tab.
4.
As
Dupontia
fisheri
s.
str.
grows
only
in
Arctic
Canada
and
Greenland
and
the
Spitsbergen
plant
belongs
to
D.
pelligera,
it
is
necessary
to
rename
this
community.
Bryo-Dupontietum
was
described
from
DeGeerdalen;
it
is
probably
identic
with
"Dupontia
fisheri-synedrium"
from
Dicksondalen
(Lin
1967).
It
was
also
reported
by
THANNHEISER
(1976)
from
Kongsfjord
as
well
as
from
Arctic
Canada.
Bryo-Dupontietum
may
be
characterized
by
the
optimum
of
Dupontia
pelligera.
It
occurs
in
shallow,
slightly
salty
wetlands
near
the
seashore.
There
are
usually
5-6
fl
owering
plant
species
and
3-4
bryophytes.
Its
soil
is
permanently
wet
or
drying
out
for
a
short•
period
only.
Vascular
plants
cover
usually
less
than
40
%,
m
osses
slightly
more
than
40
%
of
the
surface.
HAD/0:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
139
spectrum
of
life
forms
(%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
42
8
8
25
17
with
respect
to
dominance:
19
1
3
42
35
Table
4.
Bryo-Dupontietum
pelligerae
HAD/16
(1946)
nom.
corr.
Re'eve
nr.
83
111
114
0
slope,
aspect
cover
%,
vascular
plants:
50
20
40
37
bryophytes:
70
10
50
43
number
of
vascular
plant
species:
5
5
7
6
number
of
bryophyte
species:
2
3
5
3
Dupontia
pelligera
RUPR.
7
5
7
6.3
Eriophorum
scheuchzeri
HOPPE
2 2 2
2.0
Alopecurus
alpinus
Sm.
2
2
2
2.0
Saxifraga
rivularis
L.
2
0.8
Ranunculus
hyperboreus
ROTTE.
2
0.7
Deschampsia
alpina
(L.)
R.
et
SCEI.
1
0.3
Equi.setum
boreale
BONG.
2
.
0.7
Saxifraga
foliolosa
R.
BR.
2
0.7
Cardamine
nymanii
GAND.
1
0.3
Cerastium
regelii
OsTF.
1
0.3
Callieryon
sarmentosum
(WHLB.)
KINDS.
8
6
4.7
Bryum
pallescens
SCHLEICH.
4 4
2.7
Drepanocladus
fluitans
(HEDW.)
WARNSTF.
5
1.7
D.
uncinatus
(HEnw.)
WARNSTF.
3
1.0
Pohlia
ntaariS
(HEDW.)
LIND11.
4
1.3
Drepanocladus
exannulatus
(B.S.G.)
WARNSTF.
5
1.7
Polytrichum
alpinum
HEDW.
3
1.0
Ptilidiurn
ciliare
(L.)
HAMPE
1
0.3
Localities:
83.
Finneset,
4
m
2
,
18.7.
85
111.
Vassdalen,
near
the
river,
NW
from
the
drilling
hole,
5
in
2
,
21.7.
85
114.
Vassdalen,
100
m
S
from
the
drilling
hole,
5
m
2
,
21.7.85
Deschampsio
alpinae-Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
ass.
nova
Holotype:
n.
42,
Tab.
5.
Deschampsio-Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
covers
relatively
large
areas
in
the
lime-
stone
alluvia
near
the
town
Pyramiden.
It
is
regularly
inundated
by
the
glacial
river.
Flowering
plants
cover
about
30
%,
mosses
20-30
%
of
the
surface.
On
the
average
7
species
of
higher
plants
were
found
in
one
releve
(altogether
12
species
in
3
releves),
and
on
the
average
4
moss
species
(altogether
7
species
in
3
releves).
Characteristic
species
of
this
association
are
Anew
biglumis,
Campylium
polyga-
mum
and
Brachythecium
turgidum.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
50
6
13
6
25
with
respect
to
abundance:
39
3
8
13
37
140
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
Table
5.
Deschampsio
alpinae-Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
BADAo
Releve
nr.:
slope,
aspect:
pHxci
Cox%
humus
%
cover
%,
vascular
plants:
bryophytes:
number
of
vascular
plant
species:
number
of
bryophyte
species:
Eriophorum
scheuchzeri
HOPPE
Deschampsia
alpina
(L.)
R.
et
Sex.
Juncus
biglumis
L.
Equisetum
boreale
BONG.
Poa
arctica
R.
BR.
Salix
polaris
W
AHLENE.
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
Puccinellia
vilfoidea
(ANDEus.)
A.
et
D.
LovE
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
(L.)
A.
et
D.
LovE
Phippsia
concinna
(TH.
FR.)
LINDB.
Phippsia
algida
(SoL.)
R.
BR.
Poe
alpina
L.
var.
vivipara
L.
Bryum
sp.
Leptobryum
pyri/orme
(HEDw.)
WiLs.
Bryum
pallescens
SCHLEICH.
Tetraplodon
mnioides
(HEDw.)
B.
S.
G.
Pohlia
nutans
(HEDw.)
LINDB.
Campylium
polygamum
(B.
S:
G.)
C.
JEN
-
s.
Brachythecium
turgidum
(HARTM.)
KINDB.
40
7.9
0.29
0.71
41
7.7
0.68
1.17
42
7.9
0.62
1.08
0
7.8
0.53
0.94
30
30
30 30
25
20
30
25
7
7 7 7
5
4
4 4
4
4 4
4.0
4
4
5
4.3
3
4
4
3.7
4
2
2.0
2
2
1.3
1
2
1.0
2
.
0.7
2
0.7
2
0.7
1
0.3
1
0.3
1
0.3
5 5
6
5.3
2
1
2
1.7
3
6
3.0
2
2
1.3
1
0.3
1
0.3
1
0.3
Localities:
40.
'_
Timer
river
delta,
near
Pyramiden,
10
m2,
10.7.
85
41.
about
50
m
S
from
n.
40,
5
m
2
,
10.7.85
42.
about
100
m
S
from
n.
41,
10
m
2
,
10.7.85
Saxifrago
foliolosae-Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
ass.
nova
Holotype:
Tab.
6.
n.
100
This
association
was
found
in
Vassdalen
(Van
Meijen
fjord).
Differently
from
Deschampsio-Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri,
this
community
grows
on
acid
soil,
on
alluvia
of
the
Vassdal
river,
further
inland
from
the
sea
shore
than
the
previous
association.
Flowering
plants
cover
about
25
%,
bryophytes
85
%
of
the
surface.
On
the
average
5
higher
plant
species
and
9
bryophyte
species
were
found
in
one
releve;
altogether
in
6
releves
11
species
of
fl
owering
plants
and
26
species
of
bryo-
phytes.
A
good
differential
species
against
Deschampsio
alpinae-Eriophoretum
is
Saxifraga
foliolosa.
Among
bryophytes,
Cephalozia
bicuspidata,
Odontoschisma
elongatum,
Cephaloziella
arctica,
Sphagnum
majus,
Gymnocolea
inflata,
Scapania
paludicola
and
S.
irrigua
seem
to
be
characteristic
for
this
association.
HADAC:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
141
Table
6.
Saxifrago
foliolosae-Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
HADAo
Releve
nr.
92
93
99
100
110
113
K
0
Slope,
aspect
Cover,
vascular
plants
(%):
30
25
20
25
20
30
25
bryophytes
(%):
90 90
90
80 80
90
86
Number
of
vascular
pl.
species:
2
5
7
5
5 5 5
Number
of
bryophyte
species:
13
8
6
9
8
10
9
Eriophorum
scheuchzeri
HOPPE
6
5 5
5
5 5
V
5.1
Saxifraga
foliolosa
R.
BR.
1
3 3
2
2
1
V
2.0
Dupontia
pelligera
RUPR.
1
4
4
4
IV
2.1
Salix
polaris
WAHLENB.
1
2 2
III
0.8
Juncus
biglumis
L.
4
1
II
0.8
Alopecurus
alpinus
Si.
.
1
i
II
0.3
Saxifraga
rivularis
L.
3
1
II
0.6
Calliergon
sarmentosum
(WHLB.)
KIND.
1
4
7
6
7
8
V
5.5
Oncophorus
wahlenbergii
BRiD.
1 1
2
4
4
V
2.0
D.
exannulatus
(B.
S.
G.)
WARNSTF.
8
8
7 7
5
4
V
7.8
Cephalozia
bicuspidata
(L.)
DUM.
1
1
1
1
IV
0.6
Dicranum
elongatum
SCHLE1CH.
1
2
.
2
III
0.8
Ptilidium
ciliare
(L.)
HAMPE
4
3 3
III
1.6
Polytrichum
alpinum
HDW.
4 4
3
III
1.8
Cephalonella
arctica
BRYHN
et
DOH.
1
1 1
III
0.5
Odontoschisma
elongatum
EVANS
1
1
II
0.3
Gymnocolea
inflata
(HuDs.)
Dum.
1 1
II
0.3
Scapania
patudicola
LOESKE
et
MULL.
1
3
II
0.6
S.
irrigua
NEES
1
1
II
0.3
Localities:
92.
Vassdalen,
150
m
ENE
from
the
borehole,
5
m2,
19.7.85
93.
Vassdalen,
about
15
m
distant
from
n.
92.5
m
2
,
19.7.85
99.
Vassdalen,
about
1.5
km
N
from
the
borehole,
4
m
2
,
20.7.85
100.
Vassdalen,
about
50
in
N
from
n.
99.4
m
2
,
20.7.85
110.
100
m
ESE
from
the
borehole,
5
m
2
,
21.7.85
113.
Vangsletta,
100
m
E
from
the
borehole,
5
m
2
,
21.7.85
In
one
relove
only:
n.
92.
Sphagnum
majus
(Russ.)
C.
JENS.
1,
S.
lindbergii
SCHIMP.
1,
Scapania
obcordata
S.
ARN.
2,
Hylocomium
splendens
B.
S.
G.
var.
alascanum
(LESQ.
et
JAMES)
Kirros.
1,
Drepanoc-
ladus
baditts
G.
ROTH
1
n.
93.
Phippsia
algida
(SoL.)
R.
BR.
2,
Scad,ania
hyperborea
JOERG.
1,
RhizomniUrn
punctatum
(HRDw.)
T.
KOP.
1,
Polytrichum
juniperinum
HEDW.
1
n.
99.
Cardamine
bellidifolia
L
1,
Luzula
confusa
(HARTM.)
LINDBL.
1.
Deschampsia
(viva
(L.)
R.
et
SCH.
1
n.
100.
Sphagnum
aongstroemii
HARTM.
2,
Calliergon
stramineum
(BRID.)
KINDB.
4
n.
110.
Scapania
mucronata
BUCH.
1
n.
113.
Polytrichum
sexangulare
BRID.
3,
Bryum
sp.
2
Saxifrago-Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
is
probably
identic
with
the
Eriophorum
scheuchzeri-synedrium
LID
from
Cap
Boheman,
and
probably
also
with
Calliergon
sarmentosum-Eriophorum
scheuchzeri
sociation
MOLENAAR
1976
from
SE.
Green-
land.
with
respect
to
presence:
20
5
10
65
with
respect
to
abundance:
11
2
22
65
142
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(
%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
MONTIO-CARDAMINETEA
BR.
-BL.
et
Tx.
ex
KLIKA
et
HADA6
1944
Montio-Cardaminetalia
PAWL.,
SoKoL.
et
WALLISCH
1928
Cardamino
nymanii-Saxifragion
faliolosae
all.
nova
Normal
springs
are
absent
in
Spitsbergen
due
to
the
permafrost,
but
plant
communities
are
frequent
in
shallow
depressions
with
some
few
cm
deep
water
or
on
slopes,
where
water
from
thawing
snow
appears
at
the
surface.
They
have
similar
properties
as
springs
in
more
southern
regions,
as
may
be
seen
from
the
presence
of
Saxifraga
foliolosa,
S.
rivularis,
Cardamine
nymanii,
C.
bellidifolia,
Philonotis
tomentella,
Aulacomnium
palustre
etc.
EUROLA
(1971)
came
to
the
same
conclusion.
He
writes
on
p.
92
l.c.:
"In
Spitsbergen
where
permafrost
is
near
to
the
surface
of
the
ground...
both
the
waters
running
on
the
ground
and
those
percolating
out
through
the
soil
are
very
common.
Because
the
waters
have
been
produced
by
melting
ice
and
snow,
and
because
the
temperature
of
the
soil
radically
decreases
in
the
lower
layers,...
the
properties
of
these
waters
are
very
closer
to
eustatic
spring
water
in
the
climatic
conditions
of
Fennoscandia."
The
alliance
Cardamino-Saxifragion
foliolosae
may
be
characterized
by
Cardami-
ne
nymanii,
Saxifraga
foliolosa
(opt.)
and
Equisetum
boreale
(opt.).
Also
Ranunculus
spitsbergensis
was
observed
mainly
in
this
alliance.
The
type
association
of
this
alliance
is
Drepanoclado-Ranunculetum
hyperborei.
Communities
of
this
alliance
occur
in
Spitsbergen
and
probably
also
in
Greenland
and
Arctic
Canada
(THANN-
HEISER
1976).
This
association
was
found
in
shallow
water
ditches
in
Vassdalen
and
in
the
surroundings
of
Barentsburg.
EUROLA
(1971)
describes
a
very
similar
community
in
"the
valley
fen
of
Stormyra"
(Van
Mijen
fjord,
Reindalen)
Tab.
1.
samples
1
3
:
Ranunculus
hyperboreus
0-20
%,
Calliergon
sarmentosum
20
100
%,
Drepanocladus
cf.
lapponicus
5-60
%,
Drepanocladus
exannulatus
(ca
5
%),
Ranunculus
spitsbergensis
(0-20
%),
Drepanocladus
trichophyllus
(ca
5
%).
It
seems
thus
that
this
community
has
a
relatively
wide
distribution
in
Spitsbergen.
In
our
community
vascular
plants
cover
about
35
%,
bryophytes
65
%
of
the
surface.
There
are
on
the
average
5
vascular
plant
species
and
4
bryophyte
species
in
one
releve,
in
5
releves
11
vascular
species
and
7
bryophytes
were
noted.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(
%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
45
5
11
39
with
respect
to
abundance:
37
1
20
42
HADAO:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
143
Drepanoclado-Ranunculetum
hyperborei
ass.
nova
Holotypc:
n.
90,
Tab.
7.
Table
7.
Drepanoclado-Ranunculetum
hyperborei
HADA6
Reley()
nr.:
Slope,
aspect:
Cover,
vascular
plants
%
bryophytes
%
number
of
vascular
pl.
species
number
of
bryophyte
species
90
20
95
5
6
98
15
95
4
3
105
70
40
6
2
106
20
80
5
5
118
50
15
7
4
K
0
35
65
5
4
Ranunculus
hyperboreu.s.
ROTTB.
4 4
8
4
7
V
5.4
Phippsia
algida
(SoL.)
R.
BR.
4
3
3
3
4
V
3.4
Saxifraga
foliolosa
R.
BR.
3
2
3
2 2
V
2.4
S.
rivularis
L.
3
4
2 2
IV
2.2
Cardamine
nymanii
GAND.
3
4
II
1.4
Drepanocladus
exannulatus
(BsG.)
W.
3
4
3
5
3
V
3.6
Calliergon
sarmentosum
KINDR.
1
8
7
8
2
V
5.2
Bryum
pallescens
SCHLEICH.
2
4
II
1.2
Ptilidium
ciliare
(L.)
HAMPE
1
1
II
0.4
in
one
releve
only:
90.
Drepanocladus
exannulatus
(B.
S.
G.)
WARNSTF.
8
;
98.
Eriophorum
scheuchzeri
HOPPE
1,
Scapanta
irrigua
NEES
4;
105.
Equisetum
boreole
BONG.
2;
Luzula
confusa
(HARTM.)
LINDH.
1;
Drepanocladus
fluitans
(HDw.)
WARNST.
1;
106.
Oncophorus
wahlenbergii
BRID.
2,
Polytrichum
alpinism
Hnvi
-
.
2;
118.
Saxifraga
cernua
L.
2,
Deschampsia
alpina
(L.)
R.
et
Scri.
1,
Poa
arctica
R.
BR.
1.
Localities:
90.
Vassdalen,
100
m
S
of
the
houses,
4
rn
2
,
19.7.85
98.
Vassdalen,
ca
1
km
N
of
the
borehole,
5
m
2
,
20.
7.
85
105.
Vassdalen,
near
the
sea
shore
S
of
the
houses,
4
na
2
,
21.7.85
106.
Vassdalen,
20
m
S
from
n.
105,
5
na
2
,
21.7.85
118
.
below
Bykollen
N
of
Barentsburg,
3
m
2
,
25.7.85
Alopecurus
alpinus-Aulacomnium
palustre
community
This
community
occurs
in
the
neighbourhood
of
Barentsburg
on
permanently
moist,
slightly
acid
soil
either
on
level
ground
with
"thilfur",
or
on
slopes
up
to
40°,
e/Cposed
towards
W
or
SW.
There
are
about
8
—9
species
of
vascular
plants
and
7
species
of
bryophytes
in
one
releve,
in
3
releves
15
species
of
vascular
plants
and
13
sp.
of
bryophytes
were
found.
Typical
for
this
community
are
Aulacomnium
palustre,
Sphagnum
angstromii,
S.
fimbriatum,
S.
squarrosum,
Paludella
squarrosa
and
Lophozia
wenzelii.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
36
11
7
46
with
respect
to
abundance:
38
10
4
48
144
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
Table
8.
Alopecurus
alpinus-Aulacomnium
palustre
community
Releve
nr.:
52
56
73
0
Slope':
40
15
Aspect:
W
SW
Cover
(
%),
vascular
plants:
25
30
15
23
bryophytes
(+
lichen):
90
80
90
87
Number
of
vascular
plant
species:
4
10
11
9
Number
of
bryophyte
species:
8
4
80
Number
of
lichen
species:
1
1
Alopecurus
alpinus
SM.
4
2
4
3.3
Luzula
conjusa
(HART
M.)
LINDEB.
3 3
3
3.0
Stellaria
crassipes
HULTEN
2
1
1
1.3
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
5
3
2.7
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
2
3
1.7
Saxifraga
cernua
L.
2 2
1.3
Salix
polaris
WAHLENB.
5
.
1
2.0
Ranunculus
pygmaeus
WAHLENB.
2
1
1.0
R.
nivalis
L.
4
1.3
Festuca
cryophila
KREcz.
et
BOBR.
3
1.0
Pea
arctica
R.
BR.
3
.
1.0
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
3
1.0
Saxifraga
cespitesa
L.
2
0.7
Ranunculus
sulphureus
SOL.
.
3
1.0
Equisetum
bereale
BONG.
2
0.7
Aulacommum
palustre
(1-1Dw.)
ScHwAEG.
7
8
7
7.3
Drepanecladus
uncinatus
(limy.)
WARNSTF.
3
4
3
3.3
Dicranum
elongatum
SCHLEICH.
4
2
1
2.3
Pelytrichum
juniperinum
HEDW.
1
6
5
2.4
Sphagnum
fimbriatum
WiLs.
6
.
2.0
S.
angstroemii
HART
M.
4
1.3
S.
sguarresum
CROME
4
1.3
Paludella
sguarresa
(Hpw.)
BRID.
1
0.3
Aulocemnium
turgidum
(WAHLENBG.
)
SCHWAEG.
1
0.3
Lophozia
wenzelii
(NEEs)
STEPH.
1
0.3
Pohlia
nutans
(HDW
.
)
LINDB.
1
0.3
Calliergon
stramineum
(BRID.)
KINDB.
1
0.3
Peltigera
aphthosa
(L.)
WILLD.
Localities:
52.
Grondalen,
opening
of
the
valley,
on
the
"thUfur"
formation
about
30
cm
high,
3
m
2
,
12.7.85
56.
W
slope
of
Bykollen
near
Barentsburg,
1
m
2
,
12.7.85
73.
raised
beach
below
Bykollen
near
the
road,
10
m
2
,
15.7.85
Saxifraga
cernua-Philonotis
tomentella
community
This
community,
dominated
by
Philonotis
tomentella,
was
found
only
once,
but
it
seems
to
be
a
fairly
characteristic
community.
Philonotis
tomentella
and
Bryum
pallens
occur
practically
only
in
this
community.
Releve
n.
75.
Barentsburg,
W
slope
of
Grondalsfjellet
above
the
museum;
6
m
2
,
16.7.85.
Saxifraga
cernua
L.
4,
Ranunculus
pygmaeus
WAHLENB.
3,
Poa
alpina
L.
var.
vivipara
L.
4,
HADAC:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
145
Deschampsia
alpina
(L.)
R.
et
Sex.
4,
Oxyria
digyma
(L.)
HILL
3,
Poa
arctica
R.
BR.
3,
Saxilraga
rivularis
L.
2,
S.
tenuis
(WAHLENB.)
H.
SM.
2,
Ranunculus
sulphureus
SoL.
2,
Sasifraga
foliolosa
R.
BR.
2,
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
1,
Luzula
conlusa
(HARTM.)
LINDH.
1,
Saxilraga
cespitosa
L.
1,
Bisiorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
1,
Draba
alpina
L.
1,
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
(L.)
A.
et
D.
LOVE
1,
Philonotis
tomentella
MOL.
7,
Bryum
pallens
Sw.
4,
Drepanocladus
exannulatus
(B.
S.
G.)
WARNST.
4,
Polytrichum
alpinum
HEDW.
4,
Calliergon
stramineum
(Bain.)
KINDS.
1.
Equisetetum
borealis
HADA6
1946
saxifragetosum
rivularis
subass.
nova
Holotype
of
the
subass.:
n.
112.
Tab.
9.
Table
9.
Equisetetum
borealis
HADA6
1946
saxifragetosum
rivularis
HADAo
Releve
nr.:
Slope,
aspect:
Cover
of
vascular
plants,
%:
Cover
of
bryophytes,
%:
number
of
vascular
plant
species:
number
of
bryophyte
species:
95
40
60
7
6
107
25
80
5
9
108
40
60
7
2
Equisetum
boreale
BONG.
5
5
8
Saxilraga
rivularis
L.
4
1
3
S.
foliolosa
R.
BR.
2 2 2
Salix
polaris
WAHLENBG.
2
4
Cardamine
nymanii
GAUD.
4
Luzula
conlusa
(HARTM.)
LINDEB.
2
Alopecurus
alpinus
Sie.
1 1
Ranunculus
sulphureus
Sol..
+
Hippo(';mete
variegate
(SCHLEICH.)
BRUHIN
Oncophorus
wahlenbergii
BRID.
2
5
3
Dicranum
elongatum
SCHLEICH.
1
3
Calliergon
sarmentosum
(WAHLENB.)
KINDS.
1 1
Polytrichum
alpinum
HEDW.
3
2 2
Drepanocladus
uncinatus
(HDW.)
WARNSTF.
Sphagnum
teres
(SCRIMP.)
ANGSTR.
2
Ditrirhum
fi
exicaule
(SCHWAEG.)
HAMPE
Drepanocladus
exannulatus
(B.S.G.)
WARNST.
8
7
Localities:
95.
Vassdalen,
200
m
NE
from
the
borehole,
5
m2,
19.7.85
107.
Vassdalen,
100
m
S
from
the
houses
near
the
river,
2
m
2
,
21.
7.
85
108.
Vassdalen,
ca
30
m
S
of
the
houses,
3
m
2
,
21.7.85
109.
on
the
river
bank,
Vassdalen,
W
of
the
houses,
5
m
2
,
21.7.85
112.
near
the
Vassdalsriver
W
from
the
borehole,
4
m
2
,
21.7.85
In
one
releve
only:
n.
95.
Cardamine
bellidifolia
L.
1,
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
(L.)
LOVE
1,
Ptilidium
ciliare
(L.)
HAMPE
1,
Drepanocladus
exannulatus
(B.S.G.)
WARNST.
8
n.
107.
Aulacomnium
turgidum
(WAHLENB.)
SCHWAEG.
1,
Blepharostoma
trichophyllum
(L.)
Dum.
1,
Sphagnum
aongstroemii
HARTM.
2
n.
108.
Saxifraga
cernua
L.
2
n.
109.
Hydrohypnum
polare
(LINDH.)
LOESKE
1,
Drepanocladus
badius
(HARTM.)
ROTH
1
n.
112.
Phippsia
algida
(SoL.)
R.
BR.
1,
Scapania
obcordata
(BERGGR.)
S.
ARN.
1
109
112
K
0
25 25
31
80
90
74
8
7 7
7
6
6
6
4
2
1
2
1
3
4
2
1
1
1 1
3
1
4 4
6
. .
7
7
.
1
3
4
V
5.6
V
2.2
V
1.8
IV
2.6
III
1.3
II
0.6
II
0.4
II
0.3
II
0.4
V
2.8
IV
2.4
II1
1.6
III
1.4
II
2.8
II
0.6
II
1.4
II
3.0
146
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
Equisetetum
borealis
was
described
in
the
Sassenquarter.
Our
community
has
the
following
species
in
common
with
the
typical
association
Equisetum
arvense
subsp.
boreale,
Salix
polaris,
Alopecurus
alpinus,
Luzula
confusa,
Saxifraga
cernua,
Drepanocladus
polycarpus,
Aulacomnium
turgidum
and
Polytrichum
alpinum,
so
it
is
clear
that
they
belong
to
the
same
association,
but
in
Vassdalen
occur
constantly
Saxifraga
rivularis
and
S.
foliolosa,
lacking
in
the
typical
subassociation.
They
are
thus
good
differentiating
species.
Sphagnum
teres
and
Ditrichum
flexicaule
can
be
named
as
local
characteristic.
There
are
on
the
average
6
species
of
vascular
plants
and
6
of
bryophytes
in
one
releve,
in
5
releves
13
species
of
fl
owering
plants
and
16
species
of
bryophytes
were
found.
Vascular
plants
cover
about
30
%,
mosses
74
%
of
the
surface.
Equisetetum
borealis
colonises
clayey
ground
in
periodically
inundated
localities.
It
has
less
water
compared
to
the
Drepanoclado-Ranunculetum
hyperborei.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(
%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
34
7
3
56
with
respect
to
abundance:
22
9
17
52
THLASPIETEA
ROTUNDIFOLII
BR.
-BL.
1948
Androsacetalia
alpinae
BR.
-BL;
1926
Two
alliances
belong
to
this
order
in
Spitsbergen:
Cerastio-Saxifragion
cernuae
and
Ranunculo-Oxyrion.
They
have
in
common
Oxyria
digyna,
C
erastium
arcticum,
Salix
polaris,
Saxifraga
cernua,
S.
cespitosa
etc.
In
the
Cerastio-Saxifragion
we
fi
nd
i.a.
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica,
Peltigera
canina
etc.,
not
occurring
in
Ranuncu-
lo-Oxyrion,
and
in
Ranunculo-Oxyrion
there
is
Trisetum
spicatum,
Equisetum
boreale,
Polytrichum
sexangulare
etc.,
not
found
in
Cerastio-Saxifragion.
Cerastio-Saxifragion
cernuae
HARTMANN
1980
This
alliance
may
be
characterized
by
the
optimum
of
Saxifraga
cespitosa,
Oxyria
digyna
and
Peltigera
canina
(at
least
in
our
material).
HARTMANN
described
this
alliance
provisorily
from
the
slopes
of
the
Plataberget
near
Hotelneset
and
from
Templefjord.
He
found
two
communities,
the
Poa
alpigena-Alopecurus
alpinus
comm.
and
Poo
pratensis-Festuca
rubra
subsp.
richardsonii
comm.
In
our
opinion
at
least
the
fi
rst
one
represents
a
well
described
association.
Poo
alpigenae-Alopecuretum
alpini
HARTM.
ex
HADA6
1989
Type
releve:
n.
1
in
HARTMAN
1980:
tab.
6.
Thus
Poo
alpigenae-Alopecuretum
alpini
becomes
also
the
type
association
of
this
alliance.
I
have
observed
three
communities
belonging
to
this
alliance:
Chrysosplenium
tetrandrum
comm.,
Polemonium
boreale
comm.
and
Saxifraga
cespitosa
comm.
HADAL':
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
147
Chrysosplenium
tetrandrum
community
Releve
n.
17.
Vardeborg,
below
birdcliffs,
3
in
2
,
40°W,
5.7.85
Cover:
vascular
plants
30
%,
bryophytes
and
lichens
70
%.
Chrysosplenium
tetrandrum
(LUND)
TH.
Fn.
6,
Saxifraga
rivularis
L.
4,
Poa
alpina
L.
3,
Saxifra-
ga
nivalis
L.
2,
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
1,
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
L.
2,
Saxifraga
cernua
L.
2,
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
1,
Salix
polaris
WAHLENB.
2,
Camptothecium
nitens
(HEDW.)
SCHIMP.
7,
Marchantia
polymorpha
L.
4,
Aulacomnium
turgidum
(WAHLENB.)
SCHWAEGR.
1,
Bryum
sp.
4,
Drepanoclalus
uncinatus
(HEDw.)
WARNST.
1,
Hylocomium
splendens
(HEDW.)
B.S.G.
1,
Tetraplodon
mnioides
(HEnw.)
B.S.G.
1,
Plagiomnium
sp.
1,
Peltigera
canina
(L.)
WILLD.
1.
Characteristic
for
this
community
are
Chrysosplenium
tetrandrum
and
Marchantia
polymorpha.
Polemonium
boreale
community
Releve
n.
55.,
Bykollen,
unciar
a
birdcliff,
1
m
2
,
40'W,
cover
90
%,
12.7.85
1'olemonium
bwea!e
ADAMS
7,
Saxifraga
ceaspitosa
L.
6,
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
4,
Draba
nivalis
LILJEBL.
2.
This
co
nmunity
may
be
characterized
by
Polemonium
boreale.
Saxifraga
caespitosa
community
Releve
n.
16.,
under
the
birdcliff
of
Vardeborg,
5
ni
2
,
35-40'W.
Cover:
vascular
plants
60
%,
bryophytes
40
%.
Soil
reactions:
9.9
pH,
C
ox
.
32.28,
humus
54.5
%,
5.7.1985.
Saxifraga
caespitosa
L.
6,
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
5,
Ranunculus
sulphureus
SOL.
2,
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
2,
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
4,
Luzula
confusa
(HARTM.
)
LINDEB6L.
3,
Draba
alpina
L.
2,
Saxifraga
cernua
L.
3,
S.
rivularis
L.
2,
8.
oppositifolia
L.
2,
Salix
polaris
WAH-
LENB.
3,
Saxifraga
nivalis
L.
1,
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
(L.)
A.et
D.
LovE
2,
Dicranum
elongatum
SCHLEICH.
5,
l'olytrichum
juniperinum
HEDw.
3,
Climacium
dendroides
(HEnw.)
WEB.
et
MOHR
5,
Hylocomium
splendens
(HEDW.)
BSG.
4,
Drepanocladus
uncinatus
(HEDw.)
WARNST.
2,
Peltigera
canina
(L.)
WILLD.
1.
In
this
community
Saxifraga
caespitosa
and
Climacium
dendroides
have
their
optimum.
Ranunculo-Oxyrion
NORDHAGEN
1936
Saxifrago-Ranunculenion
nivalis
NORDH.
1943
Oxyrio-Trisetetum
spicati
HADA6
(1946)
nomen
novum
Basionym:
Trisetetum
spicati
spitsbergense
HADAe
1946:
149
Tab.
10.
The
alliance
Ranunculo-Oxyrion
and
its
suballiance
Saxifrago-Ranunculenion
nivalis
may
be
characterized
by
Ranunculus
nivalis,
R.
pygmaeus,
Lidia
biflora
and
Trisetum
spicatum.
The
association
Oxyrio-Trisetetum
occurs
on
well
drained,
148
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
Table
10.
Oxyrio-Trisetetum
spicati
HADA.o
(1946)
nom.
novum
Releve
nr.:
8
58
60
66
77
K
0
Slope:
35
30
35
30
40
34
Aspect:
W
SW
W W
SW
Cover
%,
vascular
plants:
80
60 60 60
50
62
Cover
%,
bryophytes
&
lichens:
30
40 40
20
50
36
Number
of
vascular
plant
species:
20
11
17 17
12
15
Number
of
bryophyte
species:
7
8
6
7
6
7
Number
of
lichen
species:
3 3
5
6
3
Trisetum
spicatum
(L.)
RICHT.
5
6
6 6
6
V
5.8
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
2
4
2
4 4
V
3.2
Poa
arctica
R.
BR.
f.
vivipara
4
2
4
5
2
V
3.4
Salix
polaris
WAIILENB.
4
5
2 2
2
V
3.0
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
5
5
4
4
2
V
4.0
Draba
alpina
L.
2
2
3
1 1
V
1.8
Ranunculus
pygmaeus
WAHLENB.
3
1
2
1
4
V
2.2
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
1
2
4
3
1
V
2.2
Poa
alpina
L.
v.
vivipara
L.
2
.
2
1
1
IV
1.2
Lidia
biflora
(L.)
A.
et
D.
MITE
1
2
4
5
IV
2.4
Luzula
confusa
(HARTM.)
LINDEB.
3
1
3
.
III
1.4
Festuca
prolif
era
(PIP.)
FERN.
2
1
2
III
1.0
Saxifraga
cernua
L.
2
.
2
3
III
1.4
Alopecurus
alpinus
Sm.
1
3
II
0.8
Ranunculus
sulphureus
SOL.
3
1
II
0.8
Draba
lactea
ADAMS
2
1
II
0.6
Potentilla
hyparctica
MALTE
2
1
II
0.6
Saxifraga
caespitosa
L.
2
.
4
II
1.2
Ranunculus
nivalis
L.
2
1
II
0.6
Drepanocladus
uncinatus
(HDw.)
WARNSTF.
4
5
3
5
4
V
4.2
Dicranum
elongatum
SCHLEICH.
3
3
5
1
4
V
3.2
Hylocomium
alascanum
(LESQ.
et
JAM.)
KINDS.
4
5
1
+
IV
1.9.
Bryum
sp.
1
3
3
2
4
V
2.6
Polytrichum
juniperinum
HEDW.
1
.
5
2
III
1.6
Aulacomnium
turgidum
(WAHLENB.)
SCHW.
4
2
II
1.2
Cirriphyllum
cirrosum
(SCHW.)
GROUT
2
1
II
0.6
Polytrichum
sexangulare
BRID.
3
.
5
II
1.6
P.
alpinum
HEDW.
2
2
II
0.8
Peltigera
ruf
escens
(WEiss.)
Hums.
1
3
2
2
IV
1.6
Cladonia
pyxidata
(L.)
HOFFM.
1
1
1
2
IV
1.0
Stereocaulon
alpinum
LAURER
3
1
11
0.8
Getraria
delisei
(BORRER)
NYL.
2
1
II
0.6
Peltigera
aphthosa
(L.)
WILLD.
1
1
II
0.4
Psoroma
hypnorum
(VAHL)
GRAY
1
1
II
0.4
In
one
releve
only:
8.
Silene
acaulis
(L.)
JACQ.
ssp.
arctica
A.
et
D.
LovE
1,
Saxifraga
nivalis
L.
1
58.
Taraxacum
arcticum
DAHLST.
2,
Draba
nivalis
LILJEBL.
1,
Camptothecium
nitens
(HEDW.
)
SCHImr.
2
66.
Stellaria
crassipes
HULTtN
2,
Draba
norvegica
GUNN.
2,
Festuca
cryophila
KRECZ.
et
Ross.
1;
1;
Equisetum
boreale
BONG.
1
77.
Racomitrium
langinosum
(HEDW.)
BRID.
1,
Peltigera
lepidophora
(NYL.)
BITTER
1
HADAU:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
149
Localities:
8.
Gronfjordfjellet,
second
terrace,
near
the
abandonned
pit,
5
m
2
,
4.7.85,
pHicoi
4.7,
Co.
4.9,
humus
8.4
%.
60.
Gronfjordfjellet,
above
the
heating
plant,
5
m
2
,
13.
7.
85
58.
Gronfjellet,
above
the
meteorological
station,
5
m
2
,
13.7.85
66.
Gladdalen,
10
m
2
,
15.7.85
77.
Gronfjordfjellet,
above
the
Museum,
5
m
2
,
16.7.85
nearly
constantly
moist
steep
slopes,
in
winter
probably
well
covered
by
snow.
Its
characteristic
species
in
the
area
investigated
are
Festuca
prolifera,
Potentilla
hyparctica
and
Cirriphyllum
cirrosum.
Soil
in
this
community
in
the
Sassenquarter
had
7-16
%
organic
matter
and
pH
5.2-6.1.
Table
11.
Oxyrio-Trisetetum
.spicati
poeto.sum
arcticae
HADA6
Releve
nr.:
120
121
122
0
Slope
°:
20
25
15
20
aspect:
SW
S
SW
Cover
(%),
vascular
plants:
90 90
90
90
bryophytes
&
lichens
10 10
25
15
Number
of
vascular
plant
species:
10
4
10
8
bryophyte
species:
6
3
4 4
lichen
species:
1
Poa
arctica
R.
BR.
8
6
8
7.3
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
5
7
5
5.7
Luzula
conjusa
(HARTM
.
)
LINDEBL.
5
1
3
3.0
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
2
1
4
2.3
Salix
polaris
WAHLENs.
2
3
1.7
Trisetum
spicatum
(L.)
RICHT.
5
1
2.0
Saxifraga
caespitosa
L.
1 1
0.7
Eguisetum
boreale
BONG.
4
1.3
Draba
nivalis
LILIEBL.
2
0.7
Stellaria
crassipes
HULTEN
2
.
0.7
Draba
alpina
L.
2
0.7
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
2
0.7
Drepanocladus
uncinatus
(HEDW.)
WARNSTF.
4 4
5
4.3
Pohlia
nutans
(11Dw
.)
LINDB.
3
4
2.3
Polytrichum
alpinum
HEDW.
3
3
2.0
Ceratodon
purpureus
(HEDw.)
BRID.
.
1
1
0.7
Bryum
sp.
3
1.0
Dicranum
elongatum
SCRLEICH.
2
0.7
Aulacomnium
turgidum
(WAHLENs.)
ScHw
.
1
0.3
Leptobryum
pyriforme
(HEDW.)
WiLs.
2
0.7,
Cladonia
gracilis
(L.)
WILLD.
1
0.3
Localities:
120.
Gladdalen,
upper
part,
2
m
2
,
26.7.85
121.
Gladdalen,
below
the
sporting
ground,
5
m
2
,
26.7.85
122.
Gladdalen,
between
the
road
and
thermoduct,
3
m
2
,
26.7.85
150
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
In
one
releve
were
found
11-15-20
species
of
fl
owering
plants
(27
species
in
5
releves),
7
species
of
bryophytes
(12
in
5
releves)
and
3
lichen
species
(7
in
5
releves).
It
is
thus
a
relatively
very
rich
community.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
35
18
3
26
18
with
respect
to
abundance:
37
19
7
29
8
Oxyrio-Trisetetum
spicati
subass.
poetosum
arcticae,
subass.
nova
Tab.
11.
Holotype
n.
122.
This
subassociation
was
found
only
in
the
neighbourhood
of
Barentsburg;
an-
thropic
influence
may
be
seen
i.a.
by
the
occurrence
of
Ceratodonpurpureus.
It
shows
a
resemblance
to
the
Oxyrio-Trisetetum
typicum,
but
its
ecotope
is
dryer
and
its
specific
diversity
is
lower.
It
is
characterized
by
the
dominancy
of
Poa
arctica
and
Bistorta
vivipara.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
19
28
10
38
5
with
respect
to
abundance:
34
17
18
30
1
Ranunculo
pygmaei-Caricetum
lachenalii
ass.
nova
Holotype:
Tab.
12.
n.
54.
This
is
a
typical
community
of
snowbeds,
where
snow
probably
lies
to
the
end
of
June.
It
is
not
so
well
drained
as
Oxyrio-Trisetetum,
so
water
stagnates
often
on
the
surface.
Characteristic
species
is
Carex
lachenalii,
not
found
in
other
com-
munities,
Lophozia
alpestris
and
Cynodontium
polycarpon.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
36
13
6
32
13
with
respect
to
abundance:
40
14
11
28
7
SALICETEA
HERBACEAE
BR.
-BL.
1947
Salicetalia
herbaceae
BR.
-BL.
et
JENNY
1926
Salicion
polaris
DuRIETz
1943
emend.
HADA6
Syn.:
Luzulion
arcticae
(NoRmi.)
GJAEREVOLL
1956
The
nomenclature
of
the
northernmost
outposts
of
snow
bed
communities
is
not
yet
quite
clear.
They
have
several
species
in
common
with
Luzulion
nivalis
(Luzula
arctica,
Bistorta
vivipara,
Salix
polaris,
Saxifraga
oppositifolia,
Silene
HADAt:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
151
Table
12.
Ranunculo
pygmaei-Caricetum
lachenalii
HADA6
Relove
nr.:
54
84
87
89
0
slope:
10
10
5
10
9
aspect:
SW
S
S
SW
cover
%,
vascular
plants
70
50
70
60
62
cover
%,
bryophytes
and
lichens
30
50
30
50
62
number
of
vascular
plant
species:
9
11
12
11
11
number
of
bryophyte
species:
5
4
2
5
4
number
of
lichen
species:
2
1 1
2
2
Carex
lachenalii
SCHKUHR
7
5
7 7
6.5
Ranunculus
pyymaeus
WAHLENB.
3
5
4
3
3.7
Lidia
biflora
(L.)
A.
et
D.
UWE.
2 2
2
4
2.5
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
3 3 3 3
2.7
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
4
4 4
3
3.7
Salix
polaris
WAHLENB.
4
3 3
2.5
Ranunculus
nivalis
L.
1 1
4
1.5
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
.
3
1
1
1.2
Trisetum
spicatum
(L.)
RICHT.
3
1
1.0
Equisetum
boreale
BONG.
3
.
4
1.7
Poa
alpina
L.
var.
vivipara
L.
2
2
1.0
l'oa
arctica
R.
BR.
2
2
1.0
Draba
alpina
L.
.
1 1
0.5
Saxifraga
nivalis
L.
2
0.5
S.
rivularis
L.
2
0.5
Cardamine
nymanii
GAND.
1
0.2
Luzula
confusa
(HARTM.)
LINDER.
1
0.2
Drepanocladus
uncinatus
(HEDw.)
WARNSTF.
5
4
5
3.5
Bryum
sp.
4
5
5
3.5
Polytrichum
alpinum
HEDW.
3
4
1.7
Pohlza
nutans
(HEDw.)
LINDB.
1
2
0.7
Polytrichum
sexangulare
BRID.
5
1.2
P.
juniperinum
HEDW.
5
1.2
Lophozia
alpestris
(ScHLEIcx.)
EvANs
1
0.2
Pohlia
drummondii
(C.
MULL.)
ANDR.
1
.
0.2
Dicranum
elongatum
SCHLEICH.
1
0.2
Cynodontium
polycarpon
(HEDw.)
Sciumr.
5
1.2
Stereocaulon
alpinum
LAUER
3
1
3
1.7
Cladonia
pyxidata
(L.)
HOFFM.
2
0.5
Cetraria
islandica
(L.)
ACH.
3
0.7
Peltigera
rufesrens
(WEiss)
Hums.
2
0.5
Localities:
54.
Grondalen,
ca
0.5
km
from
the
opening,
10
m
2
,
12.7.85
84.
Brattdalen-delta,
4
m
2
,
18.7.85
87.
opening
of
Brattdalen,
3
m
2
,
18.7.85
89.
Grondalen,
1
km
from
the
opening
of
the
valley,
5
m2,
18.7.85
acaulis
etc.)
On
the
other
hand
Stellaria
crassipes,
named
by
GJAEREVOLL
as
the
characteristic
species
of
Luzulion
arcticae,
is
very
rare
in
the
communities
of
this
group
in
our
material;
Spergella
caespitosa
(Sagina
c.)
and
Poa
stricta
are
lacking.
152
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMIC..4
24,
1989
Table
13.
Luzulo
confusae-Salicetum
polaris
HADA
e
Releve
nr.:
1
5
6
22
26
62
64
65
K
m
Slope':
15
20
30
- -
-
7
9
Aspect:
W
NW
WNW
-
-
E
pHxci
4.1
4.3
5.5
6.0
5.9
- -
5.2
CO3,
humus
%
6.2
10.7
4.4
7.6
2.8
4.7
5.4
9.3
7.4
12.7
-
- -
5.2
9.0
Cover
%
,
vascular
plants
30
25
30
35
55
30 30
25
32
bryophytes
&
lichens
90
70
80
70
45
70
70
80
72
Number
of
vascular
plant
species
7
12
12
8
7
6
11
13
10
Number
of
bryophyte
species
7
7
9 9
7
10
16
10
9
Number
of
lichen
species
5
6
1
4
5
6
2 2
4
Salix
polaris
WAHLENB.
6
3
4
5
6
6
5
5
V
5.0
Luzula
confusa
(HARTM.)
4 4
5
4
5
4
4
3
V
4.1
LINDEB.
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
2
4 4
2 2
1
+
1
V
2.0
Saxifraga
caespitosa
L.
2
4
1 1
1 1
2
V
1.5
S.
oppositifolia
L.
. .
4
2
1
3
III
1.2
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
1
3
2
.
3
I
1.1
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
2 2
1
3
.
I
II
II
1.0
Pedicularis
hirsuta
L.
3
1
1
II
0.6
Poa
alpina
L.
var.
vivipara
L.
2 2
3
.
II
0.9
Draba
alpina
L.
2
1
II
0.4
Saxifraga
nivalis
L.
1 1
II
0.2
S.
rivularis
L.
1 1
II
0.2
S.
foliolosa
R.
BR.
1
2
II
0.4
Silene
acaulis
(L.)
JACQ.
subsp.
arctica
LOVE
1
1
II
0.2
Luzula
arctica
BLYTT
.
2
3
II
0.6
Ranunculus
eulphureus
SOLAND
. .
2
1
II
0.4
Saxifraga
cernua
L.
.
1
1
II
0.2
Hippochaete
variegates
(Som.)
.
1 1
II
0.2
BRU
H.
Cardamine
bellidifolia
L.
1
1
. .
1
II
0.4
Dicranum
elongatum
SCHLEICH.
6
4
1
7 7
7
4 4
V
5.0
Drepanocladus
uncinatus
7
4
8
1
1
3
5
4
V
4.1
(HEDW.)
WARNS.
Hylocomium
alascanum
1
5
1
2 2
4
3
7
V
3.1
(LEsQ.
et
JAM.)
KINDB.
Aulocomnium
turgidum
1
4
1
4
5
IV
1.9
(WAHLE.)
SCHWAEU.
Ptilidium
ciliare
(L.)
HA
M'PE
2
2
1
2
1
IV
1.0
Racomitrium
lanuginosum
2
2
4 4
III
1.5
(1-inw.)
GRID.
Polytrichum
juniperinum
HEDW.
2
4
3
5
.
III
1.7
Gymnomitrium
coralloides
NEES
4
3
.
II
0.9
Bryum
sp.
1 1
.
II
0.2
Sphenolobus
minutus
1
.
1
II
0.2
(ScHw.)
BERGGR.
Camptothecium
nitens
1
1
2
II
0.5
(HEDW.)
SCRIMP.
Oncophorus
wahlenbergii
BRID
.
.
4
1
II
0.6
HAD/O:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
153
1
5
6
22
26
62
64
65
K
Kiaeria
glacialis
(BERGGR.)
1
1
II
0.2
I.
HAGEN
Blepharostoma
trichophyllum
1 1
II
0.2
(L.)
Dum.
Tritomaria
quinquedentata
Buell
1
1
II
0.2
Stereocaulon
alpinum
LAURER
2
5
1
3
2
3
1 1
V
2.2
Cetraria
islandica
(L.)
Acx.
2 2 2
1
1
IV
1.0
Psoroma
hypnorum
(VARt
)
4 4
3
II
1.3
GRAY
Cladonia
mitis
SANDST.
4
1 1
II
0.7
Cetraria
delisei
(BORRER)
NYL.
3
4
II
0.9
Cladonia
pyxidata
(L.)
HOFFM.
1
2
II
0.4
Pannaria
pezizoides
(WEBER)
1 1
II
0.2
TREVIS.
Peltigera
rufescens
1
2
II
0.4
(WEiss)
Hums.
Thamnolia
subuliformis
W.
1
1
II
0.4
CULB.
Localities:
1.
slope
of
Gronfjortlfjellet
above
the
Consulate,
8
m
2
,
4.7.85
5.
ibidem
ca
200
m
E
from
n.
1.3
m
2
,
4.7.85
6.
Gronfjordfjellet
above
the
port,
10
m
2
,
4.7.85
22.
Linnedalen:
Vardeborgsletta
near
the
Russekeila
hut,
6
m
2
,
6.7.85
26.
near
the
Russekeila-hut,
5
m
2
,
6.
7.
85
62.
Minervaodden
(Gronfjord),
4
m
2
,
14.
7.
85
64.
Kongressdalen,
near
the
sea
shore,
5
m
2
,
14.
7.
85
65.
Kongressdalen,
about
100
m
W
from
n.
64.5
m
2
,
14.
7.
85
In
one
releve
only:
n.
1.
Cirriphyllum
cirrosum
(SCHWAEOR).
GROUT
1
n.
5.
Huperzia
selago
(L.)
BERNH.
2,
Cynodontium
polycarpon
(HEDW.)
SCHIMP.
1
n.
6.
Saxifraga
tenuis
(WAHLENB.)
H.
SM.
1,
Draba
oblongata
R.
BR.
1,
Polytrichum
alpinum
HEDW.
4,
Calliergon
stramineum
(BRID.)
KINEB.
2
n.
22.
Gymnamitrion
coneinnatuin
(LEITF.)
CORDA
1,
Pogonatum
rapillare
2,
Cetraria
nivalis
(L.)
ACH.
1
n.
26.
Racomitrium
canescens
(HEDW.)
BRID.
2,
Pertusaria
bryontha
(AcH.)
NYL.
2,
Cladonia
portentosa
(DUFOUR)
COEM
n.
62.
Dicranum
fuscescens
SMITH
1,
Timmia
attstriaca
HEDW.
1
n.
64.
Cinclidium
.sitbrotundum
1,
Tritomariaquinquedentata
(Huns.)
BUCH
1,
Anthelia
juratzkana
(LIMPR.)
TREv.
1,
Lophozia
polaris
1,
Lophozia
heterocolpos
(THED.)
HOWE
1,
Pleurozium
schreberi
(BRID.)
MITT.
1,
Pohlia
drummondi
(C.
Mum—)
ANDR.
1
n.
65.
Poa
archca
R.
BR.
1,
Polytrichum
sexangulare
BRID.
1
I
fi
nd
more
similarities
between
the
Spitsbergen
communities
of
snow
beds
and
the
GJAEREVOLL'S
"Polarion"
with
Salix
polaris,
Silene
acaulis,
Saxifraga
oppositi-
folia,
Bistorta
vivipara,
Hippochaete
variegata,
Oxyria
digyna,
Drepanocladus
unci-
fl
atus,
Anthelia
juratzkana,
Cetraria
delisei
etc.
It
is
usual
in
Scandinavia
to
divide
snowbed
communities
on
limestone
and
154
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTATOXONOMICA
24,
1989
on
silicaceous
substrate.
In
the
High
Arctic
the
difference
between
them
is
not
so
great
as
to
form
different
alliances.
As
to
the
priority
of
the
name
Luzulion
nivalis,
GJAEREVOLL
and
ELVEBAKK
refer
to
"NORDHAGEN
1936";
this
must
be
his
"Versuch
einer
neuen
Einteilung
der
subalpinen-alpinen
Vegetation
Norvegens,"
but
I
cannot
fi
nd
any
description
of
this
alliance
in
this
paper.
Soil
reaction
in
plant
communities
of
this
alliance
shows
in
our
material
pH
4.1-6.0,
C"
2.5-7.4
%
and
humus
content
4.4-12.7
%.
Characteristic
species
of
Salicion
polaris
are
Luzula
arctica,
Gymnomitrium
coralloides,
Blepharostoma
trichophyllum,
Scapan
obcordata,
Cetraria
delisei,
Psoroma
hypnorum
and
Pannaria
pezizoides.
Luzulo
confusae-Salicetum
polaris
ass.
nova
Holotype:
Tab.
13,
n.
65.
This
association
is
frequent
in
the
Barentsburg
area
as
well
as
at
Russekeila
and
Kongressdalen.
It
was
observed
also
near
Pyramiden.
It
prefers
moderate
snow
cover.
Vascular
plants
cover
about
40
%,
bryophytes
and
lichens
60
%
of
the
surface.
There
are
on
the
average
9-10
vascular
plant
species,
9
bryophytes
and
4
lichen
species
in
one
releve,
in
8
releves
23
species
of
vascular
plants,
31
species
of
bryophytes
and
11
species
of
lichens,
were
noted
in
all
65
species.
Characteristic
species
are
Sphenolobus
minutus,
Kiaeria
glacialis
and
Tritomaria
guinguedentata.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(%:
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
26
17
2
36
19
with
respect
to
abundance:
18
21
2
--
44
15
Pediculari
hirsutae-Gymnomitrietum
coralloidis
ass.
nova
Holotype:
Tab.
14.
n.
3.
This
is
a
relatively
late
snowbed
community.
Vascular
plants
cover
only
14
%,
bryophytes
and
lichens
92
%
of
the
surface.
There
are
on
the
average
6
species
of
vascular
plants,
8
species
of
bryophytes
and
6
species
of
lichens
in
one
releve;
in
three
releves
10
species
of
vascular
plants,
15
species
of
Bryophytes
and
9
of
lichens
were
noted.
Soil
in
this
community
is
heavily
disturbed
by
solifluction.
Characteristic
species
are
Spergella
intermedia,
Gymnomitrium
coralloides
(opt.)
and
G.
concinnatum,
Cephalozia
ambigua
and
Solorina
crocea.
I
have
found
this
community
also
in
Arnicadalen
(HADAO
1946:
147):
Salix
polaris
4
5
Pedicularis
hirsuta
3,
Luzula
confusa
3,
Bistorta
vivipara
3,
Poa
arctica
2,
Gymnomitrium
coralloides
9,
Cetraria
delisei
3,
Polytrichum
sexangulare
4,
Solorina
crocea
,
Cladonia
cocci
f
era
4-.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(%:
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
19
9
3
44
26
with
respect
to
abundance:
13
11
4
45
27
HADAC:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
155
Table
14.
Pediculari
hirsutae-Gymnomitrietum
coralloidis
HADAe
Re'eve
nr.:
3
51
59
0
Slope':
25
5
20
17
Aspect:
W
SW
W
Cover
(%):
vascular
plants:
7
20
15
14
Cover
(%):
bryophytes
&
lichens:
90 90
95
92
Number
of
vascular
plant
species:
6
3
9
6
Number
of
bryophyte
species:
9
7
9
8
Number
of
lichen
species:
6
7
5
6
Pedicularis
hirsuta
L.
2
2
1
1.7
Salix
polaris
WAHLENB.
4
5
4
4.3
Luzula
confusa
(HARTM.)
LINDEB.
3
3
2
2.7
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
2
4
2.0
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
2
1
1.0
Poe
alpina
L.
2
.
0.7
Draba
lactea
ADAMS
1
0.3
Luzula
arctica
BLYTT
2
0.7
Saxifraga
foliolosa
R.
BR.
1
0.3
Poe
arctica
R.
BR.
0.2
Gymnornitrion
coralloides
NEES
8
8 8
8.0
Dicranum
elongatum
SCELEICH.
4
4
2
3.3
Drepanocladus
uncinatus
(HEDw
.)
WARNSTF.
3
3
2.0
Polytrichum
sexangulare
BRID.
2
2
1.3
Bryum
pallescens
Ws.
3
2
1.7
Gymnomitrion
concinnatum
(LIGHTF.)
CORDA
4
1
1.7
Racomitrium
lanuginosum
(HEDW.)
BRID.
1
3
1.3
Scapania
obcordata
(BERGGR.)
S.
ARN.
1 1
0.7
Aulacomnium
turgidum
(WAHLENB.)
SCHWAEG.
2
0.7
Blepharostoma
trichophyllum
(L.)
Dun.
1
0.3
Cephalozia
ambigua
MASS.
1
0.3
Oncophorus
wahlenbergii
BRID.
1
0.3
Pohlia
drummondii
(MULLER)
ANDR.
1
0.3
Polytrichum
juniperinum
HEDW.
1
0.3
Hylocomium
alascanum
(LEsQ.
et
JAM.)
KINDS.
1
0.3
Psoroma
hypnorum
(VAHL)
GRAY
5
2
3
3.3
Stereocaulon
alpinum
LAURER
3
5
4
4.0
Cetraria
delisei
(BORRER)
NYL.
2
3
4
3.0
Cladonia
mills
SANDST.
1
1
0.7
C.
pyxidata
(L.)
HOFFM.
1
1
0.7
Cetraria
islandica
(L.)
ACH.
1
2
1.0
Peltigera
rufescens
(WErss)
Hums.
1
0.3
Solorina
crocea
(L.)
ACH.
1
0.3
Cornicularia
aculeata
(SCREB.)
ACH.
1
0.3
Localities:
3.
Gronfjordfjellet
above
the
center
of
Barentsburg,
4
m
2
,
pH
K
ci
4.13,
C
ox
2.52,
humus
4.35
%,
4.7.85
51.
Grondalen,
about
3
km
distant
from
the
sea,
2
m
2
,
12.7.85
59.
Gronfjordfjell,
above
the
heating
plant,
2
m
2
,
13.7.85
156
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989'
Table
15.
Cerastium,
arctioum,-Anthelia
juratzkana
comm.
Re'eve
n.
4
61
69
0
Slope':
25
10
15
17
aspect:
NE
W W
Cover
%),
vascular
plants:
20
10
20
17
Cover
(%),
bryophytes
and
lichens:
80
90
80
83
Number
of
vascular
plant
species:
7
12
8
9
Number
of
bryophyte
species:
6
6
7
6
Number
of
lichen
species:
7
5
3
5
Luzula
confusa
(HAEYm.)
LINDEB.
5
2 2
3.0
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
3
1
1
1.7
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
2
1
4
2.3
Salix
polaris
WAHLENB.
4 4
2.7
Poa
arctica
H.
BR.
3
3
2.0
Poa
alpina
L.
2
.
1
1.0
Sagina
intermedia
FENZL
1
1
0.7
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
3
2
1.7
Saxifraga
caespitosa
L.
2
0.7
S.
tenuis
(WAHLENB.)
H.
SM.
1
0.3
Luzula
arctica
BLYTT
2
0.7
Lidia
blflora
(L.)
A.
et
D.
LovE
1
0.3
Stellaria
crassipes
HuLYtN
1
0.3
Saxifraga
svalbardensis
OEVSTEDAL
1
0.3
Ranunculus
pygmaeus
WAHLENB.
1
0.3
Anthelia
furatzkana
(LIMPR.)
TREV.
8
8
8.0
Polytrichum
sexangulare
BRID.
3 3
4
3.3
Dicranum
elongatum
SCHLEICH.
4
2
2.0
Tritomaria
scitula
(TAYL.)
JOERG.
1 1
0.7
Pohlia
drummondii
(C.
MULL.)
ANDR.
1
1
0.7
Pogonatum
urnigerum
(HEnw.)
BEAU
V.
1
0.3
Ceratodon
purpureus
(HELw
.)
BRID.
1
0.3
Racomitrium
lanuginosum
(HEow
.)
BRID.
3
1.0
Polytrichum
piliferum
HEnw.
1
0.3
Aulacomnium
turgidum
(WAHLENB
.
)
SCHW.
+
0.1
Scapania
obcordata
(BERGGR.
)
S.
ARN.
1
0.3
Cephalozia
bicuspidata
(L.)
Dum.
1
0.3
Stereocaulon
alpinum
LAURER
3
4
3
3.3
Cetraria
delisei
(BORRER)
NYL.
3
4
1
2.7
Pannaria
pezizoides
(WEBER)
TREVIS.
2
4
2.0
Cetraria
islandica
(L.)
ACH.
1
0.3
Psoroma
hypnorum
(VARL)
GRAY
2
0.7
Peltigera
rufescens
(WEIss)
HUMS.
1
0.3
Cladonia
sp.
1
0.3
C.
pyxidata
(L.)
HOFFM.
1
0.3
C.
mitis
SANDST.
1
0.3
Peltigera
spuria
(ACM.)
DC.
3
1.0
Localities:
4.
Gronfjordfjellet,
above
the
N.
part
of
Barentsburg,
3
in
2
,
4.
7.
85
0-14.6
1.00,
humus
1.74
%
,
C
0
.
61.
Gronfjordfjellet,
above
the
heating
plant,
2
in
2
,
13.
7.
85
69.
Bykollen,
2
m
2
,
15.
7.
85
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
157
Cerastium
arcticum-Anthelia
juratzkana
community
Tab.
15.
Cerastium
arcticum-Anthelia
juratzkana
comm.
was
observed
on
Gronfjellet
in
places
with
deep
snow
cover
in
winter
and
with
heavy
solifluction
in
spring.
Vascular
plants
cover
about
17
%,
bryophytes
and
lichens
about
81
%
of
the
surface.
On
the
average,
9
species
of
vascular
plants,
6
of
bryophytes
and
5
of
lichens
were
noted
in
one
releve,
in
all
15
species
of
vascular
plants,
12
of
bryophytes
and
10
of
lichens
in
3
releves.
It
is
thus
considerably
richer
in
species
if
compared
with
Pediculari-Gymnomitrietum.
Its
humus
content
is
very
low,
lower
than
in
Pediculari-
Gymnomitrietum.
Characteristic
for
this
community
are
Anthelia
juratzkana,
Tritomaria
scitula,
Pogonatum
urnigerum
and
Peltigera
spuria.
It
is
probably
identical
with
the
Salix
polaris-Anthelia
juratzkana
soziation
GJAEREVOLL
1956,
belonging
to
this
Salicetum
polaris.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(%):
H
Ch
G
1-11-1
BL
with
respect
to
presence:
24
14
3
32
27
with
respect
to
abundance:
23
12
4
37
24
Salix
polaris-Cetraria
delisei
community
This
community
has
a
very
similar
ecology
to
that
of
Cetrarietum
delisei
DAHL
(1956):
"typical
of
depressions
fi
lled
with
ice
in
winter",
but
it;
is
very
poor
in
fl
owe-
ring
species.
Whereas
in
DAHL'S
Cetrarietum
delisei
we
fi
nd
Betula
nana,
Empetrum,
Diapensia,
Callum
etc.,
in
our
community
only
2
species
of
fl
owering
plants
grow.
Our
community
cannot
be
identified
with
Cetrarietum
delisei
KLEMENT
1959;
his
"associations"
are
only
lichen
synusia,
not
taking
in
account
other
components
of
the
community.
Salix
polaris-Cetraria
community
was
observed
in
the
surroundings
of
Barents
-
burg,
at
Russekeila
and
in
Vassdalen,
where
it
occupied
the
central
part
of
soil
polygons.
DAHL
(1956)
writes
that
his
Cetrarietum,
delisei
has
"an
isolated
position
in
the
vegetational
system".
The
same
may
be
said
about
our
Salix
polaris-Cetraria
delisei
community.
It
seems
to
be
nearest
to
the
alliance
Cassiopo-Salicion
herbaceae
or
to
Salicion
polaris.
A
similar
community
was
described
by
DANIELS
(1982)
from
Greenland
under
the
name
Salix
herba,cea-Cetraria
delisei
community
and
included
in
Cassiopo-Salicion
herbaceae
NORDH.
43.
A
typical
releve
of
this
community
is
n.
20:
Borgdammane,
between
the
lakelets
in
a
shallow
depression,
10
m
2
.
Cover
of
vascular
plants:
10
%,
lichens
and
mosses
90
%.
5.7.85
&ilia
,
polaris
WAHLENB.
4,
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
1,
Cetraria
delisei
(BORRER)
NYL.
9,
Drepano-
cladus
uncinatus
(HEDW.
)
WARNST.
4,
Gymnomitrium
coralloides
NEES
1,
Cirriphyllum
cirrosum
(SCHWAEG.
)
GROUT
1,
Pertusaria
bryontha
(ACH.
)
NYL.
1,
Stereocaulon
alpinism
LAUBER
3,
Po-
lytrichum
sp.
3.
Soil
reaction:
pH
5.3,
C..
3.58
%,
humus
6.16
%.
158
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
Comparing
the
two
chionophilous
alliances,
Ranunculo-Oxyrion
and
Salicion
polaris,
we
fi
nd
considerable
differences.
Soils
in
the
Ranunculo-Oxyrion
are
well
drained,
so
the
solifluction
is
minimal,
whereas
solifluction
in
Salicion,
polaris
is
very
intensive.
Ranunculo-Oxyrion,
has
less
chamaephytes
(22
:
41
%)
and
more
geophytes
(13
:
9
%)
than
Salicion
polaris,
it
has
more
diploids
and
tetraploids
(25+10
:
19+1)
and
less
higher
polypoids
(64
:
80
%)
it
has
more
vascular
plant
species
(22
:
16)
fewer
bryophytes
(10
:
19)
and
fewer
lichen
species
(5
:
10).
Both
alliances
are
well
differentiated
fl
oristically.
In
Ranun,culo-Oxyrion,
grow
Ranunculus
nivalis,
Equisetum
boreale,
Trisetum
spicatum,
Lidia
biflora,
'poly-
trichum
alpinum
etc.
which
were
not
found
in
Salicion
polaris.
In
Salicion
polaris
we
fi
nd
Saxifraga
foliolosa,
Luzula
arctica,
Cardamine
bellidifolia,
Oncophorus
wahlenbergii,
Racomitrium
lanuginosum,
Gymnomitrium
coralloides,
Blepharostoma
trichophyllum,
Scapania
obcordata,
Cladonia
minis,
Pannaria
pezizoides
not
occurring
at
all
in
Ranunculo-Oxyrion.
JUNCETEA
TRIFIDI
HADAo
in
KLIKA
et
HADAe
1944
Caricetalia
curvula.e
BR.
-BL.
1926
Juncion
trifidi
KRAJINA
1933
Sphaerophoro-Racomitrietum
lanuginosi
(HADA6
1946)
HOFMANN
1968
Basionyrn:
Racomitrietum
lanuginosi
8pitsbergen:e
HADAo
1946
Tab.
16.
This
association,
described
in
the
Sassenquarter,
seems
to
be
distributed
every-
where
in
Spitsbergen
under
oceanic
climate,
on
well
stabilized
non
-calcareous
stony
substrate.
It
was
reported
also
from
BarentsOya
by
HOFMANN
(1968).
Mosses
dominate,
together
with
lichens
they
cover
70-90
%
of
the
surface,
whereas
fl
owering
plants
cover
only
16
%.
There
are
on
the
average
7-8
species
of
fl
owering
plants,
6
of
bryophytes
and
6
species
of
lichens
in
one
releve;
in
5
releves
11
species
of
vascular
plants,
12
of
bryophytes
and
12
of
lichens
were
noted.
Characteristic
species
are
Cardamine
bellidifolia,
Thamnolia
subuliformis,
Cladonia
uncialis,
Cetraria
nivalis
and
Cladonia
gracilis.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(
%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
23
17
27
33
with
respect
to
abundance:
20
18
41
21
HADAC:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
159
Table
16.
Sphaerophoro-Racomitrietum
lanuginosi
HADAO
Releve
n.:
23
24
71
72
78
K
,21
Slope:
35
35
30
20
Aspect:
W W W
Cover
%,
vascular
plants:
30
25
5 5
15
16
Cover
%,
bryophytes
and
mosses:
70
80
80
90 90
82
n.
of
vascular
plant
species:
7
6
9
7
9
8
n.
of
bryophyte
species:
6
5
7
6
7
6
n.
of
lichen
species:
7
6
7
6 6
6
Luzula
confusa
(HARTM.)
LINDEB.
4
4
2
4 4
V
3.6
Cardamine
bellidifolia
L.
2
3
1
2
1
V
1.8
Saxifraga
raespitosa
L.
1
1
4
3
2
V
2.2
Salix
polaris
WAHLENB.
5
5
1
3
IV
2.8
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
2
2
.
1 1
IV
1.2
Poa
arrtica
R.
BR.
2
4
2
2
IV
2.0
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
1
2
1 1
IV
1.0
Stellaria
crassipes
HULTEN
3
4
4
III
2.0
Saxifraga
nivalis
L.
1
1
II
0.4
Racomitrium
lanuginosum
(HEDW.)
BRID.
7
8
8
9
9
V
S.2
Hylorornium
alascanum
(LEsQ.
et
JAMES)
4
4
2
1
2
V
2.6
KINDS.
.4H/aC0772HiHM
turgidum
(WAHLENB.)
SCHW.
2
1
1
1
1
V
1.2
Dicranum
elongatum
SCHLEICH.
5 5
4
3
3
V
4.0
Polytrichum
alpinism
HEDW.
3 3
4
III
2.0
Ptilidium
ciliare
(L.)
HAMPE
1
1
II
0.4
Thamnolia
subuliformis
(EHRH.)
2 2
1
1
2
V
1.6
W.
CULB.
Cladonia
uncialis
(L.)
WIGGERS
2 2
3
3
3
V
2.6
Cetraria
islandica
(L.)
AcH.
2
1
2
2
3
V
2.0
Cladonza
mitis
SANDST.
2
2
1 1
IV
1.2
Cetraria
nivalis
(L.)
AcH.
1 1
1
III
0.6
Sphaerophorus
globosus
(Hubs.)
VAINIO
1 1
II
0.4
Cladonia
gracilis
(L.)
WILLD.
2 2
II
0.8
Localities:
23.
Russekeila,
100
m
S
from
the
hut,
10
m
2
,
pHR
ci
5.51,
C
o
.
4.66,
humus
8.04
%,
6.7.
85
24.
50
m
E
from
n.
23,
5
m
2
,
6.7.85
71.
Bykollen
below
Gunnarvarden,
20
m
2
,
15.7.85
72.
100
m
N
from
n.
71,20
m
2
,
15.7.85
78.
between
n.
11
and
72,
20
m
2
,
16.7.85
In
one
releve
only:
23.
Oymnomitrium
coralloides
NEES
2,
Cladonia
amaurocrea
(FLOERKE)
SCHAER.
1
71.
Poa
alpina
L.
v.
vivipara
L.
1,
Polytrichum
juniperinum
HEDW.
3,
Cynodontium
polycarpon
(HEDW.)
SCRIMP.
1,
Peltigera
rufescens
(WEIss.)
Rums.
2,
Cladonia
rangiferina
(L.)
WIG-
GERS
1
72.
Drepanocladus
uncinatus
(HEDW.)
WAENST.
1,
Polytrichum
sexangulare
BRID.
4
78.
Polytrichum
piliferum
HEDW.
2,
Cladonia
portentosa
(DUFOUR)
CoEM.
1,
C.
coccifera
(L.)
WILLD.
1
160
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
Table
17.
Dryadetum
minoris
HADA6
1946
Re'eve
n.:
9
10
11
68
76
102
103
104
K
0
Slope
0
:
35
25
20
20
40
30
40
30
30
Aspect:
SW
W
SW
W
W
S
S
SSW
Cover
%,
vascular
plants:
65
60 60
70
90
80
70
80
72
Cover
%,
bryophytes
&
lichens:
35
30
30 30
20
30
30
20
28
n.
of
vascular
plant
species:
8 8
14
10
13
8
9
10 10
n.
of
bryophyte
species:
6
6
8
7
6
6
6
6 6
n.
of
lichen
species:
4
2
1
2
1
3
5
4
3
Drya.s.
octopetala
L.
v.
minor
7
7
7
7
8 8 8 8
V
7.5
HooK.
Salix
polaris
WAHLENB.
5
4
5
1
5
4 4
2
V
4.1
Luzula
confusa
(HARTM.)
4
3
4
2 2
3
2 2
V
2.7
LINDEB.
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
3
5
3
4 4
3 3
4
V
3.6
S.
F.
GRAY
Poa
arctica
R.
BR.
f.
vivipara
L.
1
3
3
3
3 3 3
3
V
2.7
Pedicuturgs
hirsuta
L.
2
1
2 2
1
1
IV
1.1
Cerastium
areticum
LANGE
1
.
1 1 1
2
IV
0.8
Silene
acaulis
L.
snbsp.
arctica
2 2
1
1
1
IV
0.9
A.
et
D.
LovE
Eguietum
boreale
BONG.
2
2
. .
.
2
II
0.8
Trisetum
spiratum
(L.)
RICHT.
1
.
2
3
II
0.8
Draba
nivalis
LILJEBL.
1 1
2
II
0.5
Stellaria
crassipes
HLTLTEN
2 2
1
II
0.6
Draba
alpina
L.
1
:
1
II
0.2
Potentilla
hyparctica
MALTE
1
2
II
0.3
Aulacomnium
turgidum
(WHLB.)
6
3
5
3
5
4 4
1
V
3.9
SCHW.
Drepanocladus
uncinatus
3
5
4
5
2
4
2
4
V
3.6
WARNST.
Dicranum
elongatum
3
2
3 3 3
4
4
3
V
3.1
SCHLEICH.
Hylocomium
alascanum
KINDB.
3
1
2
.
3
4
5
4
V
2.7
Racomitrium
lanuginosum
BRID.
4 4
3
4
2
3
IV
2.5
Ptilidium
ciliare
(L.)
HAMPE
2
1 1
2
.
III
0.8
Polytrichum
alpinum
HEDW.
1 1
2
3
III
0.9
Psoroma
hypnorum
(V
AHL)
1
.
1
1
II
0.3
GRAY
Peltigera
rufescens
(WEISS)
HL
MB.
1 1
2
4
III
1.0
Cetraria
delisei
(BORRER)
NYL.
1
1
II
0.2
Stereocaulon
alpinum
LAUER
3
2
2
1
2 2
IV
1.5
Peltigera
aphthosa
(L.)
WILLD.
4
2
II
0.7
P.
canina
(L.)
WILLD.
1
1
II
0.2
In
one
releve
only:
11.
Draba
lactea
ADAMS
2,
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
1;
Taraxacum
arcticum
DAHLSP.
1,
Saxifraga
caespitosa
L.
1,
Draba
adamsii
LEDEB.
1,
Ditrichum
flexicaule
HAMPE
1
68.
Pogonatum
dentatum
BRID.
1,
Cetraria
ericetorum
Oriz
1
76.
Festuca
prolifera
(PIPER)
FERN.
1
102.
Encalypta
alpina
SM.
1
103.
Cladonia
pyxidata
(L.)
HoFFivi.,
Pohlia
nutans
(HEDw.)
LINDB.
1
104.
Hippochaete
variegata
(SCHLEICH.)
BRUHIN
1,
Poa
alpina
L.
v.
vivipara
1,
Aulacomnium
pa
-
lustre
(HEDw.)
ScHw.
1,
Hypnum
vaucheri
LESQ.
1,
Cetraria
delisei
(BoRR.)
NYL.
1,
Clado-
nia
gracilis
(L.)
WILLD.
1
HADA
:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
161
Localities:
9.
Gronfjordfjellet,
above
the
southern
part
of
Barentsburg,
ca
50
m
alt.
5
m
2
,
pliEci
4.96,
C
ox
7.80,
humus
13.44
%.
4.7.85
10.
ibidem,
50
m
N
from
n.
9.,
6
m
2
,
4.7.85
11.
ibidem,
50
m
N
from
n.
10.,
5
m
2
,
pHicci
5.53,
C
ox
5.27,
humus
9.09
%,
4.7.85
68.
Bykollen,
below
Gunnarvarden,
5
m
2
,
15.7.85
76.
Gronfjordfjellet,
above
the
meteorol.
station,
ca
50
m
alt.,
4
m
2
,
16.7.85
102.
Vassdalen:
Nebben,
ca
100
m
altit.,
2
km
from
the
borehole,
3
m
2
,
20.7.85
103.
ibidem,
ca
150
m
altit.,
10
m
2
,
20.7.85
104.
ibidem,
100
m
W
from
n.
103,
5
m
2
,
20.7.85
CARICI
RUPESTRIS-KOBRESIETEA
OHBA
1974
Kobresio-Dryadetalia
OHBA
1974
The
order
Kobresio-Dryadetalia
is
a
vicariant
of
the
Central
European
Seslerietalia
calcariae
(BR.
-BL.)
KLIKA
1944
in
the
middle
-arctic
tundra
zone
(ELVEBARK
1985).
Caricion
nardinae
NORDH.
1935
Syn.:
Dryadion
DuRivrz
1942,
KoNNING
1965,
Dryadion
octopetalae
KALLioLA
1939
This
alliance,
formed
in
the
area
investigated
by
Dryadetum
minoris,
Dryado-
Caricetum
rupestris
and
Dryado-Cassiopetum
tetragonae,
and
in
other
localities
of
Spitsbergen
also
by
Carici
nardinae-Dryadetum
WINNING,
may
be
characterised
by
Dryas
octopetala
var.
minor,
Silene
acaulis
var.
arctica,
Carex
rupestris,
Pedicula-
ris
dasyantha,
Cassiope
tetragona,
Carex
misandra
and
Distichium
inclinatum.
The
alliance
is
distributed
in
N.
Scandinavia,
Jan
Maven
and
Spitsbergen.
Similar
communities
in
Greenland
belong
to
other
syntaxa.
Communities
of
Caricion
nardinae
occur
usually
on
windswept
ridges;
they
are
very
little
protected
by
snow
in•
winter.
Their
soil
is
relatively
well
drained.
They
are
best
developed
on
limestone
but
occur
also
on
other
substrates.
This
alliance
was
thoroughly
studied
by
HARTMANN
(1980)
and
especially
by
RONNING
(1965,
1969).
RONNING
uses
the
name
Dryadion
DuRiuTz
(a
later
synonym
of
Dryadion
octopetalae
KALLIOLA
1939),
but
the
name
Caricion
nardinae
has
priority.
Dryadetum
minoris
HADA6
1946
Syn.:
Polari-Dryadetum
RoNNING
1965,
Dryas
octopetala-synedrium
LID
1967
Tab.
17.
This
association
occurs
on
relatively
shallow,
well
drained
soils.
Its
soil
in
the
Sassenquerter
area
contains
12-29
%
organic
matter;
the
reaction
was
5.8-6.7
pH.
RoNNING
(1965)
has
found
2.3-17.6-36
%
of
organic
matter
and
pH
5.5-7.7
in
various
parts
of
Spitsbergen.
It
is
dominated
by
chamaephytes.
Vascular
plants
cover
about
70
%,
mosses
and
lichens
about
30
%
of
the
surface.
The
slope
of
the
terrain
is
20-40°
to
W
or
SW.
with
respect
to
presence:
27 27
6
40
with
respect
to
abundance:
26
28
11
35
162
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
This
association
is
characterized
by
the
dominance
of
Dryas
octopetala
var.
minor
and
by
the
rich
occurrence
of
Aulacomnium
turgidum,
Hylocomium
splendens
ssp.
alascan,um,
not
occurring
in
the
other
two
associations
of
this
alliance.
It
has
a
broader
distribution
than
other
communities
of
Caricicm,
nardinae.
In
many
places
it
is
the
only
representative
of
the
alliance.
Among
the
three
communities
of
Caricion
nardinae
we
have
studied,
Dryadetum
has
the
highest
amount
of
chamaephytes,
the
lowest
percentage
of
diploids
(38
%)
and
the
highest
number
of
vascular
plants
and
lichens.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(
%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
with
respect
to
presence:
26
18
7
26
22
with
respect
to
abundance:
16
30
9
37
8
Dryado-Caricetum
rupestris
RoNNING
1965,
noneen
inversum
Basionym:
Rupestri-Dryadetum
RoN
NI
N
G
1965:
21
Tab.
18.
I
have
found
this
association
only
in
the
Pyramiden
area,
but
WINNING
shows
material
from
Kapp
Wijk,
Gipsvika,
Ny
Aalesund,
Templefjord,
Raudfjord
and
Woodfjord.
Soil
reaction
in
this
association
is,
according
to
the
same
author,
pH
6.2-8.4,
with
average
value
pH
7.1;
humus
content:
2.0-19.7
%.
Vascular
plants
cover
70
%,
bryophytes
30
%
of
the
surface.
Lichens
are
practi-
cally
absent.
The
number
of
vascular
plant
species
averages
10
in
one
releve,
bryophyte
species
8,
and
1
lichen
species;
in
4
releves
17
vascular
plant
species,
19
bryophyte
and
3
lichen
species
were
noted.
Dryado-Caricetum
rupestris
is
characterized
by
the
dominance
of
Carex
rupestri,§
and
by
the
presence
of
Orthothecium
chryseon.
As
Carex
rupestris
is
characteristic
and
often
dominant
in
this
community,
I
suggest
the
inversion
of
names.
Its
name,
given
by
RoNNING
must
be
changed
according
to
the
Code.
Dryado-Caricetum
rupestris
has
the
lowest
number
of
chamaephytes,
the
highest
number
of
polyploids
and
bryophyte
species
and
the
lowest
number
of
lichens
among
the
communities
of
this
alliance.
It
occurs
on
limestone,
on
level
or
slightly
sloped
ground,
well
drained,
modera-
tely
protected
from
the
wind.
It
seems
to
be
dryer
if
compared
with
Pediculari-
Cassiopetum.
It
is
probably
identical
with
the
Carex
rupestris
synedrium
LID
1967
from
Adventdalen.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(
%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
HADAC:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
163
Table
18.
Dryado-Caricetum
rupestris
RoNNING
1965
Releve
n.:
31
34
38
39
0
slope':
15
aspect:
SW
PRci:
6.52
7.34
7.55
7.1
C
o
.
%:
6.80
2.64
0.71
3.4
humus
%:
8.63
4.56
1.25
4.8
Cover,
vascular
plants
(%):
70
70
80
60
70
Cover,
bryophytes
and.
lichens
(%):
40 40
20
20
30
Number
of
vascular
plant
species:
13
14
8
7
10
Number
of
bryophyte
species:
4
13
9
6
8
Number
of
lichen
species:
3
1
Carex
rupestris
ALL.
6
7
7 7
6.5
Dryers
octopetala
L.
v.
minor
Hoox.
5
4 4
4
4.2
Pedicularis
dasyantha
HADA.
2 2
3
3
2.5
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
4
5
6
4
4.7
Saxi/raga
oppositifolia
L.
1
2
4 4
2.7
Salix
polaris
WARLENB.
4
2 2
2
2.5
Cas.siope
tetragona
(L.)
D.
Dox
1
2
2
3
1.0
Carex
misandra
R.
BR.
2 2
1.0
Silene
araulis
(L.)
JACQ.
subsp.
arctica
A.
et
D.
Li5vE
2 2
1.0
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
1
3
1.0
Pedirularis
hirsuta
L.
1
I
0.5
Drepanocladus
uncinatus
(11Euw.
)
WARNSTF.
5
5
4
4
4.5
Bryum
pallescens
Sw.
2
2
3
4
2.7
Camptothecium
nitens
(HEDW.)
SCRIMP.
5
5
4
3.5
Dirranum
elongatum
SCHLEICH.
4
.
3
3
2.5
Distichium
inclinatum
(HEuw.)
B.
S.
G.
2
.
1
0.7
Orthothecium
chryseum
(ScHw.)
B.
S.
G.
1
1
0.5
Ditrichum
fl
exicaule
(Scow.)
HAMPE
1 1
0.5
Localities:
31.
opening
of
Bertildalen,
4
m
2
,
8.7.85
32.
about
100
in
N
from
n.
31,4
m
2
,
8.7.85
38.
Mirnerdalen
near
the
graNeyard
W
from
Pyramiden
town,
ti
m
2
,
10.7.85
39.
ibidem,
100
m
S
from
u.
38,
5
m
2
,
10.7.85
In
one
releve
only:
31.
Papaver
dahlianum
NORDH.
subsp.
dahlianum
2,
Saxi/raga
cernua
L.
1,
Solarina
saccata
(L.)
ACE.
1,
Cetraria
delisei
(BOBBER)
NYL.
1,
Psororna
hypnorum
(VARL)
GRAY
34.
Draba
alpina
L.
1,
Ga.strolychnis
apetala
(L.)
TOLM.
et
KOZH.
1,
Luzula
con/usa
(HARTM.
)
LINDEBL.
1,
Hylocomium
splendens
(HEsw.)
B.
S.
G.
var.
a/ascanum
(LESQ.
et
JAMES)
KINDB.
1,
Pogonatum
urnigerurn
(HEDw.)
BEAuv.
1,
Myurella
julacea
(ScHwAEa.)
B.
S.
G.
1,
Blepha-
rostoma
trichophyllum
(L.)
Dum.
1,
Pohlia
nutans
(HEDW.)
LINDB.
1,
Schistidium
strictum
1,
Scapania
oligochaeta
1,
Cephalozia
ambigua
MASS.
1
38.
Braya
purpurascens
(R.
BR.)
BUNGE
1,
Encalypta
alpina
Sm.
1,
Distichium
capillaceum
(HEDW.)
B.
S.
G.
1,
Didymodon
asperi/olius
CRUM,
STEERE
et
ANDERS.
1
39.
Campylium
polygamum
(B.
S.
G.)
C.
JENs.
1
164
FOLIA
GE0)110
,
1
7
A3
-
10A
KT
PHYTOTA.XONOMICA\
24..1989.
Dryado-Cassiopetum
tetragonae
(Hid:110
1946)
RoNNING
1965,
nomen
invers,
Basionym:
Cassiopetum
tetragonae
spitsbergense
HADA6
1946:-
161
Syn.:
Tel
RoNNING
1965,
Cas.siope
Cetragana
synedrium
LID
1967
Tab.
19.
Table
19.
Dryado-Cassiopetum
tetragonae
(HADA
1946)
,
RUNNEN
-
G
1965
Releve
n.:
29
30
32
36
0
10
20
7
20
14
Aspect:
SW
SW
W
'Cover
(%)
vascular
plants:
70
70
85
80
Cover
(%)
bryophytes
and
lichens:
30
20
40
30
3
.
5,
Number
of
vascular
plant
species:
13
12
9
13
12
Number
of
bryophyte
species:
5
6
5
3
5
,
Number
of
lichen
species:
1
3
4
2
Cassiope
tetragona
(L.)
D.
DON
5
6
8
T
i.5
Pedicularis
dasyantha
HADJO
4
2 2 2
2.5
Dryas
octopetala
L.
v.
minor
HOOK.
4
6
5
5
5.0
Carex
rupestris
ALL.
7
2
4
3
4.0
Silene
acaulis
(L.)
JACQ.
V.
arctica
A.
et
D.
L.
3
4
2
4
3.2
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
3
1
3
3
2.5
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
1
3
2
2
2.0
Salix
polaris
WAHLENB.
2
2
I
1.2
Carex
misandra
R.
BR.
2
1
I
1.0
Saxifraga
oppositifolia
L.
1
1
2
1.0
Pedicularis
hirsuta
L.
2
2
.
1.0
Luzula
confusa
(HARTM.)
LINDEB.
2
1
0.8
Drepanocladus
uncinatus
(1-Inw.)
WARNSTF.
2
4
5
5
4.0
Camptothecium
nitens
(1-Inw.)
SCHIMP.
5
4
4
3.2
Dicranum
elongatum
SCHLEICH.
2
3 3
2.0
Polytrichum
alpinum
HEnw.
3
1
.
I
1.2
Bryum
sp.
4
3
2
2.2
Cetraria
delisei
(BOBBER)
NYL.
3
5
2.0
Stereocaulon
alpinum
LAURER
2
4
0.7
Localities:
29.
opening
of
Bertildalen,
10
m
2
,
pHKei
5.07,
C
ox
9.25,
humus
15.95
%,
8.7.85
30.
50
m
NW
from
n.
29,10
m
2
,
8.7.85
32.
ca
30
m
from
n.
30,5
m
2
,
8.7.85
36.
opening
of
Munindalen,
10
m
2
,
9.7.85
In
one
releve
only:
n.
29.
Hippochaete
scirpoides
(MICHX.)
FARWELL
4,
Gastrolychnis
apetala
(L.)
TOLM.
et
KOZH.
1,
Lidia
bifiora
(L.)
A.
et
D.
LoVE
1
n.
30.
Papaver
dahlianum
NORDH.
subsp.
hadacianum
(A.
LovE)
HADA6
1
n.
32.
Racomitrium
lanuginosum
(HEDw.)
BRID.
1,
Cetraria
nivalis
(L.)
ACH.
1
n.
36.
Saxifraga
cernua
L.
t,
Carex
nardina
FR.
1,
Solorina
saccata
(L.)
ACH.
1,
Cladonia
pyxidata
(L.)
HOFFM.
2,
Cetraria
islandica
(L.)
ACH.
1
This
association
was
described
in
the
Sassenquarter
area,
but
its
name
has
to
be
changed.
The
next
published
name
is
Tetragono-Dryadetum;
this
must
be
changed
also
and
I
suggest
the
inversion
of
names,
as
Cassiope
is
always
dominant.
HADAr::
1
3
1,A
NT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPIT
BERGEN
165
LiD"s
Cassiope
tetragona-synedrium
was
described
in
Bolterdalen.
RoNNrNG
(1965)
found
this
association
in
Kapp
Wijk,
Colesbukta,
Gipsvika,
Woodfjord,,
Skansbukta,
Kapp
Waern
and
Billefjord.
So
it
is
widely
distributed
in
the
inner
part
of
Spitsbergen.
A
similar
community
was
described
from
Greenland
by
BoCHER
(1933)
and
DANIELS
(0982).
The
Greenland
community
has
the
following
species
in
common
with
Dryado-Cassiopetum:
Cassiope
tetragona,
Oxyria
digyna,
Bistorta
vivipara,
Silene
aatulis,
Hylocomium
splendens,
Drepanocladus
uncinatus,
Aulacomnium
turgidum,
Petitigera
rufescens,
Racomitrium
canescens
and
perhaps
some
other
species,
but
in
the
Greenland
community
were
found
Vaccinium
microphylum,
Phyllodoce
caerulea,
Carex
bigelowii,
Lycopodium
dubium,
Salix
herbacea
etc.,,
not
occurring
in
the
Spitsbergen
association,
which
contains
several
species
not
known
in
Greenland.
The
Greenland
association,
dominated
by
Cassiope
tetragona,
belongs,
according
to
DANIELS,
to
Phyllodoco-Myrtillion
NORDH.
1943
(Rhodo-
dendr
o-
V
accinietalia
BR.
-BL.
1926),
whereas
the
Spitsbergen
Cassiopetum
belong
to
Kobresio-Dryadetalia.
Dryado-Cassiopetum
occurs
on
relatively
protected
ecotopes.
Its
soil
is
slightly
acid
to
subneutral
(I
have
found
pH
5.2-6.2-6.9
in
the
Sassen
querter
area,.
WINNING
in
various
localities
pH
5.4-6.6-7.3).
Humus
content
in
soil
is
conside-
rable:
in
Sassen
area
16-21
%,
RoNNING's
material
had
1.2-23.1-53
cy
o
of
organic
matter.
It
is
best
developed
on
limestone.
Its
fl
oristic
composition
on
other
substrates
is
impoverished.
So
e.g.
in
Grondalen
the
following
species,
frequent
in
this
com-
munity
near
Pyramiden,
were
lacking
in
Dryado-Cassiopetum:
Pedicularis
dasyan-
tha,
Carex
rupestris,
C.
misandra,
Tomenthypnum
nitens
etc.
Vascular
plants
cover
75
%,
bryophytes
and
lichens
12
°,/
0
of
the
surface.
The
average
number
of
vascular
plant
species
in
one
releve
is
12,
of
bryophytes
5
and
lichens
2
species.
In
4
releves
18
species
of
vascular
plants,
7
sp.
of
bryophytes
and
6
species
of
lichens
were
noted.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(%):
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
.with
respect
to
presence:
30
25
5
30
10
with
respect
to
abundance:
24
36
5
29
6
CHENOPODIETE
A
BR.
-BL.
1952
Phippsio-Cochleariopsietalia
ordo
novus
Cochleariopsion
groenlandicae
all.
nova
It
is
strange
but
as
far
as
I
know
there
were
hitherto
no
ruderal
plant
communi-
ties
described
in
Spitsbergen
nor
in
other
parts
of
the
Middle
Arctic.
The
character
of
Arctic
ruderal
communities
corresponds
roughly
to
the
communities
of
the
class
Chenopodietea,
though
there
are
at
present
no
species
connecting
Arctic
ruderal
communities
with
those
from
temperature
regions.
In
ruderal
places
166
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
of
Barentsburg
as
well
as
in
Pyramiden
a
well
developed
community
occurs,
dominated
by
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
and
Phippsia
algida,
visible
from
far
by
its
fresh
green
colour.
It
is
a
community
sui
generic,
which
has
very
little
in
common
with
other
plant
communities
surrounding
it.
The
association,
alliance
and
order
may
be
characterized
by
Puccinellia
angustata
and
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica.
The
type
association
of
the
alliance
is
Phippsio-
C
ochleariopsietum
groenlandicae.
Table
20.
Phippsio-Cochleariopsietum
groenlandicae
HADA6
Releve
n.:
Slope,
aspect:
35
46
-
47
48
117
K
0
plIREI
6.35
7.34
7.53
7.07
Cox
9.71
7.06
6.31
7.69
humus
%:
16.41
18.18
10.54
13.04
Cover,
vascular
plants
(%:
SO
80
90
80
90
84
Cover,
bryophytes:
-
20
4
n.
of
vascular
plant
species:
6
4 4
5
6
5
ii.
of
bryophyte
species:
2
,.
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
(L.)
A.
et
D.
LovE
6
7
8
7
9
V
7.4
Phippsia
algida
(S0E.)
R.
BR.
6
2
4
5
2
V
3.8
Phippsia
concinna
(Tn.
FR.)
LINER.
2
4
2
5
1
V
2.8
Puccinellia
angustata
(RAND.)
REDF.
5
6
5
1
IV
3.4
Poa
alpina
L.
var.
vivipara
L.
2
3
II
1.0
Cerastium
arcticum
LANGE
1
.
I
0.2
Saxifraga
caespitosa
L.
1
I
0.2
S.
rivularis
L.
2
I
0.4
Poa
arctica
R.
BR.
2
I
0.4
Leptobryum
pyriforme
(HEDw.)
WiLs.
5
I
1.0
Encalypta
mutica
I.
HAG.
2
I
0.4
Localities:
35.
Pyramiden,
at
the
road
to
the
harbour,
10
m
2
,
9.7.85
46.
Pyramiden,
near
the
cow
shed,
10
m
2
,
10.7.85
47.
ibidem,
but
on
the
other
side
of
the
road,
10
m
2
,
10.7.85
48.
Pyramiden,
near
the
hostel,
10
m
2
,
10.7.85
117.
Barentsburg,
below
the
playground,
5
m
2
,
24.7.85
Phippsio-Cochleariopsietum
groenlandicae
ass.
nova
Holotype:
Tab.
20.
n.
35.
Cover
of
vascular
plants
in
this
community
is
84
%,
mosses
are
insignificant.
Average
number
of
species
in
one
releve:
5
sp.
of
vascular
plants,
in
5
releves
9
fl
owering
species
were
found.
There
were
only
2
species
of
mosses
found.
Spectrum
of
life
forms
(%:
H
Ch
G
HH
B
L
-
-
with
respect
to
presence:
64
18
-
-
18
with
respect
to
abundance:
57
8
- -
5
HADAi
j
:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
167
Besides
the
Phippsio-Cochleariopsietum
there
are
several
other
ruderal
communi-
ties
in
Spitsbergen,
e.g.
the
Puccinellia
angustata
community:
n.
116.
Barentsburg,
below
the
playground,
35
°W,
1.0
m
2
,
cover
100
%,
24.7.85:
Puccinellia
anguslata
(R.
BR.)
RAD.
et
REDF.
9,
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
(L.)
LOVE
5,
Ceras-
lium
arcticum
LANGE
1
(sometimes
also
Alopecurus
alpinus
L.
and
Festuca
cryophila
KRECZ.
et
BoBR.);
or:
Oxyria-Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
community,
ibidem,
20
m
2
,
40
IV,
cover
60
%,
24.7.85:
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
(L.)
LovE
7,
Oxyria
digyna
(L.)
HILL
5,
Phippsia
concinna
(Ti.
FR.)
LINDB.
3,
Poa
arclica
R.
BR.
2,
Poa
pratensis
L.
3,
Poa
alpina
L.
2,
Festuca
rubra
L.
2;
or:
Cochleariopsis-Poa
arctica
community:
n.
28,
Pyramiden
near
the
hostel
on
level
ground,
5
m
2
,
cover:
fl
owering
plants
55
%,
mosses
40
%.
Poa
arclica
R.
BR.
Y.
vivipara
6,
Cochleariopsis
groenlandica
(L.)
LOVE
5,
Ceraslium
arcticum
LANGE
3,
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
1,
Bryum
pallescens
Sw.
7,
Pohlia
nutans
(HEDW.)
LINDB.
1,
Distichium
inclinatum
(HEnw.)
B.S.G.
1.
SUMMARY
In
the
area
investigated,
i.e.
the
surroundings
of
Barentsburg,
Linnedalen,
Kongressdalen,
Vassdalen,
and
Pyramiden,
all
in
the
central
part
of
Spitsbergen,
16
associations
were
found,
belonging
to
9
alliances,
8
orders
and
8
classes.
Two
subassociations,
7
associations,
2
alliances
and
1
order
were
described
as
new.
The
number
of
species
in
the
studied
plant
communities
is
low.
This
is
quite
natural,
as
the
whole
Svalbard
archipelago
has
only
164
indigenous
species
of
vascu-
lar
plants
(WINNING
1979).
Richest
in
species
of
fl
owering
plants
as
well
as
bryophy-
tes
and
lichens
are
the
communities
of
the
alliance
Caricion
nardinae:
17-19
species
of
vascular
plants,
7-19
species
of
bryophytes
and
3-10
species
of
lichens
in
one
releve,
i.e.
31-45
plant
species
in
individual
communities;
this
is
a
relatively
high
number
for
the
Arctic.
The
lowest
number
of
species
occurs
in
halophytic
communities
of
the
alliance
Puccinellion
phryganodis
(3-5
species
of
fl
owering
plants
and
1-2
species
of
bryophytes
in
one
releve).
Soil
reaction
is
subneutral
to
slightly
alkalic
in
Puccinellietum
vilfoideae
(pH
7.5),
Deschampsio-Eriophoretum
scheuchzeri
(pH
7.8),
Dryado-Caricetum
rupestris
(pH
7.1)
and
Phippsio-Cochleariopsietuni
(7.1).
The
remaining
communities
have
an
acid
soil
reaction.
The
highest
humus
content
was
found
in
Caricion
nardinae
and
in
Luzulo-Salicetum
polaris.
It
is
certainly
also
high
in
some
communities
of
the
all.
Cardamino-Saxifragion
foliolosae,
but
we
have
not
analysed
it
there.
Rich
moss
carpets
on
steep
slopes,
where
released
water
from
permafrost
percolates,
can
even
produce
a
thick
layer
of
peat,
as
shown
by
FABISZEWSKI
(1976)
and
LAG
(1980).
As
to
the
life
forms:
lichens
(chamaephyta
lichenosa)
have
their
maximum
occurrence
in
the
alliances
Juncion
trifidi
and
Salicion
polaris.
They
are
absent
in
the
all.
Puccinellion
phryganodis,
Eriophorion
scheuchzeri
and
C
ardamino-Saxifra-
g
ion
foliolosae,
i.e.
in
wetlands.
Bryophytes
occur
in
practically
all
communities;
they
have
their
highest
abundancy
in
the
communities
of
Cardamino-Saxifragion
168
FOLIA
GEOBOTANICA
ET
PHYTOTAXONOMICA
24,
1989
foliolosae.
Helophytes
occur
in
the
all.
Eriophorion
scheuchzeri,
in
Caricetum
sub-
spathaceae
and
Drepanoclado-Ranunculetum
hyperborei.
Geophytes
are
absent
in
Puccinellion
phryganodis,
and
in
all
other
communities
they
play
an
insignificant
role.
Chamaephytes
have
their
maximum
in
Caricion
nardinae
and
are
absent
in
Puccinellion
phryganodis.
Hemicryptophytes
occur
in
great abundancy
in
all
communities.
The
highest
amount
of
diploids
is
in
Caricion
nardinae
(47
%
according
to
abundancy).
This
could
be
expected
as
the
communities
of
this
alliance
represent
the
highest
organisational
form
of
vegetation
in
Spitsbergen
and
they
contain
a
high
percentage
of
chamaephytes.
Tetraploids
have
their
maximum
in
Eriophorion
scheuchzeri
and
higher
polyploids
in
Salicion
polaris
(82
%),
in
Cardamino-Saxifra-
gion
(79
%)
and
Puccinellion
phryganodis
(73
%).
This
corresponds
well
with
results
from
other
regions,
where
polyploids
prevail
in
wetlands
and
in
ecotopes
where
plants
are
exposed
to
high
stress.
In
Salicion
polaris
there
is
very
strong
solifluction
and
the
remaining
communities
with
high
amounts
of
polyploids
belong
to
wetlands,
as
may
be
seen
from
the
following
list.
The
percentage
of
diploids,
tri-
and
tetraploids
and
higher
polyploids
in
indi-
vidual
associations:
ace.
to
presence
clipl.
tetr.
h.
polypi.
ace.
to
abundance
dipi.
tetr.
h.
polypl.
Puccinellietum
vilfoideae
40
20
40
9
16
75
Caricetum
subspathaceae
20
40 40
2
21
77
Caricetum
ursinae
20
40
40
16
16
68
Bryo-Dupontietum
10
30
60
14
34
52
Deschampsio-Eriophoretum
17
25
58
25
28
47
Saxifrago-Eriophoretum
18
27
55
42
23
35
Drepanoclado-Ranunculetum
10
20
70
2
37
61
Alopecurus-Aulacomnium
c.
13
7
80
16
6
78
Equisetetum
borealis
16
84
3
97
Oxyrio-Trisetetum
typ.
19
11
70
21
18
61
poetosurn
16 16
68
5
10
85
Ranunculo-Caricetum
lach.
18
11
71
30
3
67
Luzulo-Salicetum
polaris
32
68
19
81
Pediculari-Gymnomitrietum
20
80
17
83
Cerastium-Anthelia
corn.
36
7
57
21
2
77
Sphaerophoro-
Itacomitrietum
27
8
64
18
11
71
Dryadetum
minoris
29
7
64
38
3
59
Dryado-Caricetum
rupestris
44
56
40
60
Dryado-Cassiopetum
47
53
63
37
Phippsio-Cochleariopsietum
10
20
70
37
33
30
I
hope
that
the
plant
communities
described
in
this
paper,
will
be
of
some
help
for
the
studies
of
reindeer
pastures
as
was
the
case
with
those
described
in
my
fi
rst
paper
on
Spitzbergen
vegetation,
now
used
for
vegetation
mapping
(ORITs-
LAND
1985).
HAD.O:
PLANT
COMMUNITIES
OF
SPITSBERGEN
169
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W.
(1933):
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of
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Kobenhavn,
104:
4.
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E.
(1956):
Rondane.-Skr.
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av
Det
Norske
Vid.
Akad.
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Mat.
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F.
J.
A.
(1982):
Vegetation
of
the
Angmagssalik
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southeast
Greenland.
IV.
Shrub,
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A.
(1985):
Higher
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S.
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0.
(1956):
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J.
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Gefiisspflanzen
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Sassengebietes,
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87:
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(1946):
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E.
(1985):
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of
the
Kaldidalur
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WSW
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Is
it
possible
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give
a
third
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H.
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W.
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in
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W.
(1969):
Das
Puccinellietum
phryganodis
in
Sudost-Spitzbergen.
-
Mitt.
d.
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soziol.
Arbeitsgem.,
Todenmann,
N.
F.
H.
14:
224-230.
LID
J.
(1967):
Synedria
of
twenty
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86:
481
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A.
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D.
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the
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J.
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J.
G.
DE
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of
the
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Kobenhavn,
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N.
A.
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G.
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Moosvegetation
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