Properties of some tidal marsh soils of Florida


Coultas, C.L.; Calhoun, F.G.

Soil Science Society of America Journal 40(1): 72-76

1976


Psammaquents, Sulfihemists, and Sulfaquents were found in the tidal marshes of Hernando (Gulf Coast) and Duval (Atlantic Coast) counties, in Florida. They were saline and near neutral in pH and, with the exception of the Psammaquents, contained higher levels of S (2.66-5.19%). Hernando County soils were shallow over limestone and much sandier than those in east Florida. Duval County soil clays were primarily montmorifionite, mica, and kaolinite but Hernando County soil clays were mostly vermiculite-chlorite intergrade and kaolinite-metahalloysite. Except for one of the Psammaquents, the soils contained relatively high levels of organic matter (7.8-28.9% organic C) and extractable bases. Juncus roemerianus Scheele is the principal plant in these marshes. The bulk density of the organic soil layers ranged from 0.13 to 0.36 g/cma, whereas that of the clayey layers was 0.16 to 0.25 g/cm3.

ABSTRACT
Psammaquents,
Sulfihemists,
and
Sulfaquents
were
found
in
the
tidal
marshes
of
Hernando
(Gulf
Coast)
and
Duval
(Atlantic
Coast)
counties,
in
Florida.
They
were
saline
and
near
neutral
in
pH
and,
with
the
exception
of
the
Psammaquents,
contained
higher
levels
of
S
(2.66-5.19%).
Hernando
County
soils
were
shallow
over
limestone
and
much
sandier
than
those
in
east
Florida.
Duval
County
soil
clays
were
primarily
montmorifionite,
mica,
and
kaolinite
but
Hernando
County
soil
clays
were
mostly
vermiculite
-chlorite
intergrade
and
ka-
olinite-metahalloysite.
Except
for
one
of
the
Psammaquents,
the
soils
contained
relatively
high
levels
of
organic
matter
(7.8-28.9%
organic
C)
and
extractable
bases.
Juncus
roemerianus
Scheele
is
the
principal
plant
in
these
marshes.
The
bulk
density
of
the
organic
soil
layers
ranged
from
0.13
to
0.36
g/cm
a
,
whereas
that
of
the
clayey
layers
was
0.16
to
0.25
g/cm
3
.
Additional
Index
Words:
soil
classification,
histosols,
sulfidic
materi-
als,
aquents,
soil
morphology.
DIVISION
S
-5
-SOIL
GENESIS,
MORPHOLOGY,
AND
CLASSIFICATION
Properties
of
Some
Tidal
Marsh
Soils
of
Florida'
C.
L.
COULTAS
AND
F.
G.
CALHOUN
2
L
ITTORAL
ZONES
of
the
Western
Hemisphere
have
tradi-
tionally
been
neglected
by
pedologists
for
various
rea-
sons.
They
are
generally
inaccessible,
inhospitable,
and
of
minimal
agricultural
value.
Tidal
marsh
and
swamp
areas
have
generally
been
relegated
for
use
as
a
wildlife
habitat
and
recreational
areas
(Rutledge,
1973).
In
a
recent
south-
ern
regional
publication
(Buol,
1973)
these
areas
are
in-
cluded
in
the
"Duneland-Tidal
Swamp"
association
of
"land
types".
In
detailed
soil
surveys
of
Florida
coastal
areas,
such
as
Pinellas
County
(Vanatta
et
al.
1972,)
tidal
'Contribution
from
the
Soil
Science
Department,
Florida
Agric.
Exp.
Stn.,
Gainesville,
32611,
as
Journal
Series
paper
5881.
Received
16
April
1975.
Approved
12
Sept.
1975.
'Associate
Professor
Earth
and
Plant
Sciences
Dep.,
Florida
A
&
M
Univ.,
Tallahassee,
Fla.,
and
Assistant
Professor
of
Soil
Taxonomy,
Soil
Science
Dep.,
Gainesville,
Florida.
COULTAS
AND
CALHOUN:
PROPERTIES
OF
areas
are
separated
into
two
land
types
referred
to
as
"Tidal
Marsh"
and
"Tidal
Swamp."
Tidal
marshes
and
associated
estuaries
are
now
becoming
more
attractive
for
many
kinds
of
economic
development;
however,
the
value
of
the
marsh
in
its
relatively
undisturbed
state
has
often
been
overlooked.
It
is
essential
in
the
propagation
and
development
of
many
marine
organisms
(Heald
and
Odum,
1969)
providing
both
food
and
a
relatively
safe
habitat.
Gosselink
et
al.
(1973)
es-
timated
the
value
of
Spartina
alterniflora
marshes
in
Georgia
for
fi
sheries
to
be
in
excess
of
$247/ha
per
year
($2,000/acre
capitalized
at
5%).
The
marsh
provides
other
functions
as
well,
such
as
erosion
protection
and
habitat
for
migratory
birds.
As
population
pressures
increase,
tidal
areas
are
assum-
ing
greater
importance
as
a
land
resource.
More
detailed
in-
vestigations
are
needed
to
provide
a
base
for
determining
their
best
use.
Thus,
the
purpose
of
this
research
was
to
characterize
and
classify
the
important
tidal
marsh
soils
in
Duval
(Atlantic
Coast)
and
Hernando
(Gulf
Coast)
counties
of
Florida.
DESCRIPTION
OF
THE
STUDY
AREA
The
location
of
Hernando
and
Duval
counties
is
shown
in
Fig.
1.
There
are
approximately
4,675
ha
of
tidal
marsh
in
Hernando
and
20,250
ha
in
Duval
County.
Considerable
fi
lling
has
taken
place
in
the
marshes
of
Duval
County
(Jacksonville).
Further,
an
estimated
337
ha
have
been
destroyed
by
recent
housing
develop-
ments
in
Hernando
County.
The
climate
of
the
study
area
is
humid
and
temperate
to
sub-
tropical.
Mean
annual
precipitation
in
Duval
County
is
135.6
cm
and
147.3
cm
in
Hernando
County
(U.S.
Dep.
of
Commerce,
1972).
The
mean
annual
temperature
is
20.8C
in
Duval
County
and
22.2C
in
Hernando
with
a
range
of
mean
monthly
tempera-
tures
of
14.2C
to
28.1C
in
Duval
and
16.2C
to
27.3C
in
Hernando
County.
The
predominate
vegetation
of
the
tidal
marshes
of
Florida
is
Juncus
roemeriamus
Scheele.
Spartina
alterniflora
Loisel
commonly
occurs
at
lower
elevations
and
Distichlis
spicata
L.
Greene
in
higher
elevations.
Slope
in
tidal
marshes
is
<
1%
except
at
the
boundaries
between
marshes
and
the
sea
and
marshes
and
the
uplands
where
slopes
of
3
to
5%
or
greater
may
occur.
A
well
-developed
meandering
stream
system
exists
which
permits
rapid
ingress
and
egress
of
tidal
wa-
ters.
Twice
daily
inundation
of
the
marsh
is
normal.
Mean
tidal
range
in
Duval
County
(Mayport)
is
1.4
m,
whereas
in
Hernando
County
(Bayport)
it
is
only
0.7
m
(U.S.
Dep.
of
Commerce,
1974).
Most
tidal
marshes
in
Florida
are
1
to
2
km
in
width;
however,
some
of
the
marshes
along
the
St.
John's
and
Nassau
rivers
in
Duval
County
are
about
4
km
wide.
The
soils
in
the
Hernando
County
marshes
are
developing
in
recent
sediments
<
1
m
in
thickness
over
Suwannee
Limestone
and
the
Crystal
River
Forma-
tion
(Puri
and
Vernon,
1964).
The
marsh
sediments
in
Duval
County
are
Recent
and
Pleistocene
and
are
of
considerable
thick-
ness.
INVESTIGATION
PROCEDURES
Field
Procedures
—Sites
were
selected
and
pedons
described
in
cooperation
with
the
Soil
Conservation
Service
(USDA)
party
chiefs
in
charge
of
progressive
soil
surveys
in
Hernando
and
Duval
counties.
Several
transects
in
each
county
were
conducted
with
an
"all
-terrain"
vehicle
and
the
major
soils
were
described
and
sampled
following
procedures
outlined
in
the
Soil
Survey
Manual
(1951).
Chemical
Procedures
—The
following
methods
were
used
for
chemical
analyses:
pH
in
water
by
a
glass
electrode
(8C1a);
3
organic
carbon
by
wet
combustion
(6Ala);
3
extractable
bases
ob-
TIDAL
MARSH
SOILS
OF
FLORIDA
73
HERNANDO
COUNTY
DUVAL
COUNTY
I()
Fig.
1
—Location
of
Hernando
and
Duval
counties
in
Florida.
tamed
with
ammonium
acetate
(5B1)
3
and
determined
by
fl
ame
photometry
(K
and
Na)
and
atomic
absorption
spectrometry
(Ca
and
Mg);
conductivity
from
a
saturation
extract
(8A1a);
3
total
ni-
trogen
by
kjeldahl
digestion
(6B1a);
3
and
calcium
carbonate
equiv-
alent
by
the
titrimetric
method
(6Ele).
3
Total
S
was
determined
using
a
Leco
S
analyzer
(Model
532)
employing
antimony
and
so-
dium
azide
to
eliminate
interferences
(Tiedman
and
Anderson
1971).
Physical
Procedures
—Undisturbed
core
samples
(5.4
by
3.0
cm)
were
placed
in
Tempe
pressure
cells,
saturated,
and
then
ex-
tracted
sequentially
at
pressures
of
30,
60,
100, 150,
200,
and
345
millibars.
Water
contents
were
determined
from
the
weights
of
the
cells
at
each
equilibrium
pressure and
the
oven
-dry
weights
of
the
soil
core.
Only
the
60
millibar
(0.06
bars)
water
contents
are
reported
in
this
paper.
Before
drying,
the
cores
were
resaturated
for
determination
of
saturated
hydraulic
conductivity.
After
oven
drying,
the
samples
were
ground
to
pass
a
2
-mm
sieve
and
the
15
-
bar
water
retention
was
determined.
Particle
-size
distribution
was
by
the
hydrometer
method
(Bouyoucos,
1962).
Field
moisture
content
was
determined
on
a
subsample
of
the
bulk
sample.
Volu-
metric
fi
eld
water
percentage
was
derived
from
bulk
density
values
determined
on
the
core
samples.
Mineralogical
Procedures
—Mineralogy
of
the
clay
(<
2µm)
fraction
was
by
X-ray
diffraction
procedure
(7A2d)
3
with
a
Gen-
eral
Electric
SRD-7
instrument
using
Ni-filtered
CuK
radiation.
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
Morphological
Properties
The
marsh
soils
of
Hernando
County
are
underlain
by
limestone
within
1
m.
The
northern
Florida
Atlantic
coastal
soils
(Duval
County)
are
developing
in
a
much
thicker
regolith
(Table
1).
Pedogenic
horizonation
in
the
mineral
materials
is
generally
negligible except
for
the
presence
of
an
incipient
B
horizon
in
profile
27-2
and
the
melanized
Al
horizon
of
profile
27-1.
All
of
the
organic
soil
layers
were
classified
as
sapric
in
the
fi
eld.
A
17
cm
-thick
surface
layer
high
in
calcium
carbonate
was
noted
in
profile
27-2.
'Symbols
in
parentheses
indicate
the
reference
to
the
method
in
Soil
Sur-
vey
Investigations
Report
No.
1,
revised
(Soil
Survey
Staff,
1972).
74
SOIL
SCI.
SOC.
AMER.
Table
1
-Morphological
characteristics
of
tidal
marsh
soils
from
Hernando
and
Duval
counties,
Florida.
Moist
Depth,
dominant
Field*
Lower
Horizon
cm
color
texture
Structuret
Consistence*
boundary
§
HERNANDO
COUNTY
All
0-5
Al2
5-20
A13
20-38
AC1
38-58
AC2
58-69
11R
69+
CI
0-12
C2
12-17
11A1b
17-22
11Bb
22-38
IIIR
38+
Oal
0-11
0a2
11-30
0a3
30-56
0a4
56-74
IIR
74+
DUVAL
COUNTY
Oal
0-2
0a2
2-25
IIC1
25-100
HIC2
100-162
Oal
0-46
IICI
46-61
11C2
61-165
Profile
S73Fla-27-1
10YR2/1
scl
10YR3/1
sl
10YR3.5/1
Ifs
10YR4/2
Ifs
10YR4/2
Ifs
10YR8/2
m
m
Ifsbk
sg
Profile
S73Fla-27-2
10YR8/1
10YR7/1
2.5YR5/2
10YR6/6
10YR8/1
sl
Ifsbk
scl
lfsbk
sl
lfsbk
Ifs
lfsbk
Profile
S73Fla-27-5
10YR2.5/1
10YR2.5/1
10YR2.5/1
10YR2.5/1
10YR8/2
muck
muck
muck
muck
2fgr
Ifgr
m
Profile
S74Fla-16-1
10YR
2/1
muck
7.5YR3/2
muck
10YR3/1
10YR3/1
&
10YR6/1
sl
2,5Y4/2
5Y3/2
5Y3/2
m
m
m
Profile
S74Fla-16-2
muck
m
c
m
wss
cs
mvfr
gw
mfr
gw
mfr
gw
ml
ai
mfr
cw
mfr
gw
mfr
gw
mfr
ai
mfr
mfr
mfr
mfr
ws
mfr
wvs
wss
mfr
wvs
wvs
gs
cw
cw
ai
CS
cw
gs
gs
scl-sandy
clay
loam,
sl-sandy
loam,
Ifs
-loamy
fine
sand,
c
-clay.
t
m
-massive,
lfsbk-weak
fine
sub
-angular
blocky,
sg-single
grain,
2fgr-moderate
fine
granular,
lfgr-weak
fine
granular.
*
wss-wet
slightly
sticky,
mvfr-moist
very
friable,
mfr
-moist
friable,
ml
-moist
loose,
ws-wet
sticky,
wvs-wet
very
sticky.
§
cs-clear
smooth,
gw-gradual
wavy,
ai-abrupt
irregular,
cw-clear
wavy,
gs-gradual
smooth.
.1
.,
vol.,.
40,
1976
Chemical
Properties
The
marsh
soils
were
near
neutral
or
alkaline
in
reaction
under
fi
eld
conditions
except
the
0a2
horizon
(pH
5.4)
of
profile
16-1
in
Duval
County
(Table
2).
Maximum
alkalin-
ity
(pH
8.2)
occurred
in
the
carbonatic
overburden
of
profile
27-2.
The
calcium
carbonate
equivalent
of
these
horizons
was
57.5%
in
the
Cl
and
47.7%
in
the
C2.
The
1
lAlb
and
11Bb
horizons
of
this
pedon
had
CaCO
3
equivalents
of
13.1%
and
1.4%,
respectively.
With
the
exception
of
pro-
fi
le
27-2
all
soils
became
more
acid
upon
drying,
indicating
the
oxidation
of
S
compounds.
Extreme
changes
in
pH
were
usually
related
to
high
levels
of
S.
Maximum
fi
eld
moist
pH
values
occurred
at
the
surface
in
Hernando
County
soils.
With
depth
the
soils
became
more
acid
before
becoming
more
alkaline
as
the
underlying
limestone
was
approached.
Duval
County
soils
tended
to
become
more
alkaline
with
depth
from
the
surface.
Electrical
conductivity
values
indicated
that
all
of
the
marsh
soils
were
highly
saline.
Conductivity
ranged
from
22.6
mmhos/cm
at
the
surface
of
profile
16-2
in
Duval
County
to
61.4
in
the
0a2
horizon
of
profile
27-5
in
Her-
nando
County.
The
sum
of
extractable
bases
was
usually
highest
in
the
surface
horizons
and
decreased
with
depth
(Table
2).
This
trend
was
related
to
organic
C
distribution
with
depth.
Cal-
cium
was
the
predominant
cation
in
the
Hernando
County
soils.
Magnesium
predominated
in
the
Duval
County
soils.
The
ratio
of
extractable
Na
+
Mg
to
extractable
bases
was
considerably
higher
(50-75%)
in
Duval
County
soils
than
in
the
Hernando
County
soils
(generally
<
50%).
Both
C
and
N
tended
to
concentrate
in
the
surface
hori-
zons
(Table
2).
Increasing
C/N
ratios
with
depth
reflected
greater
microbial
activity
of
the
surface
horizons
and
deni-
Table
2
-Chemical
properties
of
tidal
marsh
soils
from
Hernando
and
Duval
counties,
Florida.
Horizon
Depth
pH
in
H
2
O
Conductivity
Extractable
bases
Organic
C
Total
N
Total
S
Field
moist
Air
dry
Ca
Mg
Na
K
2
cm
mmhos/cm
g
meq/100
HERNANDO
COUNTY
Profile
S73Fla-27-1
All
0-5
7.1
6.0
41.7
11.0
8.1
1.8
0.8
21.7
7.8
0.65
0.56
Al
2
5-20
6.7
4.7
47.0
5.8
6.4
2.2
1.2
15.6
5.7
0.35
0.59
Al
3
20-38
6.8
4.6
42.9
3.0
2.9
1.0
0.6
7.5
2.6
0.11
0.19
AC1
38-58
6.5
3.9
34.6
2.7
2.1
0.6
0.4
5.8
2.7
0.11
0.46
AC2
58-69
7.0
5.4
32.8
4.3
2.3
0.7
0.4
7,7
2.2
0.07
0.62
Profile
S73Fla-27-2
Cl
0-12
8.2
8.4
48.3
15.5
4.8
1.7
0.2
22.2
0.9
0.06 0.36
C2
12-17
8.2
8.4
37.3
16.4
3.8
0.9
0.3
21.4
0.8
0.06
0.21
IIAlb
17-22
7.8
8.3
36.0
16.2
3.9
0.9
0.5
21.5
0.9
0.04
0.06
IIBb
22-38
7.8
8.4
32.1
10.7
2.3
0.3
0.4
13.7
0.2
0.00
Profile
S73Fla-27-5
Oal
0-11
6.7
6.6
49.7
30.5
34.0
9.6
2.2
76.3
17.9
1.28
1.25
0a2
11-30
6.6
4.1
61.4
19.5
17.2
3.6
1.3
41.6
21.0
0.90
3.64
0a3
30-56
6.6
3.3
60.2
17.2
10.0
2.3
0.9
30.4
21.5
0.71
5.19
0a4
56-74
6.6
5.2
43.0
20.7
23.5
5.0
0.7
49.9
14.9
0.57
1.46
DUVAL
COUNTY
Profile
S74Fla-16-1
Oal
0-2
6.5
6.1
45.9
23.9
27.4
12.6
3.6
67.5
19.1
1.09
1.96
0a2
2-25
5.4
5.6
39.2
18.1
29.8
14.6
2.6
65.1
21.5
1.01
2.66
11C1
25-100
6.9
5.1
54.1
12.4
19.6
10.5
3.7
46.2
10.8
0.59
2.82
111C2
100-162
7.4
5.6
27.8
4.0
3.9
1.7
0.7
10.3
1.8
0.07
0.50
Profile
S74Fla-16-2
0a1
0-23
6.4
5.2
22.6
13.3
26.3
9.5
2.1
51.2
19.2
0.96
1.66
Oal
23-46
6.5
5.6
27.8
22.8
49.5
18.5
1.6
92.4
28.9
1.39
2.96
11C1
46-54
6.5
4.7
50.7
15.4
25.9
9.6
2.3
53.2
13.9
0.71
3.46
IICI
54-61
6.9
5.0
48.2
12.3
19.8
11.0
3.5
46.6
9.5
0.46
2.73
11C2
61-165
7.2
5.6
36.2
9.9
20.2
11.7
3.9
45.7
6.9
0.39
2.27
Determination
not
made.
COULTAS
AND
CALHOUN:
PROPERTIES
OF
TIDAL
MARSH
SOILS
OF
FLORIDA
75
trification
in
the
more
permanently
anaerobic
subsurface
ho-
rizons.
All
sapric
materials
and
clayey
11C
horizons
contained
sufficient
S
to
qualify
as
sulfidic
(0.75%).
Profiles
27-1
and
27-2
in
addition
to
the
coarse
-textured
111C2
horizon
of
profile
16-1
all
had
total
S
contents
below
0.75%
(Table
1).
Distribution
of
total
S
with
depth
shows
that
maxima
gener-
ally
occurred
at
35-55
cm.
Total
S
has
been
found
to
be
highly
correlated
with
organic
C
(R=0.80)
in
some
Iowa
soils
by
Tabatabai
and
Bremner
(1972),
but
this
relationship
is
not
obvious
in
these
marsh
soils.
Except
for
profile
no.
27-2,
C/S
ratios
decrease
with
depth
showing
a
relative
en-
richment
of
S
suggesting
the
translocation
of
S
or
the
effect
of
reducing
conditions
in
the
lower
zones
of
more
perma-
nent
saturation.
Physical
Properties
Particle
size
distribution
data
(Table
3)
show
that
the
mineral
portions
of
these
tidal
marsh
soils
are
quite
strati-
fi
ed.
The
Duval
County
soils
contained
4
to
10
times
more
clay
than
those
of
Hernando
County.
This
reflects
the
size
of
the
St.
John's
River
drainage
basin
and
its
sediment
load
which
is
derived
from
the
Miocene
sands
and
clays
of
inte-
rior
Florida.
In
contrast,
the
surrounding,
but
low-lying,
uplands
in
Hernando
County
are
covered
by
a
relatively
thin
veneer
of
Pleistocene
sands.
Also,
most
of
the
fresh
water
outlets
in
this
region
are
springs.
Maximum
fi
eld
water
values
(Table
3)
commonly
are
in
or
near
the
surface
layer.
The
high
water
contents
are
indic-
ative
of
low
-bearing
capacity
subsequent
to
and
shrinkage
problems
consequent
to
artificial
drainage
of
these
soils.
Using
volumetric
water
content
at
saturation
minus
volu-
metric
water
content
at
0.06
bar
suction
as
the
large
pore
volume,
profile
27-2
had
a
very
low
macropore
volume
decreasing
from
6%
at
the
surface
(C1
horizon)
to
only
1%
in
the
11Bb
horizon.
This
was
also
reflected
in
the
low
satu-
rated
hydraulic
conductivity
of
the
11Bb
horizon.
The
sap-
ric
layers
had
a
relatively
high
13-26%)
macropore
volume;
however,
in
some
cases
this
did
not
explain
variation
in
conductivities.
For
example,
the
Oal
layer
of
profile
16-2
had
a
conductivity
of
149
cm/hr
and
a
macropore
volume
of
13%
while
the
0a4
layer
of
profile
27-5
had
a
pore
volume
of
26%
and
a
conductivity
of
only
9.2
cm/hr.
Bulk
density
values
reflected
the
organic
content
of
the
soils
and
the
hydrophylic
nature
of
the
clays.
The
clayey
ho-
rizons
of
the
Duval
soils
had
especially
low
bulk
densities
(0.16-0.25
g/cm
3
).
N
-values
(Soil
Survey
Staff,
1975)
were
calculated
for
mineral
soils
and
horizons
(Table
3).
Except
for
profile
27-2
nearly
all
N
-values
were
consider-
ably
>
1.0.
This
attests
to
the
high
subsidence
potential
and
low
bearing
capacity
of
these
soils.
Clay
Mineralogy
Aluminum
interlayered
vermiculite
and
kaolinite-
metahalloysite
were
the
predominant
clay
minerals
in
the
Hernando
County
marsh
soils
(Table
4).
A
similar
mineral
suite
was
found
in
Wakulla
County,
Florida
marsh
soils
by
Coultas
(1969,
1970).
Minor
amounts
of
quartz
were
present
in
all
soils
except
for
the
calcite
-dominated
Cl
hori-
zon
of
profile
27-2.
Table
3
-Physical
properties
of
tidal
marsh
soils
from
Hernando
and
Duval
counties,
Florida.
Horizon
Water
content
Saturated
n
Bulk
hydraulic
Value
density
conductivity
Sand,
mm
Silt
(50-2µ)
Clay
(2
1.1)
Textural
class
Depth
Field
Saturation
0.06
bar
15
bar
Wt.
Vol.*
Wt.
Vol.
Wt.
Vol.
Wt.
Vol.
2-1
1-0.5
0.5-0.25
0.25-0.1
0.1-0.05
CM
g/cm
cm/hr
HERNANDO
COUNTY
Profile
S73Fla-27-1
All
0-5
227.7
--f
3.7
0.0
0.2
2.3
29.9
37.3
10.2
20.1
scl
Al2
5-20
142.3
68.3
163.6
79.2
134.6
65.2
13.0
6.3
3.1
0.48
47.9
0.0
0.5
5.2
49.5
35.3
6.4
13.1
sl
A13
20-28
58.0
58.6
62.4
63.0
55.5
56.0
5.1
5.1
1.7
1.01
59.8
0.0
0.9
6.8
50.4
26.0
4.6
11.3
Ifs
AC1
38-58
50.0
55.0
52.3
57.5
48.0
52.8
5.4 5.4
1.4
1.10
73.6
0.0
1.1
7.7
56.3
21.0
3.7
10.2
Ifs
AC2
58-69
37.1
--
1.0
0.0
1.1
8.0
57.4
21.2
4.1
8.2
Ifs
IIR
69+
0.0
Profile
S73F1a-27-2
Cl
0-12
22.5
32.8
30.0
43.6
25.8
37.6
14.2
14.2
0.3
1.46
7.2
2.2
7.4
12.5
31.4
16.3
14.4
15.8
sl
C2
12-17
25.9
38.8
29.4
44.1
26.0
39.0
15.8
15.8
0.4
1.50
11.8
0.4
1.6
6.4
35.3
19.2
17.0
20.1
scl
11A1b
17-22
20.7
35.5
20.8
36.0
19.5
33.7
6.6
6.6
0.2
1.73
0.2
0.2
0.9
4.9
54.0
21.2
4.7
14.1
sl
11Bb
22-38
19.5
34.5
18.5
32.7
17.8
31.5
6.6
6.6
0.1
1.77
0.4
0.5
1.0
5.6
59.0
21.9
2.5
9.5
Ifs
IHR
38+
-
Profile
S73F1a-27-5
Oal
0-11
369.8
125.7
241.1
81.5
196.4
66.4
5.9
5.9
0.34
4.2
0a2
11-30
338.7
121.9
230.7
82.8
183.7
65.9
6.0 6.0
0.36
15.1
0a3
30-56
300.1
63.0
422.4
88.6
336.4
70.6
7.3
7.3
0.21
6.4
0a4
56-74
180.5
30.7
509.0
87.7
357.2
61.5
4.6
4.6
0.17
9.2
1IR
74+
DUVAL
COUNTY
Profile
S74F1a-16-1
Oal
0-2
493.5
--
0a2
2-25
532.1
74.5
652.2
88.4
483.0
65.5
44.2
6.0
0.14
221.0
11C1
25-100
342.5
84.6
375.2
88.2
283.7
66.7
10.9
10.9
2.7
0.24
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.5
1.5
12.3
85.6
111C2
100-160
65.8
--
1.8
0.0
0.0
0.1
46.4
33.7
0.0
19.9
sl
Profile
S74F1a-16-2
Oal
0-23
673.4
87.5
685.2
90.8
587.5
77.8
7.0
7.0
0.13
149.0
0a2
23-46
661.1
--
11C1
46-54
489.0
78.2
592.2
92.4
432.7
67.5
6.5
6.5
3.4
0.16
18.7
total
sand
=
0.6%
3.9
95.5
11C2
54-61
291.0
72.8
348.0
86.3
304.3
75.4
10.6
10.6
2.2
0.25
19.7
total
sand
=
0.5%
3.0
96.5
11C3
61-165
260.5
--
2.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.4
1.1
4.6
92.9
*
Values
in
this
column
are
derived
(see
text
under
"Physical
Procedures").
Thus,
some
experimental
error
may
be
expected.
f
Determination
not
made.
76
SOIL
SCI.
SOC.
AMER.
Table
4
-Semiquantitative
estimation
of
clay
minerals
in
selected
horizons
of
tidal
marsh
soils
from
Hernando
and
Duval
counties,
Florida.
Horizon
Clay
species.
HERNANDO
COUNTY
All
Alt
AC
I
CI
1IBb
DUVAL
COUNTY
11C
11C1
11C2
S73Fla-27-1
S73F1a-27-2
S74F1a-16-1
S74Fla-16-2
Km
I,
V2,
-
Q3
Kml,
V2,
Q3
Km
I,
V2,
Mi2,
Q3
Ca
VI,
Km2,
Q3
KI,
M2,
Mi2,
Q3
K1,
Mi2,
M2,
Q3
M2,
Mi2,
K2,
Q3
V
-Aluminum
interlayered
vermiculite,
Km-Kaolinite
and
metahalloysite,
K=Kaolinite,
M-i=Montmorillonite,
mica
mixture,
Mi=Mica,
Q=Quartz,
Ca=
Calcite.
1
=
>40%,
2
=
10-40%,
3
=
<10%.
In
contrast,
the
Duval
marsh
soils
clays
were
composed
mostly
of
kaolinite,
montmorillonite,
and
mica.
The
clay
mineral
composition
of
the
marsh
soils
is
similar
to
that
of
the
surrounding
upland
soils
and
sediments
on
both
coasts.
Classification
of
the
Soils
Diagnostic
horizons
and
features
and
classification
of
the
soils
at
the
family
level
are
as
follows.
Pedon
27-1
is
min-
eral
throughout
with
an
n
-value
that
is
too
high
to
qualify
as
a
mollic
epipedon.
The
texture
is
loamy
fi
ne
sand
from
20
-
cm
depth
to
a
paralithic
contract
and
total
S
is
too
low
to
qualify
any
of
the
horizons
as
sulfidic.
Within
the
context
of
the
present
classification
system
(Soil
Survey
Staff,
1975)
it
is
classified
as
a
siliceous,
hyperthermic
Typic
Psam-
maquent.
Classification
of
pedon
27-2
is
based
on
the
prop-
erties
of
the
soil
underlying
the
17
-cm
-thick
carbonatic
layer.
It
has
an
ochric
epipedon,
the
depth
to
lithic
contact
is
25
cm,
and
the
B
horizon
is
sandy.
It
is
classified
as
a
siliceous,
hyperthermic
Lithic
Psammaquent.
Pedon
27-5
is
sapric
throughout
to
a
paralithic
contact
at
74
cm
and
all
ho-
rizons
are
sulfidic.
Within
the
context
of
the
present
clas-
sification
system
it
is
classified
as
a
euic,
hyperthermic
Typic
Sulfihemist,
although
lithic
subgroups
are
recognized
in
other
Hemists.
Pedon
16-1
has
a
histic
epipedon
un-
derlain
by
mineral
material
at
25
cm.
The
histic
epipedon
and
clayey
11C1
horizon
are
both
sulfidic.
It
is
classified
as
a
very
-fine,
mixed,
nonacid,
thermic
Typic
Sulfaquent.
Pedon
16-2
has
a
40
-cm
thick
sapric
horizon
and
is
strongly
sulfidic
throughout.
It
is
classified
as
a
euic,
thermic
Typic
Sulfihemist.
The
classification
of
these
soils
suggest
that
further
re-
fi
nement
in
certain
of
the
taxa
is
needed
in
order
to
empha-
size
some
important
properties
of
these
soils
at
a
taxonomic
level
above
that
of
the
series.
There
is
a
need
for
recognition
of
the
high
level
of
soluble
salts
in
all
of
the
marsh
soils.
The
thick
clayey
mineral
layer
with
the
high
(2-3)
n
-values
in
profile
16-2
should
be
recognized
at
the
subgroup
level
as
an
intergrade
towards
the
Hydraquents.
Other
Considerations
There
was
only
a
slight
change
in
slope
between
the
marsh
and
the
adjoining
upland
soils
in
Hernando
County,
J.,
VOL.
40,
1976
but
there
was
commonly
an
abrupt
slope
change
between
these
landscape
positions
in
Duval
County.
The
marsh
ap-
pears
to
be
encroaching
on
the
upland
in
Hernando
County,
but
this
is
not
evident
in
Duval
County.
The
Lithic
Psam-
maquent
(27-2)
in
Hernando
County
which
is
overlain
by
carbonatic
material
provides
evidence
for
a
50-100
cm
higher
sea
level
stand.
The
marsh
soils
in
both
counties
supported
luxurious
stands
of
vegetation,
predominately,
Juncus
roemerianus
which
provides
much
of
the
essential
detritus
for
many
marine
organisms.
These
soils
also
have
a
high
capacity
for
adsorbing
nutrients
from
the
tidal
waters.
The
high
level
of
S
found
in
most
of
the
soils
would
cause
serious
problems
if
they
were
drained
(Fleming
and
Alexander,
1961).
The
low
bulk
density
and
high
water
content
of
all
soils
except
the
Lithic
Psammaquent
suggest
the
low
mechanical
bearing
capacity
of
these
soils
and
the
excessive
shrinking
which
would
occur
upon
draining.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The
authors
are
grateful
for
the
assistance
of
Mr.
Adam
Hyde
and
Mr.
L.
T.
Stem,
party
leaders
with
the
Soil
Conservation
Service
in
Hernando
and
Duval
Counties,
respectively,
in
locating,
describing,
and
sampling
the
soils.
LITERATURE
CITED
1.
Bouyoucos,
G.
J.
1962.
Hydrometer
method
improved
for
making
particle
size
analysis
of
soils.
Agron.
J.
54:464-465.
2.
Buol,
S.
W.,
ed.
1973.
Soils
of
the
Southern
States
and
Puerto
Rico.
Southern
Coop.
Series
Bull.
No.
174.
3.
Coultas,
C.
L.
1969.
Some
saline
marsh
soils
in
north
Florida:
Part
I.
Soil
Crop
Sci.
Soc.
of
Fla.
Proc.
29:111-123.
4.
Coultas,
C.
L.
1970.
Some
saline
marsh
soils
in
north
Florida.
Part
II.
Soil
Crop
Sci.
Soc.
of
Ha.
Proc.
30:275-282.
5.
Fleming,
J.
F.,
and
L.
if
Alexander.
1961.
Sulfur
acidity
in
South
Carolina
tidal
marsh
soils.
Soil
Sci.
Soc.
Am.
Proc.
25:94-95.
6.
Gosselink,
J.
G.,
E.
P.
Odum,
and
R.
M.
Pope.
1973.
The
value
of
the
tidal
marsh.
Work
Paper
No.
3.
Urban
and
Regional
Development
Center.
Univ.
of
Florida,
Gainesville.
7.
Heald,
E.
J.,
and
W.
E.
Odum.
1969.
The
contribution
of
mangrove
swamps
to
Florida
fi
sheries.
Proc.
Gulf
Caribb.
Fish
Inst.
22
Ann.
Sess.:130-135.
8.
Puri,
H.
S.,
and
R.
0.
Vernon.
1964.
Summary
of
the
geology
of
Florida
and
guidebook
to
the
classic
exposures.
Special
Publication
No.
5.
Fla.
Geol.
Survey.
9.
Rutledge,
E.
M.
1973.
Land
types.
p.
95-98.
In
S.
W.
Buol
(ed).
Soils
of
the
Southern
States
and
Puerto
Rico.
Southern
Coop.
Series
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