Inherited copper toxicosis with emphasis on copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers
Hyun, C.; Filippich, L.J.
Journal of Experimental Animal Science 43(1): 39-64
Canine copper toxicosis is an important inherited disease in Bedlington terriers, because of its high prevalence rate and similarity to human copper storage disease. It can lead to chronic liver disease and occasional haemolytic anaemia due to impaired copper excretion. The responsible gene for copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers has been recently identified and was found not to be related to human Wilson's disease gene ATP7B. Although our understanding of copper metabolism in mammals has improved through genetic molecular technology, the diversity of gene mutation related to copper metabolism in animals will help identify the responsible genes for non-Wilsonian copper toxicoses in human. This review paper discusses our knowledge of normal copper metabolism and the pathogenesis, molecular genetics and current research into copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers, other animals and humans.