Rearing of Tabanus nigrovittatus (Diptera: Tabanidae)


Sofield, R.K.; Hansens, E.J.

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 86(1): 195-198

1984


Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart was reared from egg to adult in 78-155 days., at 27°C and 16:8 LIB cycle. Larval mortality was 94.5% in 1978 and 70.3% in 1979. Seven to ten instars were observed. The length of the head capsule increased by a factor of 1.37 in successive instars, The duration of the instars decreased from 15.6 days for the second instar to 10.1 days for the sixth, then increased to 18.5 days for the ninth. Reared flies did not mate in the laboratory, but some of the virgin females oviposited and then hlood-fed from a human host.

PROC.
ENTOMOL.
C.
WASH.
86(1),
1984.
pp.
195-198
REARING
Of
TABANUS
NIGEOPITTA
TES
(DIPTERA:
TABANIDAEY-
2
ROY
K.
SOFIELD
AND
ELTON
J.
HANSENS
Department
of
Entomology
and
Economic
Zoology,
Cook
College,
New
Jersey
Agricultural
Experiment
Station,
Rutgers
University,
New
Brunswick,
New
Jersey
08903;
(RKS
present
address)
Science
Department,
Tennessee
Temple University,
Chattanooga,
Tennessee
37404,
Abstract.—Tabanus
nigrovittatus
Macquart
was
reared
from
egg
to
adult
in
78-
155
days.,
at
27°C
and
16:8
LIB
cycle.
Larval
mortality
was
94.5%
in
1978
and
70.3%
in
1979.
Seven
to
ten
instars
were
observed.
The
length
of
the
head
capsule
increased
by
a
factor
of
1.37
in
successive
instars,
The
duration
of
the
instars
decreased
from
15.6
days
for
the
second
instar
to
10.1
days
for
the
sixth,
then
increased
to
18.5
days
for
the
ninth.
Reared
flies
did
not
mate
in
the
laboratory,
but
some
of
the
virgin
females
oviposited
and
then
hlood-fed
from
a
human
host.
In
1906,
Hine
reported
the
rearing
of
a
single
adult
Hybomitra
lasiophthahua
(Macquart)
from
the
egg
stage.
Within
a
few
years
three
other
species
were
reared
from
egg
to
adult:
Tabailus
biguttatus
Wied.
(King,
1908):
T.
par
Walker
(King,
1910):
and
T.
striatus
Fabricius
(=
partitus
Walker)
(Mitimain„
1913).
The
greatest
number
of
specimens
reared
from
egg
to
adult
was
401
for
Tabanus
taeniola
Palisot
de
Beauvois
(Harez
et
al..
1970b).
Thompson
et
at.
(1979)
reared
212
adult
T.
nigrovittatus
Macquart
from
eggs.
They
reared
the
flies
in
"1
-gal
plastic
ice
cream
pails"
with
up
to
eight
adults
emerging
from
each
pail.
They
did
not
report
the
number
or
-
duration
of
instars,
and
all
of
the
larvae
entered
diapause.
In
this
study,
we
reared
T.
nigrovittatus
individually
to
determine
the
number
and
duration
of
larval
instars.
The
temperature
and
light
cycle
were
controlled
to
prevent
diapause.
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
Eggs
of
T.
nigrovittaius
were
obtained
from
field
collected
females,
using
the
method
of
Stoirolano
(1979),
however
the
flies
fed
through
Baudrauche
membrane
(Joseph
Long,
inc.,
Bellville„
NJ)
instead
of
Parafilm.
We
reared
adult
flies
from
1
egg
masses
laid
between
July
19
and
September
21
.
Each
egg
mass
was
placed
on
wet
fi
lter
paper
in
a
petri
dish
until
hatching.
I
From
a
thesis
presented
by
R.
K.
Sofield
in
partial
fulfillment
of
requirements
for
the
M.
S.
degree.
Rutgers
University,
New
Brunswick,
NJ.
2
New
Jersey
Agricultural
Experiment
Station,
Publication
No.
D-08409-14-82.
supported
by
State
funds,
196
PROCEEDINGS
OF
THE
ENTOMOLOGICAL
SOCIETY
OF
WASHINGTON
Larvae
were
reared
individually
in
32
ml
vials
containing
fi
lter
paper
and
3
ml
0.8-1
.4%
salt
water,
incubated
at
27°C
and
16:8
LD
cycle.
Every
2-5
days,
we
fed
house
fl
y
maggots
to
the
tabanid
larvae
and
replaced
the
water
and
filter
paper
in
each
vial.
We
determined
instars
by
the
number
of
black
bodies
in
Graber's
organ
up
to
the
fourth
instar,
and
thereafter
by
observation
of
exuviae.
In
addition,
all
exuviae
from
the
larvae
of
one
egg
mass
(number
51)
were
mounted
on
slides
in
Floyer's
medium
and
the
head
capsules
measured.
The
method
of
Cameron
(1934)
was
used
to
determine
missed
exuviae.
Pupae
were
rolled
in
a
piece
of
fi
lter
paper
and
placed
in
a
vial
with
3
ml
salt
water
until
emergence
of
the
adults.
We
maintained
reared
adult
fl
ies
in
473
ml
cardboard
containers
with
marquisette
stretched
over
the
top
and
offered
female
fl
ies
a
human
host
from
which
to
blood
-feed.
To
permit
mating,
male
and
female
adults
were
placed
together
in
cages
or
tethered
on
thread,
allowing
a
limited
amount
of
fl
ight.
Induced
mating,
as
is
achieved
with
mosquitoes
(McDaniel
and
Horsfall.
1957),
was
also
attempted.
RESULTS
Twenty-eight
of
506
neonate
larvae
were
reared
to
the
pupal
stage
in
1978
(94.5%
mortality).
In
1979,
the
mortality
decreased
to
70.3%
(99
pupae
from
333
neonate
larvae).
Mortality
was
greatest
during
the
fi
rst
40
days
of
development
with
87.4%
in
1978
and
62.8%
in
1979.
Larvae
molted
to
the
second
instar
within
a
day
after
hatching.
This
molt
was
indicated
by
exuviae
on
the
filter
paper.
We
observed
two
pairs
of
black
bodies
in
Graber's
organ
during
the
first
and
second
instars„
three
pairs
during
the
third,
and
four
pairs
during
the
fourth.
Subsequent
instars,
however,
had
a
variable
number
of
black
bodies
in
Graber's
organ.
Seven
to
ten
instars
were
found
(Table
1)
for
42
larvae
from
6
egg
masses.
The
instars
were
determined
by
the
increase
in
number
of
black
bodies
in
Graber's
organ
up
to
the
fourth
instar
and
thereafter
by
recovery
of
exuviae.
The
length
of
the
head
capsule
increased
by
an
average
factor
of
1.37
in
successive
instars.
Corrections
for
missed
exuviae,
using
head
capsule
length,
increased
the
recorded
number
of
instars
for
14
of
the
45
larvae
(31%)
of
egg
mass
number
51
(Table
1).
The
duration
of
each
instar
and
head
capsule
lengths
are
shown
in
Table
2.
T.
nigrovittatus
larvae
reared
at
27°C
in
16:8
LD
cycle
did
not
diapause,
but
pupated
after
78-155
days.
Whether
diapause
is
initiated
by
light,
temperature,
or
the
interaction
of
these
parameters
has
not
been
determined.
The
pupal
stage
lasted
6
to
12
days
with
a
mean
of
8.4
days.
Seventeen
of
127
pupae
(13.4%)
died
before
adult
emergence.
The
duration
was
not
significantly
different
between
the
sexes
(P
<
0.05).
Efforts
to
mate
T
nigrovittatus
in
the
laboratory
were
unsuccessful.
Of
the
13
adult
females
reared
in
1978,
7
oviposited
a
mass
of
eggs
.
,
3
of
these
flies
then
took
a
blood
meal
and
one
fly
laid
a
second
egg
mass.
DISCUSSION
A
laboratory
colony
of
a
tabanid
has
never
been
established,
mainly
because
of
the
inability
to
achieve
mating
in
the
laboratory.
Hafez
et
al.
(1970a)
attempted
to
induce
copulation
in
T,
taeniola
using
a
technique
similar
to
that
used
by
Baker
VOLUME
86,
NUMBER
1
197
Table
1.
Number
of
larval
instars
observed
with
and
without
correction
for
missed
exuviae.
rIcorrected
Co
rive
it'd
Number
of
instars
6
egg
masses
mass
5l
mass
51
T1
6
7
9
10
23.8
42.9
31.0
2.4
1
8
20
16
2.2
17.8
44.4
35.6
23
21
2.2
51.1
46.7
et
al.
(1962)
with
Anopheles
mosquitoes
but
without
success.
Adult
T.
nigrovitiatus
were
placed
in
a
large
cage
by
Thompson
et
al.
(1979),
but
no
sexual
activity
was
observed
and
no
eggs
were
laid.
Horse
fl
y
larvae
are
frequently
reared
individually
because
they
are
cannibalistic
(Mitzrnain„
1913:
Webb
and
Wells,
1924;
Schwardt,
1936:
Roberts
and
Dicke,
1964:
Singh,
1968:
Burger,
1977;
Magi,
1978).
Mitzmain
(1913)
attributed
85%
of
the
larva}
mortality
of
striatus
(=
T.
partitus)
to
cannibalism
and
5%
to
other
causes,
when
larvae
were
reared
together
in
a
common
container.
Thompson
et
al.
(1979),
however,
found
no
evidence
for
cannibalism
when
T.
nigrovittatus
were
reared
in
common
containers.
In
our
study,
larval
mortality
was
reduced
from
95%
to
70%
due
to
careful
handling
of
larvae
and
reduction
in
the
amount
of
food
given
to
small
larvae.
Cameron
(1934)
applied
Dyar's
(1890)
method
of
using
head
capsule
mea-
surements
of
a
reared
tabanid,
Haematopota
phivialis
L.,
to
detect
missed
exuviae.
The
average
factor
of
increase
from
one
instar
to
the
next
was
1.29,
slightly
less
than
that
which
we
found
for
T.
nigrovittatus.
Saito
(1967)
and
Orminati
(1969)
measured
the
head
capsules
from
each
instar
of
trigonus
Coquillett
and
T.
lineola
lineola
Fabricius,
respectively,
but
they
did
not
use
these
measurements
to
reveal
missed
exuviae.
This
procedure
along
with
the
recovery
of
all
exuviae
should
be
used
to
determine
the
number
and
duration
of
larval
instars.
Table
2.
Length
of
the
larval
head
capsules
and
duration
of
each
instar
of
mass
51
after
correction
for
missed
exuviae.
Measurements
were
made
from
the
posterior
end
of
the
tentonal
rods
to
the
tip
of
the
labrum.
Instar
2
4
5
6
7
0
Head
capsule
length
(mm
n
Mean
SD
Duration
(days)
Mean
±
12
0476±0.015
32
0.630
±
0.039
40
0.830±
0.063
40
1.1
14
±
0.098
44
1.525
±
0.155
44
1056
±
0.
191
27
2.617
±
0.178
3.222
±
0.129
36
30
28
30
33
36
35
16
15.6
±
6.4
14A
±
4.5
1
1.6
±
4.0
11,2
2.9
10.1
±
3.3
12.8
±
4.0
17.9
±
6.2
18,5
±
2.4
198
PROCEEDINGS
OF
THE
ENTOMOLOGICAL
SOCIETY
OF
WASHINGTON
In
our
studies.
T.
nigrovittatits
larvae
pupated
in
an
average
of
103
days
when
reared
at
27°C
and
16:8
LD
cycle.
Further
research
is
needed
to
fully
define
the
effects
of
temperature
and
photoperiod
on
the
development
of
T.
nigrovittatusi
It
may
be
possible
to
expedite
or
postpone
pupation
in
the
laboratory
by
manip-
ulation
of
these
parameters.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We
thank
M.
J.
Angelo
for
her
valuable
assistance
during
this
research.
We
are
indebted
to
J.
F.
Burger
and
J.
V.
Freeman
for
their
criticism
of
an
earlier
draft
of
this
manuscript.
This
work
was
performed
as
a
part
of
NJAES
Project
No.
08409,
supported
by
the
New
Jersey
Agricultural
Experiment
Station
and
by
the
Cedarville
Cooperative,
Cedarville,
NJ.
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