Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus isolated from honey bees, Apis mellifera, fed 2,4-D and antibiotics


Gilliam, M.; Morton, H.L.

Apidologie 93: 213-222

1978


The guts of 388 adult worker honey bees, Apis melliftra, from caged control colonies, from colonies fed (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D), and from colonies fed a combination of oxytetracycline and fumagillin were examined over a period of 13 months for organisms of the genus Bacillus. One hundred and ten organisms belonging to 13 species were identified. Bacillus megateriutn, B. subtilis, and B. pumilus were the most frequently isolated organisms and were found in bees in all three treatment groups. The antibiotics and 2,4-D reduced the number of bee guts containing Bacillus. No Bacillus organisms were isolated during the hot summer months of June-September. Thus, weather may also influence the composition of the gut microflora.

Apidologie,
1978,
9
(3),
213-222.
BACTERIA
BELONGING
TO
THE
GENUS
BACILLUS
ISOLATED
FROM
HONEY
BEES,
APIS
MELLIFERA,
FED
2,4-D
AND
ANTIBIOTICS
(1)
Martha
GILLIAM
U.
S.
Department
of
Agriculture,
Science
and
Education
Administration,
Bee
Research
Laboratory
2000
E.
Allen
Road,
Tucson,
Arizona
85719
and
Howard
L.
MORTON
U.
S.
Department
of
Agriculture,
Science
and
Education
Administration,
Rangelands
Weed
and
Brush
Control
2000
E.
Allen
Road,
Tucson,
Arizona
85719
SUMMARY
The
guts
of
388
adult
worker
honey
bees,
Apis
melliftra,
from
caged
control
colonies,
from
colonies
fed
(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)
acetic
acid
(2,4-D),
and
from
colonies
fed
a
combination
of
oxytetracycline
and
fumagillin
were
examined
over
a
period
of
13
months
for
organisms
of
the
genus
Bacillus.
One
hundred
and
ten
organisms
belonging
to
13
species
were
identified.
Bacillus
megateriutn,
B.
subtilis,
and
B.
pu-
milus
were
the
most
frequently
isolated
organisms
and
were
found
in
bees
in
all
three
treatment
groups.
The
antibiotics
and
2,4-D
reduced
the
number
of
bee
guts
containing
Bacillus.
No
Bacillus
or-
ganisms
were
isolated
during
the
hot
summer
months
of
June
-September.
Thus,
weather
may
also
in-
fl
uence
the
composition
of
the
gut
microflora.
INTRODUCTION
For
several
years,
we
have
been
examining
the
intestinal
microflora
of
honey
bees,
Apis
mellifera,
with
the
ultimate
goal
of
determining
the
role
of
microorganisms
in
the
nutrition
and
physiology
of
these
insects.
One
aspect
of
this
investigation
has
concerned
the
effects
of
antibiotics
used
to
control
bee
diseases
and of
pesticides
on
the
gut
microflora
of
bees.
Thus,
we
isolated
and
identified
enteric
bacteria
(GILLIAM
and
MORTON,
1974),
molds
(GILLIAM
et
al.,
1974
a),
and
yeasts
(GILLIAM
et
(
I)
Mention
of
a
proprietary
product
or
company
name
does
not
constitute
an
endorsement
by
the
U.
S.
Depart-
ment
of
Agriculture.
214
M.
GILLIAM
AND
H.
L.
MORTON
al.,
1974
b)
from
the
guts
of
adult
worker
bees
from
control
colonies,
from
colonies
fed
a
combination
of
the
antibiotics
oxytetracycline
(TM
-25)
and
fumagillin
(Fumidil
B),
and
from
colonies
fed
the
herbicide
(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)
acetic
acid
(2,4-D).
From
this
work,
we
concluded
that
the
antibiotics
depressed
the
growth
of
Enterobacteriaceae,
molds,
and
yeasts
and
that
2,4-D
caused
a
proliferation
of
intestinal
yeasts
but
had
little
effect
on
the
molds
or
Enterobacteriaceae.
Recently
we
reviewed
the
literature
concerning
bacteria
of
the
genus
Bacillus
that
have
been
isolated
from
honey
bees
and
reported
the
isolation
of
14
species
from
the
guts
of
foraging
worker
bees
(GILLIAM
and
VALENTINE,
1976).
Since
informa-
tion
about
the
incidence
of
these
sporeforming
rods
in
honey
bees
is
scant
and
since
we
wished
to
assess
the
effects
of
2,4-D
and
the
antibiotics
on
these
organisms,
we
report
here
the
results
of
examination
of
the
guts
of
adult
worker
bees
from
control
colonies,
from
colonies
fed
2,4-D,
and
from
colonies
fed
a
combination
of
oxytetracycline
and
fumagillin.
MATERIAL
AND
METHODS
The
procedures
for
establishing,
caging,
maintaining,
and
feeding
bee
colonies
were
described
in
detail
by
GILLIAM
and
MORTON
(1974).
Two
tests
were
conducted
to
obtain
data
throughout
the
year.
In
the
first
test,
each
of
the
three
hives
receiving
a
different
treatment
(control,
herbidide-fed,
and
antibiotic
-fed)
was
placed
in
a
separate
12x 12x
9
-ft
Saran
mesh
cage.
In
the
second
test,
nine
hives
were
used,
and
the
three
colonies
receiving
the
same
treatment
were
placed
in
the
same
cage.
Thus,
in
the
two
tests,
bees
were
examined
from
a
total
of
12
colonies
:
four
control
colonies,
four
colonies
fed
2,4-
D,
and
four
colonies
fed
the
antibiotics.
Briefly,
the
procedure
was
to
feed
all
colonies
I
-lb
pollen
patties
(maintenance
diet),
which
were
re-
plenished
weekly.
Colonies
receiving
the
herbicide
were
fed
the
dimethylamine
salt
of
2,4-D
at
a
con-
centration
of
1
000
ppm
active
ingredient
by
weight
in
60
%
sucrose
-water
solution
from
a
jar
placed
di-
rectly
above
the
frames
containing
brood
(MORTON
and
MOFFETT,
1972).
The
mixture
of
herbicide
and
syrup
was
replenished
twice
a
week.
Colonies
fed
antibiotics
were
given
the
maintenance
diet
plus
0.5
g
TM
-25
and
0.5
g
Fumidil
B
in
addition
to
60
%
sucrose
-water
solution.
Control
colonies
received
the
maintenance
diet
and
60
%
sucrose
-water
solution.
Fresh
water
was
available
to
all
colonies.
In
the
first
test,
three
adult
worker
bees
from
each
colony
were
examined
weekly.
The
intestinal
tracts
(esophagus
to
rectum)
were
aseptically
removed
and
individually
homogenized
in
2.5
ml
of
sterile
0.85
%
NaCI
as
previously
described
(GILLIAM
and
PREST,
1972).
A
loopful
of
the
homogenate
from
each
bee
was
streaked
in
duplicate
on
trypticase
soy
agar
(BBL)
and
nutrient
agar
(Difco)
in
petri
dishes.
All
plates
were
incubated
under
aerobic
conditions
at
37
°C
for
14
days.
In
the
second
test,
every
three
weeks
the
intestines
of
two
bees
from
each
of
the
nine
colonies
were
in-
dividually
homogenized
in
2.5
ml
of
sterile
thioglycollate
135
C
medium
(BBL).
Each
homogenate
was
streaked
in
duplicate
on
trypticase
soy
agar,
nutrient
agar.
and
eugonagar
(BBL).
One
plate
was
incu-
bated
at
25
°C
and
one
at
37
°C
under
aerobic
conditions
for
14
days.
All
resulting
bacterial
colonies
were
stained
by
the
Gram
method
and,
if
necessary,
were
restreaked
on
plates
of
the
same
medium
used
for
initial
isolation
to
obtain
pure
cultures.
Gram
-stained
slides
of
the
cultures
were
examined
for
spores.
The
size,
shape,
and
location
of
the
spores
within
the
sporangia
and
the
morphology
of
the
vegetative
cells
were
noted.
Bacteria
belonging
to
the
genus
Bacillus
were
maintained
on
slants
of
nutrient
agar.
They
were
then
tested
and
identified
according
to
GORDON
et
al.
(1973).
BACILLUS
IN
BEES
215
In
the
fi
rst
test,
bees
were
sampled
from
July
1971
to
January
1972.
In
the
second
test,
they
were
sampled
from
September
1971
to
August
1972
though
all
the
herbicide
-fed
colonies
had
died
by
April
1972,
a
control
colony
died
in
May
1972,
and
an
antibiotic
-fed
colony
died
in
June
1972.
We
attribute
the
death
of
the
herbicide
-fed
colonies
to
the
ovicidal
and
larvicidal
effects
of
2,4-D
(MORTON
and
MOFFETT,
1972).
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
One
hundred
and
twelve
Bacillus
organisms
were
isolated,
and
110
belonging
to
13
species
were
identified
from
the
388
bees
that
we
examined
(Table
1).
We
were
unable
to
identify
two
isolates,
one
resembling
B.
alvei
and
the
other
resembling
B.
sphaericus.
Since
we
were
interested
in
determining
the
number
of
bee
guts
contain-
ing
Bacillus
organisms
but not
the
total
number
of
Bacillus
cells
per
bee
gut,
more
isolates
were
identified
than
are
shown
in
the
tables
to
estimate
adequately
the
number
of
species
present.
Bacillus
megaterium,
B.
subtilis,
and
B.
pumilus
were
found
in
the
bee
guts
most
frequently.
These
organisms
were
isolated
from
bees
in
all
three
treat-
ment
groups.
Tam.
1.
Bacillus
Isolated
From
Control
Bees, Bees
Fed
2,4-D,
and
Bees
Fed
Oxytetracycline
and
Fumagillin"
Organism
Number
of
bee
guts
containing
the
organism
Bacillus
megaterium
B.
subtilis
B.
pumilus
B.
licheniformis
B.
circulans
B.
alvei
B.
coagulans
B.
brevis
B.
cereus
B.
sphaericus
B.
firmus
B.
laterosporus
B.
polytnyxa
Unidentified
27
21
21
10
10
8
3
3
2
2
2
a
388
bee
guts
examined
Table
2
gives
the
results
of
isolations
in
the
fi
rst
test.
Bacillus
licheniformis
and
B.
subtilis
were
found
most
frequently,
in
10
and
eight
bee
guts,
respectively.
Fifteen
of
the
isolates
(in
14
bees)
were
found
in
control
bees,
nine
were
found
in
bees
fed
2,4-
D
and
only
three
were
found
in
bees
fed
antibiotics.
Thus,
in
this
test,
the
antibiotics
greatly
reduced
the
number
of
bee
guts
containing
Bacillus.
In
fact,
the
three
guts
216
M.
GILLIAM
AND
H.
L.
MORTON
from
bees
fed
antibiotics
that
contained
the
organisms
were
collected
the
same
day.
No
guts
of
bees
fed
antibiotics
contained
Bacillus
organisms
four
months
after
the
start
of
the
test.
TABL.
2.
Bacillus
Isolated
From
Honey
Bees
-
First
Test
Organism
Treatments
Date
isolated
Number
of
bee
guts
containing
the
organism
Bacillus
subtilis
C
10/12/71
1
B.
licheniformis
C
10/18/71
I
B.
sphaericus
C
10/26/71
1
B.
cereus
C
10/26/71
I
B.
megaterium
C
11/
1/71
1
B.
megaterium
from
same
C
11/
1/71
1
B.
licheniformis
1
bee
C
11/
1/71
1
B.
subtilis
C
11/
1/71
1
B.
subtilis
A
11/
1/71
1
B.
licheniformis
A
11/
1/71
1
B.
megaterium
A
11/
1/71
1
B.
circulans
H
11/
1/71
1
B.
licheniformis
H
11/
1/71
1
B.
licheniformis
C
11/
8/71
1
B.
subtilis
C
11/15/71
2
B.
subtilis
H
11/15/71
1
B.
circulans
C
11/22/71
1
B.
brevis
H
11/29/71
1
B.
subtilis
C
12/13/71
1
B.
subtilis
H
12/13/71
1
B.
licheniformis
H
12/13/71
1
B.
licheniformis
C
12/27/71
1
B.
polymyxa
C
12/27/71
1
B.
licheniformis
H
12/27/71
3
C
=
control;
H
=
2,
4-D;
A
=
antibiotics
The
organisms
isolated
in
the
second
test
are
shown
in
Table
3.
Bacillus
megaterium,
B.
pumilus,
and
B.
subtilis
were
isolated
most
frequently.
Thirty-nine
isolates
(from
30
bees)
of
Bacillus
organisms
were
found
in
control
bees
that
were
sampled
for
nine
months,
20
(from
16
bees)
were
found
in
bees
fed
2,4-D
that
were
sampled
for
seven
months,
and
26
(from
22
bees)
were
found
in
bees
fed
antibiotics
that
were
sampled
for
11
months.
Thus,
2,
4-D
and
the
antibiotics
reduced
the
number
of
bee
guts
con-
taining
Bacillus
though
only
94
of
388,
or
24
%,
of
the
bee
guts
examined
contained
these
organisms.
Of
the
frequently
encountered
organisms,
B.
licheniformis
was
isolated
in
the
first
test
but not
in
the
second
test.
Bacillus
pumilus
and
B.
alvei
were
found
in
bees
in
the
BACILLUS
IN
BEES
TABL.
3.
Bacillus
Isolated
From
Honey
Bees
Second
Test
Organism
Treatment"
Date
isolated
Number
of
bee
guts
containing
the
organism
Bacillus
subtilis
C
10/19/71
B.
subtilis
H
10/19/71
B.
coagulans
A
10/19/71
B.
coagulans
from
same
C
11/
9/71
B.
pumilus
bee
C
1
1/
9/71
B.
coagulans
C
11/
9/71
B.
subtilis
C
11/
9/71
B.
subtilis
H
11/
9/71
B.
subtilis
A
11/
9/71
B.
megaterium
from
same
A
1
1/
9/71
Unidentified
bee
A
11/
9/71
B.
firmus
from
same
H
1
1/30/71
B.
megaterium
bee
H
11/30/71
1
B.
megaterium
H
11/30/71
2
B.
megaterium
H
12/21/71
1
B.
pumilus
A
12/21/71
1
B.
megaterium
C
1/11/72
2
B.
bret'is
C
1/11/72
1
B.
circulans
1/1
1/72
1
B.
megaterium
A
1/11/72
1
B.
sphaericus
C
2/
1/72
1
B.
subtilis
C
2/
1/72
1
B.
circulans
from
H
2/
1/72
1
B.
subtilis
same
2/
1/72
1
B.
megaterium
i
bee
H
2/
1/72
1
B.
megaterium
H
2/
1/72
B.
pumilus
H
2/
1/72
2
B.
subtilis
from
same
2/
1/72
B.
megaterium
bee
A
2/
1/72
B.
megaterium
A
2/
1/72
B.
megaterium
C
2/23/72
2
B.
pumilus
C
2/23/72
B.
pumilus
from
C
2/2
3
/
7
2
B.
subtilis
same
C
2/23/72
B.
circulans
bee
C
2/23/72
B.
alvei
C
2/23/72
2
B.
circulans
H
2/23/72
B.
circulans
2/23/72
B.
brepis
from
C
3/14/72
B.
circulans
same
C
3/14/72
B.
subtilis
bee
C
3/14/72
B.
alrei
H
3/14/72
3
217
218
M.
GILLIAM
AND
H.
L.
MORTON
Organism
Treatments
Date
isolated
Number
of
bee
guts
containing
the
organism
B.
alvei
B.
laterosporus
Unidentified
B.
megaterium
B.
subtilis
B.
pumilus
B.
megaterium
B.
pumilus
B.
circulans
B.
circulans
B.
subtilis
B.cereus
B.
pumilus
B.
subtilis
B.
megaterium
B.
pumilus
B.
pumilus
B.
pumilus
B.
alyei
B.
alt
ei
B.
megaterium
B.
megaterium
B.
pumilus
B.
pumilus
B.
megaterium
from
same
bee
from
same
bee
from
same
bee
from
same
bee
from
same
bee
from
same
bee
from
same
/
bee
H
H
H
A
A
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
A
3/14/72
3/14/72
3/14/72
3/14/72
3/14/72
3/14/72
4/
4/72
4/
4/72
4/
4/72
4/
4/72
4/
4/72
4/
4/72
4/
4/72
4/
4/72
4/25/72
4/25/72
5/16/72
5/16/72
5/16/72
5/16/72
5/16/72
5/16/72
5/16/72
5/16/72
5/16/72
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
6
2
1
2
2
1
1
C
=
control;
H
=
2,4-D;
A
=
antibiotics
second
test
but
were
not
isolated
in
the
first
test.
All
isolations
of
B.
alvei
and
all
but
two
of
B.
pumilus
were
made
after
the
first
test
was
terminated.
Perhaps,
if
the
first
test
had
extended
beyond
January
1972,
these
organisms
would
have
been
isola-
ted.
However,
Bacillus
licheniformis
was
isolated
from
October
1971
through
De-
cember
1971.
Therefore,
it
is
surprising
that
it
was
not
found
in
bees
in
the
second
test.
Of
special
interest
is
the
fact
that
no
Bacillus
organisms
were
isolated
from
bee
guts
during
the
hot
summer
months
of
June,
July,
August,
and
September.
TYSSET
and
DURAND
(1968)
examined
the
midgut
and
hindgut
of
adult
worker
bees
in
France
from
October
to
March
and
reported
that
29
%
of
the
microorganisms
isolated
BACILLUS
IN
BEES
219
were
Gram
positive.
Similarly,
FEDOROVA
and
GUSEVA
(1964)
concluded
that
intestines
of
adult
worker
bees
always
contain
spore
formers
in
winter.
In
contrast,
EL-LEITHY
and
EL-SIBAEI
(1972)
examined
microorganisms
from
the
surfaces,
crops,
and
intestines
of
adult
worker
bees
in
Egypt
during
the
fl
owering
of
citrus
(March
to
May)
and
of
cotton
(June
to
August)
and
concluded
that
aerobic
sporeforming
bacilli
were
the
most
frequently
encountered
organisms
representing
61-83
%
of
the
fl
ora.
We
also
examined
foraging
worker
bees
from
free
-flying
colonies
in
December
(GILLIAM
and
VALENTINE,
1976)
and
found
Bacillus
organisms
in
all
bee
guts.
Therefore,
climate,
weather,
and
vegetation
-may
influence
the
composition
of
the
gut
microflora.
TYSSET
and
DURAND
(1968)
reported
that
the
low
population
of
spore
for-
mers
in
the
intestinal
contents
of
bees
indicated
that
these
bacilli
are
there
in
transit
since
sporogenous
bacteria
are
present
in
soils
and
are
found
only
accidentally
and
in
limited
numbers
on
the
floral
organs
of
plants.
Thus
they
postulated
that
bees
do
not
have
much
chance
of
being
heavily
contaminated.
Moreover,
they
thought
that
the
high
osmotic
pressure
and
relatively
low
pH
of
the
intestinal
content
of
bees
would
also
limit
the
population
of
bacilli.
EL-LEITHY
and
EL-SIBAEI
(1972),
in
contrast,
postulated
that
the
predominance
of
spore
-forming
bacilli
on
the
surface
of
bees
as
well
as
in
the
crop
and
gut
may
indicate
that
bacteria
normally
present
on
fl
owers
con-
tinuously
enter
the
alimentary
canal.
They
reported
that
conditions
in
the
gut
were
favorable
for
these
bacteria
and
that
the
source
of
food
influences
the
composition
of
the
microflora
of
the
gut.
The
bees
that
we
used
in
our
tests
were
obtained
from
caged
colonies
and
thus
were
not
foraging
on
fl
owers.
Therefore,
only
soil,
wind,
and
food,
and
water
could
have
served
as
sources
of
inocula.
In
fact,
as
shown
in
Table
-4,
more
bee
guts
contain-
ed
organisms
belonging
to
the
genus
Bacillus
than
contained
Enterobacteriaceae
(GILLIAM
and
MORTON
1974)
or
molds
(GILLIAM
et
al.,
1974
a).
Only
the
yeasts
that
appear
to
be
indicative
of
stressed
bees
(GILLIAM
et
al.,
1974
b)
were
found
in
more
bee
guts
from
colonies
treated
with
2,4-D
and
untreated
colonies.
TABL.
4.
Number
of
Bee
Guts
Containing
Bacteria,
Yeasts,
and
Molds
Microorganism
Treatment
group'
C
H
A
Bacillus
spp.
44
25
25
Enterobacteriaceae
13
15
12
Yeasts
47
95
12
Molds
20
15
8
=
control;
H
=
2,4-D;
A
=
antibiotics
220
M.
GILLIAM
AND
R
L.
MORTON
Almost
all
the
Bacillus
organisms
isolated
in
the
present
study
have
been
previous-
ly
isolated
from
honey
bees
(see
GILLIAM
and
VALENTINE,
1976).
The
exception
was
B.
sphaericus
which
is
a
new
record
of
an
organism
associated
with
honey
bees.
Bacillus
megaterium
was
found
most
frequently
in
bee
guts
in
the
present
study
but
was
not
isolated
from
foragers
(GILLIAM
and
VALENTINE,
1976);
Bacillus
polymyxa
was
isolated
most
frequently
from
foraging
bees.
Thus,
differences
exist
in
the
intestinal
microflora
of
honey
bees
from
caged
colo-
nies
and
from
free
-flying
colonies.
Also,
feeding
2,4-D
or
a
combination
of
oxytetra-
cycline
and
fumagillin
to
bees
causes
shifts
in
the
microflora.
Received
in
March
1978.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We
thank
Mr.
Richard
MARTIN,
Mr.
Randall
JETER,
and
Mrs.
Dinorah
DUNHAM
for
their
ex-
cellent
technical
assistance.
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
ZUM
GENUS
BACILLUS
GEHORENDE
BAKTERIEN,
DIE
AUS
MIT
2,4-D
UND
ANTIBIOTIKA
GEFOTTERTEN
BIENEN,
APIS
MELLIFERA,
ISOLIERT
WURDEN
Der
Darminhalt
von
388
erwachsenen
Honigbienenarbeiterinnen
wurde
auf
sporenbildende
Bakte-
rien
des
Genus
Bacillus
untersucht.
Die
Bienen
wurden
vier
Kontrollvolkern
entnommen,
die
Pollenteig
und
Zuckerlosung
erhielten,
von
vier
weiteren
Volkern,
die
Pollenteig
und
in
Zuckerltisung
1
000
ppm
des
Herbizids
(2,4-Dichlorphenoxy)
essigsaure
(=
2,4-D),
und
noch
von
vier
weiteren
Volkern,
die
TM
-25
(Oxytetrazyklin)
enthaltenden
Pollenteig
und
Fumidil
B
(Fumagillin)
in
Zuckerlosung
erhielten.
Alle
Vol-
ker
wurden
in
Kafigen
gehalten.
Far
die
Untersuchungen
wurden
das
ganze
Jahr
hindurch
Bienen
entnom-
men.
Der
Darmtrakt
(Speiserohre
bis
Enddarm)
wurde
homogenisiert
und
auf
geeigneten
mikrobiologi-
schen
Medien
ausgebreitet,
urn
Bacillus
zu
isolieren.
Es
wurden
110
zum
Genus
Bacillus
gehorende
Bak-
terien
aus
den
untersuchten
Bienen
identifiziert.
Bacillus
megaterium,
B.
subtilis
und
B.
pumilus
wurden
am
haufigsten
bei
alien
drei
Versuchsgruppen
isoliert.
Das
Herbizid
und
die
Antibiotika
verminderten
die
Anzahl
der
Bienenclarme,
die
Bacillus
enthielten,
und
wahrend
der
heissen
Sommermonate
von
Juni-
September
wurden
keine
Bacillus-Organismen
isoliert.
Ein
Vergleich
dieser
Ergebnisse
mit
unserer
friiher
veroffentlichten
Arbeit
Ober
die
Mikroflora
des
Darms
bei
Sammelbienen
zeigt,
dass
Unterschiede
beste-
hen
in
der
Darmmikroflora
von
Honigbienen
aus
gekafigten
und
aus
frei
fliegenden
Volkern.
Eine
Fiitte-
rung
der Bienenvolker
mit
2,4-D
oder
Kombination
von
Oxytetrazyklin
und
Fumagillin
verursacht
Ver-
anderungen
in
der
Darmmikroflora
der
erwachsenen
Arbeiterinnen.
Zusatzlich
mogen
Klima,
Wetter
und
Vegetation
die
Zusammensetzung
der
Mikroflora
im
Darm
beeinflussen.
RÉSUMÉ
BACTERIES
DU
GENRE
BACILLUS
ISOLEES
A
PARTIR
D'ABEILLES,
APIS
MELLIFERA,
APRES
ADMINISTRATION
DE
2,4-D
ET
D'ANTIBIOTIQUES
On
a
examine
le
contenu
intestinal
de
388
ouvrieres
adultes
du
point
de
vue
des
bacteries
appartenant
au
genre
Bacillus.
Les
abeilles
provenaient
de
4
colonies
temoins
qui
recevaient
de
la
pate
de
pollen
et
du
BACILLUS
IN
BEES
221
sirop;
de
4
autres
colonies
qui
recevaient
de
la
pate
de
pollen
et
du
sirop
renfermant
1
000
ppm
de
('herbi-
cide
acide
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetique
(2,4-D);
et
de
4
autres
colonies
qui
recevaient
de
la
pate
de
pollen
renfermant
du
TM
-25
(oxytetracycline)
et
du
sirop
additionne
de
Fumidil
B
(fumagilline).
Toutes
les
colo-
nies
etaient
maintenues
en
cages.
Les
abeilles
&talent
prelevees
pour
analyses
tout
au
long
de
l'annee.
Le
tractus
intestinal
(de
l'ceso-
phage
au
rectum)
etait
homogeneise
et
kale
sur
un
milieu
microbiologique
approprie
pour
isoler
Bacillus.
A
partir
des
abeilles
examinees
on
a
pu
identifier
I
1
1
batteries
du
genre
Bacillus.
Dans
les
3
groupes
Ba-
cillus
megaterium,
B.
subtilis
et
B.
pumilus
furent
les
plus
frequents.
L'herbicide
et
les
antibiotiques
ont
re-
duit
le
nombre
d'intestins
d'abeilles
renfermant
Bacillus
et
aucun
Bacillus
n'a
pu
etre
isole
durant
les
mois
chauds
de
juin
a
septembre.
Si
l'on
compare
ces
resultats
avec
notre
travail
precedemment
publie
sur
la
microflore
intestinale
des
abeilles
butineuses,
on
s'apercoit
que
des
differences
existent
entre
la
microflore
intestinale
des
abeilles
encagees
et
celle
des
abeilles
volant
librement.
L'administration
de
2,4-D
ou
d'une
association
d'oxytetracycline
et
de
fumagilline
provoque
des
changements
dans
la
microflore
intestinale
des
ouvrieres
adultes.
En
outre
le
climat,
le
temps
et
la
vegetation
peuvent
influencer
sa
composition.
REFERENCES
EL-LEITHY,
M.
A.,
EL-SIBAEI,
K.
B.,
1972.
External
and
internal
microflora
of
the
honey
bees
(Apis
mellifera
L.).
Egypt.
J.
Microbiol.,
7,
79-87.
FEDOROVA,
G.
N.,
GUSEVA,
N.
V.,
1964.
I
Spore
-forming
microorganisms
of
the
intestines
of
adult
honey
bees.].
Leningrad.
Vet.
Inst.,
26,
94-100.
GILLIAM,
M.,
MORTON,
H.
L.,
1974.
Enterobacteriaceae
isolated
from
honey
bees,
Apis
mellifera,
treated
with
2,4-D
and
antibiotics.
J.
Invertebr.
Pathol.,
23,
42-45.
GILLIAM,
M.,
PREST,
D.
B.,
1972.
Fungi
isolated
from
the
intestinal
contents
of
foraging
worker
honey
bees,
Apis
mellifera.
J.
Invertebr.
Pathol.,
20,
101-103.
Gn.LiAm,
M.,
VALENTINE
D.
K.,
1976.
Bacteria
isolated
from
the
intestinal
contents
of
foraging
worker
honey
bees,
Apis
mellifera:
the
genus
Bacillus.
J.
Invertebr.
Pathol.,
28,
275-276.
GILLIAM,
M.,
PREST,
D.
B.,
MORTON,
H.
L.,
1974
a.
Fungi
isolated
from
honey
bees,
Apis
mellifera,
fed
2,4-D
and
antibiotics.
J.
Invertebr.
Pathol.,
24,
213-217.
GILLIAM,
M.,
WICKERHAM,
L.
J.,
MORTON,
H.
L.,
MARTIN,
R.
D.,
1974
b.
Yeasts
isolated
from
honey
bees,
Apis
mellifera,
fed
2,4-D
and
antibiotics.
J.
Invertebr.
Pathol.,
24,
349-356.
GORDON,
R.
E.,
HAvrfes,
W.
C.,
HOR-NAY
PANG,
C.,
1973.
The
genus
Bacillus.
USDA
Hand
-book,
427,
1-283.
MORTON,
H.
L..
MOFFETT,
J.
O..
1972.
Ovicidal
and
larvicidal
effects
of
certain
herbicides
on
honey
bees.
Environ.
Entomol.,
1,
611-614.
TESSET,
C.,
DURAND,
C..
1968.
Contribution
a
l'etude
du
microbisme
intestinal
des
abeilles
butineuses
saines
(Apis
mellifica
L.)
:
denombrement
et
etude
des
groupements
constitutifs
(premier
memoire).
Bull.
Apicole,
11,
107-118.