Tidal marsh soils of Florida's Middle Gulf Coast


Coultas, C.L.; Gross, E.R.

Proceedings, Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida 37: 121-125

1978


Tidal marsh soils of Citrus and Levy Counties are predominantly Sulfaquents and Psammaquents. Sulfaquents are higher in organic matter and clay. Small areas of Fluvaquents occur in a high position in the marsh. All soils are highly base-saturated with reactions ranging from medium acid to mildly alkaline. All soils are saline and nearly saturated with moisture. The predominant clays are kaolinite-metahalloysite and montmorillonite. These soils support a dense stand of Juncus roemerianus Scheele. A radiocarbon date indicates the marsh area is aggrading at a rate of 3.3 cm per 100 years.

PROCEEDINGS,
VOLUME
37,
1978
121
SOILS
SECTION
Tidal
Marsh
Soils
of
Florida's
Middle
Gulf
Coast'
ABSTRACT
Tidal
marsh
soils
of
Citrus
and
Levy
Counties
Sulfaquents
and
Psammaquents.
Aulfaquents
are
higher
in
organic
matter
and
clay.
iSmall
areas
of
Fluvaquents
occur
in
a
high
position
the
marsh.
All
soils
are
highly
base
-saturated
with
;reactions
ranging
from
medium
acid
to
mildly
alka-
91
i
ie.
All
soils
are
saline
and
nearly
saturated
with
oisture.
The
predominant
clays
are
kaolinite-
etahalloysite
and
montmorillonite.
These
soils
support
a
dense
stand
of
Juncus
ehiernerianlis
Scheele.
A
radiocarbon
date
indicates
the
s
h
area
is
aggrading
at
a
rate
of
3.3
cm
per
100
4ears.
Additional
hrdex
Words:
Soil
classification,
Wet-
Sulfidic
materials,
Soil
morphology.
l'here
are
approximately
303,750
ha
(750,000
acres)
tidal
marsh
in
Florida
(U.S.
Dept,
Interior,
1954).
ese
coastal
areas
are
attractive
for
many
kinds
of
cillomic
development
such
as
marinas,
homes,
and
nstrial
plants.
Coastal
marshes
are
also
valuable
their
undisturbed
state,
They
are
important
as
nrseries
and
feeding
grounds
for
many
marine
,
.
msms
(Heald
and
Odum,
1969;
Subralunanyarn
d
Drake,
1975),
and
they
provide
protection
from
lion
by
the
sea.
'::,Diverse
soils
have
been
found
in
the
tidal
marshes
the
Gulf
Coast
(Chabreck,
1972;
Coultas,
1969,
0;
Coultas
and
Gross,
1975;
Coultas
and
Calhoun,
H .
1976;
Lytle
and
Driscoll,
1954)
Florida
these
soils
`'have
been
classified
as
Sulfaquents,
Sulfifiemists,
Psammaquents,
Haplaquods,
Ochraqualfs,
and
Hapla-
quents
(Soil
Survey
Staff,
1975).
Tidal
marsh
soils
of
'.'the
Florida
Gulf
Coast
are
saline,
poorly
drained
and
.shallow
over
limestone.
They
tend
to
be
higher
in
.
organic
matter,
clay,
and
bases
than
associated
upland
soils.
The
purpose
of
this
research
was
to
characterize
.
..land
classify
the
tidal
marsh
soils
of
the
middle
Gulf
:Coast
of
Florida,
specifically
Citrus
and
Levy
Counties,
and
to
provide
information
helpful
in
land
-use
de-
'cisions.
5
.
DESCRIPTION
OF
THE
STUDY
AREA
The
location
of
Citrus
and
Levy
Counties
is
shown
in
Fig.
1.
There
are
approximately
14,722
ha
(36,378
:acres)
of
tidal
marsh
in
Levy
County
and
13,244
ha
(32,726
acres)
in
Citrus
County
(Coastal
Coordinating
1
Floricla
Agricultural
Experiment
Stations
Journal
Series
No.
'Professor
and
Associate
Professor,
respectively,
Florida
A
&
M
University,
Tallahassee,
Florida;
the
junior
author
is
presently
a
soil
scientist,
U.S.
Forest
Service,
Elkins,
W.
Va,
C.
L,
COULTAS
AND
E.
R.
GROW
Council,
1973).
Relatively
little
man-made
dis-
turbance
of
the
marshes
has
occurred
in
Levy
County
in
recent
times;
however,
substantial
fi
lling
has
taken
place
near
coastal
population
centers
in
Citrus
County.
Climate
of
the
study
area
is
humid
and
sub-
tropical.
Mean
annual
precipitation
is
118
cm
and
mean
annual
temperature
is
21.9°C
at
Cedar
Key
on
the
coast
of
Levy
County
(U.S.
Dept.
Comm.,
1972).
The
warmest
month
is
August
(28.2°C
mean)
and
the
coolest
is
February
(15.6°C
mean).
Both
Citrus
and
Levy
Counties
are
located
in
the
hypertherinic
soil
temperature
regime
(Soil
Survey
Staff,
1975)
with
mean
annual
temperature
of
22°C
or
more
at
50
cm
and
more
than
5°C
difference
between
mean
summer
and
mean
winter
temperatures,
Pawns
roemeriamts
Scheele
is
the
predominant
vegetation
of
these
marshes.
Spartina
alterniflora
Loisel
commonly
occurs
at
lower
elevations
and
Distichlis
spicata
(L.)
Greene
at
higher
elevations,
Tidal
marshes
of
Citrus
and
Levy
Counties
are
underlain
by
limestones
of
the
Inglis,
Williston,
and
Crystal
River
Formations
of
the
Eocene
Series
(Puri
and
Vernon,
1964).
Surficial
deposits
are
of
recent
origin
as
indicated
by
studies
in
Wakulla
County,
Florida
(Coultas,
1969)
.
These
recent
deposits
are
1-3
m
thick
with
the
thinner
deposits
occurring
at
higher
elevations.
Slopes
seldom
exceed
1%
except
at
the
junctures
between
marsh
and
sea
and
marsh
and
upland,
where
slopes
of
2-3%
may
occur.
A
well
defined
tortuous
stream
system
in
these
marshes
allows
rapid
flooding
and
draining_
Serni-diurnal
tides
are
normal
with
a
mean
amplitude
of
0.7
to
1,1
m
(U.S,
Dept.
Comm.,
1976).
Tidal
marshes
are
1
to
2
km
in
width
in
much
of
the
north
Gulf
Coast
of
Florida.
The
marshes
of
Ceder
Key
Obeli°
----------
Coyety
3.2.
141q4
Gull
4
1
Ezil
Tit
f
..
,
..or$h
gico
y
Oro
„,..z4N.
-
"..
Fig.
1,
—Location
of
Levy
and
Citrus
Counties
in
Florida,
122
SOIL
AND
CROP
SCIENCE
SOCIETY
OF
FLORIDA
Citrus
and
Levy
Counties
are
wider
however,
ranging
to
4
km
in
width.
up
INVESTIGATION
PROCEDURES
Field
Procedures
—Sampling
sites
were
selected
after
sections
of
the
tidal
marshes
were
transected
from
the
northern
part
of
Levy
County
to
the
southern
part
of
Citrus
County.
The
dominant
soils
were
then
sampled
and
described
by
following
procedures
out-
lined
in
the
Soil
Survey
Manual
(Soil
Survey
Staff,
1951).
Chemical
Procedures
—The
following
laboratory
procedures
were
performed
on
all
horizons
sampled:
pH
(Jackson,
1958),
particle
size
analysis
(Day,
1965),
organic
carbon
(Jackson,
1958),
total
nitrogen
(Brem-
ner,
1965)
,
electrical
conductance
(Jackson,
1958),
cation
exchange
capacity
and
extractable
cations
(Jackson,
1958).
Total
sulfur
(Tiedman
and
Anderson,
1971)
was
determined
on
selected
horizons.
Mineralogical
Procedures
—Mineralogy
of
the
clay
fraction
was
by
X-ray
diffraction
(Kunze,
1965;
Whittig,
1965)
with
a
General
Electric
SRD-7
instru-
ment
using
Ni-filtered
CuK
radiation.
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
Morphological
properties
of
the
tidal
marsh
s
o
il
s
are
presented
in
Table
1.
Sulfaquents
and
Psamma.
quents
are
the
predominant
soils
of
these
marshes.
Surface
(Al)
horizons
of
the
Sulfaquents
were
black
to
very
dark
gray
in
color
and
sandy
loam
to
clay
ill
texture.
These
soils
lack
structure
and
are
massive
in
their
A
horizons
and
become
single
-grained
sands
and
loamy
sands
in
their
C
horizons.
The
Psammaquent
had
a
black
thin
sandy
loam
All
horizon
overlying
a
very
dark
gray,
loamy
s
an
d
Al2.
The
C
horizon
was
predominantly
dark
gray
in
color
and
sand
or
fi
ne
sand
in
texture.
Limestone
occurred
at
1.4
m.
A
Fluvaquent,
which
occurred
near
Ozello
in
Citrus
County,
consisted
of
a
3
-cm,
black,
sandy
clay
Al
horizon
over
a
gray
sandy
clay
Cl
horizon.
This
Cl
horizon
was
calcareous
and
contained
abundant
shells
of
marine
organisms.
The
alluvial
material
w
as
deposited
approximately
500
years
B.
P.
(b
e
f
ore
present)
during
a
lower
sea
level
stand.
3
3
Personal
communication
from
Dr.
H.
K.
Brooks,
geologist,
University
of
Florida,
Gainesville,
FL.
TABLE
1,
—MORPHOLOGICAL
PROPERTIES
OF
SOILS
IN
THE
TIDAL
MARSHES
OF
CITRUS
AND
LEVY
COUNTIES.
Dominant
Horizon
Depth,
cm
Moist
color
Texture*
Structure
Consistency
Roots
Boundary''
Vegetation
All
Al2
A13
A14
A15
Alb
A17
IIC1
All
Al2
Al3
A14
IIA1
IIC1
Al
Cl
IIC1
IIC2
IIIA1
R
All
Al2
Cl
C2
C3
C4
R
0-20
10YR
2/1
scl
20-40
10YR
2/1
scl
40-70
10YR
2/1
scl
70-100
10YR
2/1
sl
100-130
10YR
2/1
scl
130-160
10YR
1.7/1
sl
160-210
10YR
1.7/1
sl
210-230
10YR
5/2
s
0-8
10YR
2/1
sic
8-40
10YR
3/1
c
40-60
10YR
3/1
c
60-90
10YR
2/1
cl
90-120
2.5Y
2/1
fs
120-250
2.5Y
5/2
fs
0-3
10YR
3/1
Sc
3-22
10YR
5
/
2
sc
22-30
2.5YR
4/2
sl
30-38
2.5YR
4/2
is
38-40
2.5YR
2/1
40+
limestone
0-2
10YR
2/1
sl
2-20
10YR
3/1
is
20-40
2.5Y
4/1
s
40-60
2.5Y
4/1
s
60-90
5Y
3/1
fs
90-140
2.5Y
4/1
fs
Limestone
Sulfaquent,
Citrus
County
massive
sl.
sticky
massive
sl.
sticky
massive
sticky
massive
sl.
sticky
massive
sticky
massive
sticky
massive
sticky
single
grain
sl.
sticky
Sulfaquent,
Levy
County
massive
sticky
massive
sticky
massive
sticky
massive
sticky
single
grain
non
-sticky
single
grain
non
-sticky
Fluvaquent,
Citrus
County
massive
massive
massive
massive
massive
sl.
sticky
sl,
sticky
non
-sticky
non
-sticky
non
-sticky
Psammaquent,
Levy
County
massive
sticky
single
grain
sl,
sticky
single
grain
sl,
sticky
single
grain
non
-sticky
single
grain
non
-sticky
single
grain
non
-sticky
many
gs
common
gs
common
gs
none
gs
none
gs
none
gs
none
cs
none
none
as
many
cs
many
cs
common
as
none
cs
none
many
cs
common
cs
common
cs
common
cs
common
aw
none
as
many
CS
common
cs
common
cs
common
cs
few
aw
Distichlis
spicata
J.
roemerianus
pl:ed
S
m
.
i
a
n
l
a
te
te
r
s
n
/V:
r
h
some
a
D.
spicata
also
J.
roemerianus,
Sal
icornia
J.
roemerianus
*c
=
clay,
sic
=
silty
clay,
sc
=
sandy
clay,
scl
=
sandy
clay
loam,
sl
=
sandy
loam,
is
=
loamy
sand,
s
=
sand,
fs
=
fi
ne
sand.
f
gs
=
gradual
smooth,
cs
=
clear
smooth,
as
=
abrupt
smooth,
aw
=
abrupt
wavy.
Legal
descriptions
of
sampling
sites:
1.
Sulfaquent,
Citrus
Co.
SE
1/4
sec.
15,
T18S,
R16E.
2.
Sulfaquent,
Levy
Co.
•—
SE
1/4
sec.
13,
T14S,
R12E.
3.
Fluvaquent,
Citrus
Co.
S
1/2
sec.
10,
T19S,
R16E.
4.
Psammaquent,
Levy
Co.
SW
1/4
sec.
13,
T145,
R12E,
PRocEEDiNGS,
VOLUME
37,
1978
123
Under
moist
field
conditions,
pH
ranged
from
5.0
the
C3
horizon
of
the
Psammaquent
in
Levy
'$
,:e.ourity
to
7.8
in
the
HIAI
horizon
of
the
Fluvaquent
Citrus
County
(Table
2)
.
Most
soil
horizons
had
1-
s
lightly
acid
to
neutral
reaction,
however.
There
were
no
significant
differences
in
reaction
with
increasing
. _
dept
h
.
When
samples
were
dried
a
significant
drop
;r
in
pH
occurred
in
most
cases
(3.4
unit
drop
in
the
A14
of
the
Sulfaquent,
Citrus
Co.).
This
acidification
was
resurnably
due
to
the
oxidation
of
S
or
S
-containing
compounds
(Fleming
and
Alexander,
1961).
In
the
calcareous
Fluvaquent,
pH
increased
in
most
horizons
=
Upon
drying.
Electrical
conductivity
(EC)
was
well
over
4
!Annellos/cm
in
most
horizons
and
tended
to
be
highest
in
surface
(Al)
horizons.
The
range
in
EC
was
13
: T
rimleosicin
in
the
C4
horizon
of
the
Psammaquent
to
mnthos/cm
in
the
Ala
horizon
of
the
Sulfaquent
in
Levy
County.
Field
moisture
and
cation
exchange
capacity
(CEC)
tended
to
be
higher
in
surface
horizons
(Al)
,
which
were
higher
in
day
and
organic
matter,
The
Al
horizon
of
the
calcareous
Fluvaquent
had
the
highest
CEC
(37.4
meq/100g).
CEC
ranged
from
13.1
::to
32.4
meq/100g
in
the
Al
horizon
of
the
Sulfaquent
nd
7.0
to
15.1
in
the
Al
horizon
of
the
Psammaquent
WLevy
County.
Calcium
was
the
predominant
cation
in
most
horizons
but
Mg
was
more
abundant
in
some.
Sodium
was
more
abundant
than
K,
which
is
ascribed
to
fl
ooding
by
sea
water.
The
high
level
of
Ca
found
in
the
Fluvaquent
was
due
to
the
high
CaCO
3
content
of
this
soil.
Nitrogen
and
organic
C
were
highest
in
surface
horizons
(Al)
of
the
marsh
soils
except
for
a
thin
accumulation
of
organic
material
just
above
the
lime-
stone
underlying
the
Fluvaquent
in
Citrus
County.
The
Sulfaquent
contained
the
largest
amounts
of
organic
C
and
N.
This
is
ascribed
to
its
lower
position
with
consequent
poor
aeration
and
more
luxuriant
plant
growth.
Total
S
ranged
from
6.49%
in
the
Al3
horizon
of
the
Sulfaquent
in
Levy
County
to
0.11%
in
the
Cl
horizon
of
the
Psammaquent
in
Levy
County.
Sulfur
content
was
higher
in
the
middle
to
lower
part
of
the
Al
horizon.
The
most
recently
deposited
sediments
tended
to
be
highest
in
clay
(Table
3).
The
Sulfaquents
had
relatively
high
clay
contents
in
the
Al
horizons
(13-
54%)
and
graded
to
sands
in
the
C.
Manly
material
of
the
Fluvaquent,
which
overlaid
a
loamy
sand
IIC2
horizon,
ranged
from
39
to
42%
clay.
The
Psamma-
quent
in
Levy
County
contained
17%
day
in
the
All
and
4
to
6%
clay
in
the
C
horizon.
TABLE
2.
-SOME
PHYSICAL
AND
CHEMICAL
PROPERTIES
Of
SOILS
IN
THE
TIDAL
MARSHES
OF
CITRUS
AND
LEVY
COUNTIES,
Horizon
pH
1:1
k1,0
Electrical
conductivity
Field
moisture
CEC
Extractable
cations
Total
Organic
C
Total
S
Field
moist
Air
dry
Ca
M
g
I(
Na
N
mambos
/cm
meq/100g
f
ro
Sulfaquent,
Citrus
Co.
All
5.7
4.0
go
270
24.7
14.5
0.4
1.4
4.8
0.69
10.15
Al2
6.9
5.0
42
144
19.1
8.7
5.7
1,5
4.2
0.31
4.70
0.84
A18
6.9
5.2
3/
112
20.7
7.0
5.0
1.8
3.3
0.18
8.18
0.86
A14
6.9
3.5
35
180
15.5
9.1
1.7
0.1
1.8
0.20
8.51
2.00
Al5
6.8
3.5
44
222
30.0
16.1
2.6
0.1
4.2
0.36
6.83
3,30
A16
627
3.4
80
171
13.1
7.1
1.6
0.2
1.7
0.18
3.49
0.66
All
6.9
3,4
28
101
16.4
7.1
1.6
0.1
2.3
0.22
4.17
1,71
IIC1
6.6
8.6
21
54
7.3
2.7
0.2
0,0
0,3
0,08
1,53
Sulfaquent,
Levy
Co,
All
6.6
6,6
24
398
23.7
6.4
11.8
1.1
5.0
1.02
13.82
0.59
Al2
6.2
3.9
45
406
32.4
15.1
3.0
0.6
1.8
0.76
13.59
8.45
A13
6.3
4.1
63
248
21.0
4.4
3.0
0.4
2.1
OM
14,08
6,49
14
6.3
4.6
58
341
19.2
4.5
3.8
0.7
1.6
0.81
13.14
6.5
4.6
23
54
4.8
2.1
0.9
0.1
0.1
0.08
1.49
5.7
4.8
17
23
1.2
1.0
0.3
0,0
0,9
0,02
0.54
Fluvaquent,
Citrus
Co.
EA'
Cl
7.2
7,4
7.7
8.4
41
24
149
33
37.4
6.6
17.4
17.6
23.0
G.G
1.0
0.3
'7.9
0.9
0.74
0.11
10.20
1.64
0.17
ICl
HIC2
RUM
7.6
7.7
7,8
8.1
8.0
7.6
23
22
-
30
28
88
4.6
4.6
-
17.9
15.4
-
4,8
4,6
-
0.2
0.2
-
0,6
0.6
0,07
0.07
1.30
1.80
12.46
0.19
Limestone
Psammaquent,
Levy
Co.
111
-
Al2
7.1
6,7
6.4
5.4
19
22
103
58
15.1
7.0
6.3
3.1
7.3
2.4
0.7
0.3
2.6
0.8
0.31
0.13
4.47
1.84
0.12
Cl
6.9
5.2
18
33
3,2
1,3
1.1
0.3
0.2
0,04
0,75
0,11
C2
6.0
4.7
20
36
2.5
1.4
0.7
0.2
0.1
0.05
1.06
0.18
C3
5,0
4.8
16
28
1.4
1,1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.03
0,79
6,2
4.9
13
21
1.4
1.2
0,4
0,2
0.2
0.02
0,39
0,11.
Limestone
4
A
dash
(-)
indicates
no
data
were
obtained,
124
SOIL
AND
CROP
SCIENCE
SOCIETY
OF
FLORIDA
TABLE
B,
-PARTICLE
SIZE
DISTREDUTION
or
Sons
IN
THE,TIDAL
MARSHES
on
Waifs
AND
LEVY
COUNTIES.
Horizon
Particle
size
distribution
Texture
"n"
value
TCS
CS
ms
fs
vfs
Silt
Clay
Citrus
Sulfaquent,
Co.
All
0.0
0.1
0.4
28.5
22.8
15.6
32.6
scl
3,0
Al2
0.0
0.0
0.2
39.0
18,9
17.6
24.3
scl
U.
Al3
0.0
0.0
0.1
39.2
15,7
18.0
27.0
scl
2.2
A14
0,0
0,0
0.2
60,8
12,4
8.9
17.7
sl
3.2
Al5
0.0 0.0
ILI
34.2
5.7
36.5
23.4
scl
3.5
Al6
0.2
0.3
1.4
58.9
17.0
3.1
13.0
sl
4.9
A17
0.3
0.4
2.3
1.1
18.6
12.7
14.8
al
2.3
IICI
0.2
3.2
8.6
76.4
6.7
2.1
2.8
s
3.2
Sulfaquent,
Levy
Co.
All
0.0
1.5
1.5
4.2
13
45.7
4-5.8
sic
3,3
Al2
0,0
0.1
0.4
6.0
4.8
34.9
53.8
c
3,2
A13
0.0
1.2
12.7
4.5
0.7
27.7
52.7
c
1.9
A14
0,0
1.5
17.6
7.5
1.D
43.4
29.0
cl
3,4
11A1
0,5
3.2
17.0
66.0
6.0
0.3
6.8
fs
2.4
11C1
0.5
3.7
20.5
70.7
2.4
0.3
1.9
fs
0.8
Fluvaquent,
Citrus
Co.
Al
3./
6.9
18.5
22,8
4.6
1.6
42.5
sc
1,4
Cl
0,7
1,9
8.3
23.9
10,4
154
39.1
SC
0.4
11C1
0,4
0.8
9.4
49.6
21.7
1.7
16,1
sl
0.6
IIC2
0.6
1.7
10.9
65.4
10.0
0.0
11.4
18
0.5
Psaunnaquerat,
Levy
Co,
All
0,7
4,4
27.6
40,4
1,2
8,4
17.3
sl
2.1
Alt
0.5
3.9
29.9
47.7
5.6
3.3
9.1
Is
2.1
Cl
0.5
4.3
35.1
47.3
8.7
5.2
6.0
$
1.4
CZ
0.5
4.7
38.0
18.0
2.7
1.8
3.9
1
1,9
C3
0.4
3.'7
36.4
52.0
1.6
0.2
5.1
fs
1.0
C4
0.5
4.3
34.9
52.8
1.3
0.9
5,3
fs
0.3
High
"n"
values
4
indicate
the
poor
load
-bearing
capacity
of
these
soils,
The
"n"
value
of
the
Al
horizon
of
the
Sulfaquents
ranged
from
0.8
to
4.9.
The
Fluvaquent
had
the
highest
load
bearing
capacity
(n
=
0.4
to
1.4).
Soils
with
"n"
values
greater
than
0.7
are
not
considered
capable
of
supporting
farm
machinery
or
livestock
(Soil
Survey
Staff,
1975).
The
mineralogy
of
selected
horizons
of
the
marsh
soils
is
presented
in
Figure
2.
Kaolinite-metahalloysite
and
montmorillonite
were
the
predominant
days.
Clay
-
sized
quartz
was
common
and
a
10A
peak
indicated
mica
-type
minerals,
Very
recently
deposited,
black
clayey
material
found
at
the
soil
surface
(0-12
cm)
in
a
marsh
approximately
4
km
northeast
of
Cedar
Key
(Sec.
15,
T15S,
R13E
Levy
Co.)
was
of
similar
mineralogy.
This
material
was
free
of
vegetation
and
covered
recently
killed
S.
alterniflom.
The
diffracto-
gram
of
clays
from
the
Fluvaquent
indicated
primarily
calcite
before
treatment
with
HCl
but
kaolinite-
metahalloysite
and
montmorillonite
after
treatment.
The
saline
marsh
soils
of
Citrus
and
Levy
Counties
do
not
contain
measurable
amounts
of
vermiculite
intergrade
clays
although
this
is
a
common
soil
mineral
along
the
upper
Gulf
Coast
of
Florida.
Buried
wood
was
found
at
a
1
m
depth
in
a
soil
similar
to
and
near
the
Sulfacrent
sampled
in
Levy
'I
n
A
-
0.211.
L
+
311
where
A
=
of
water
in
soil
under
field
conditions
%
silt
+
sand
L
=
%
clay
H
%
organic lustier.
County.
This
material
was
dated
at
2945
±
90
years
B.P.
by
C-14
techniques
(Teledyne
Isotopes,
West-
wood,
N.J,),
indicating
an
accretion
rate
of
approxi-
mately
3.3
cm
per
100
years.
CLASSIFICATION,
DISTRIBUTION,
AND
EXTENT
The
Sulfaquent
in
Citrus
County
is
classified
in
the
fine1oamy,
siliceous,
non-acid,
hyperthernaic
family
of
Typic
Sulfaquents
(Soil
Survey
Staff,
1975).
The
Sulfaquent
in
Levy
County
is
in
the
fine,
kaolinitic,
non-acid,
hyperthermic
family
of
Typic
Sulfaquents.
These
are
the
most
extensive
soils
of
the
tidal
marshes
in
Citrus
and
Levy
Counties.
They
are
found
at
lower
elevations
in
the
marsh,
along
tidal
creeks
and
larger
streams,
and
adjoining
the
Gulf
of
Mexico.
They
are
flooded
by
every
high
tide.
The
Psammaquents
are
of
lesser
extent
and
occur
at
higher
elevations
(middle
to
upper
marsh).
The
pedon
sampled
is
classed
in
the
siliceous,
hyperthermic
family
of
Typic
Psammaquents.
The
Fluvaquent
is
of
limited
extent
and
mostly
in
Citrus
County.
It
occurs
in
highest
parts
of
the
marsh.
This
soil
is
classified
in
the
coarse
-loamy,
siliceous,
calcareous,
hyperthermic
family
of
Lithic
Fluvaquents.
Soil
similar
to
this
hits
been
described
in
Hernando
Co,
(Coultas
and
Calhoun,
1976),
The
process
of
parent
material
formation
in
Citrus
and
Levy
Counties
seems
to
be
depositional
in
nature.
A
second
process
occurs
in
the
tidal
marshes
of
Taylor
and
Wakulla
Counties.
Many
soils
in
these
areas
appear
to
be
"drowned"
soils
(Coover,
et
al.,
1970
resulting
from
subsidence
of
the
land
surface
relative
PROCEEDINGS,
VOLUME
S7,
1978
125
operative
State
Research
Services
(USDA)
grant
(No.
516-15.27).
LITERATURE
CITED
A
C
Is
3-3A
3.64
SULFAQuEFLT,
CITRUS
CouNTY,
SULFACAJENT,
LEVY
COUNTY,
All
FLU
YAQUEN
,
CITRUS
COUNT
1,
Al
I.
RECENT
DEP051T
NEAR
CEDAR
KEY
(0-10
7
tol
atA
Fig.
2,
-X-ray
diffractograms
of
the
clays
from
the
surface
of
four
soils
from
the
saline
marshes.
Clays
were
Mg
saturated
and
glycerol
solvated,
to
sea
level,
and
commonly
have
argillic
and
spotlit
horizons.
The
nature
of
the
clays
in
the
marsh
soils
of
Citrus
and
Levy
Counties
is
significantly
different
from
that
found
in
Taylor,
Wakulla,
and
Hernando
Counties
(Coultas,
1969,
197th
Coultas
and
Calhoun,
1976).
In
tit
latter
three
counties
kaolinite-metahalloysite
and
vermicullite
intergrade
clays
predominate.
Mont-
nnorillonite
and
kaolinite-metahailoysite
are
common
:days
in
the
study
area,
but
not
vermicullite
inter
-
!Trades.
The
reasons
for
this
difference
and
the
'absence
of
"drowned"
soils
is
difficult
to
explain,
but
a
different
history
is
certainly
suggested.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This
research
was
supported
in
part
by
a
Co
-
1.
Bremner,
J.
M.
1965.
Total
nitrogen.
In
C.
A.
Black,
et
al,
(ed).
Methods
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soil
analysis,
Part
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Agronomy
9:1149-
117!1.
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Agron.,
Madison,
Wis.
2.
Chabit•cl,
R.
H.
1972.
Vegetation,
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1978.
Statistical
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1975.
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1969.
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a
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1970.
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1975.
Distribution
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1975,
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J.
F.,
and
L.
T.
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1961,
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Carolina
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25:94-95.
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