The phytotoxic effect of carbon bisulphide, methyl bromide and hydrogen phosphide on the germination of seeds of certain field crops


Kamel, A.H.; Fam, E.Z.; Mahdi, M.T.; Sheltawy, E.M.

Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, Economic Series 8: 75-80

1974


The effect of carbon bisulphide, methyl bromide and hydrogen phosphide (phostoxin tablets) on the germination of certain seed varieties was tested. Results obtained could be summarized in the following: (1) Doses of 20 gr. of methyl bromide, 200 cc of carbon bisulphide for a 24-hour period of exposure and 2.5 tablets of phostoxin for a 3-day period of exposure for a cubic metre in all cases did not affect materially the percentage of germination of Early American, Hybrid 17 and Hybrid 186 varieties of corn, Giza 66 and Giza 68 varieties of cotton. (2) While Giza 155 variety of wheat was not affected when using carbon bisulphide or phostoxin at the rates mentioned, it was significantly badly impaired when using methyl bromide. (3) Higher doses or higher moisture contents in treated seeds might result in proportional increase in the deleterious effect of seeds. (4) Higher doses or higher moisture contents might result in varietal difference.

THE
PHYTOTOXIC
EFFECT
OF
CARBON
BISULPHIDE,
METHYL
BROMIDE
AND
HYDROGEN
PHOSPHIDE
ON
THE
GERMINATION
OF
SEEDS
.)F
CERTAIN
FIELD
CROPS
(with
1
Table)
by
A.H.
KAMEL
and
E.Z.
FAM
_Plant
Protection
Research
Institute,
Mimistry
of
Agriculture
M.T.
MARDI
and
E.M.
SHELTAWI
Seed
Testing
Research
Unit,
illi
.
nistry
of
_Agriculture
INTRODUCTION
The
seed
production
programs
in
Egypt,
result
in
surplus
amounts
.of
seeds
which
are
subject
to
insect
infestation
when
stored
for
long
periods
under
the
storage
conditions
prevailing
now
in
our
country.
However,
the
use
of
grain
-
protectants
do
not
gii,7e
-
complete
satisfactory
results
and
thus,
fumigation
becomes
essential.
This
study
was
conducted
in
order
to
evaluate
the
suitability
of
carbon
bisulphide,
methyl
bromide
and
hydrogen
phosphide
for
fumi-
gating
seeds
of
certain
corn,
wheat
and
cotton
varieties
from
the
point
,
of
view
of
their
effects
on
the
germination
of
these
seeds.
MATERIALS
and
METHODS
The
three
fumigants
chosen
for
these
experiments
are
those
which
are
widely
used
in
Egypt.
The
fumigation
technique
followed
in
this
study
was
that
described
by
Kamel
et
al.
(1970).
Seed
varieties
used
were:
Early
American,
Hyi)rid
17
and
Hybrid
186
for
corn:
Giza
155
for
wheat
and
Giza
66
and
Giza
68
for
cotton.
Corn
and
wheat
seeds
were
conditioned
at
9,
12
and
157:,
moisture
content,
while
cotton
seeds
were
tested
at
their
normal
moisture
content
(10°
.
:,,)
and
oil
content
(25%).
ent.
Soc.
Egypt,
Econ.
Ser.,
VIII,
1974
[751.
76
E.Z.
FAM,
A.H.
KAMEL,
M.T.
MAHDI
and
E.M.
SHELTAWY
The
doses
of
fumigants
and
periods
of
exposure
were
:
200,
300
and
400
cc/.m''
for
carbon
bisulphide;
20,
30
and
40
gr.,/m:
for
methyl'
bromide,
for
a
24
-hour
period
of
exposure
in
both
cases.
Hydrogen
phosphide
was
used
at
the
rate
of
2.5,
:5
and
7.5
phostoxin
tablets
(3'
grams
each
evolving
one
gram
of
hydrogen
phosphide)
per
m
3
for
a
72
-hour
period
of
exposure.
The
lower
dose
in
each
case
is
that
recommended
for
insect.
control.
The
first
count
for
germination
was
made
on
the
fifth
day
after
treatment
whenever
it
was
possible
and
the
final
count
was
taken
om
the
eighth
day.
RESULTS
and
DISCUSSION
Effect
on
corn
seeds
As
shown
in
Table
I.
data
obtained
revealed
that
the
effect
of
methyl
bromide
on
the
germination
of
corn
seeds,
increases
as
the.
moisture
content
of
seeds
and
the
dose
of
fumigant
increase.
However,
the
lowest
dose
could
be
considered
safe
for
treating
007(11
seeds
con-
taining
15%
m.c.
Increasing
this
dose
to
30
gr./m
3
resulted
in
a
considerable
reduction
in
the
percentage
of
germination;
the
mean
percentages
of
germinated
seeds
being
55,
45
and
40(
for
the
Early
American,
Hybrid
17
and
Hybrid
186
varieties,
respezAl
,
:ely.
A
dose
of
40
gre'M
3
resulted
in
a
more
pronounced
reduction
of
germination
i.e.
50,
47
and
30%
for
the
three
precited
varieties,
respectively.
The
three
varieties
of
corn
could
be
arranged
in
a
descending
order.
according
to
their
tolerance
as
follows
:
Early
American,
Hybrid
17
and
Hybrid
186.
This
latter
variety
seems
to
be
much
me
re
susceptible
in
the
case
of
a
high
water
content
than
the
two
other
varieties.
With
carbon
bisulphide,
the
results
indicate
that
200
cc/m
3
for
a
24
hour
period
of
exposure
could
be
eensidered
a
safe
dose
far
corn
seeds
when
the
m.c.
does
not
exceed
15°Z.
Also,
a
dose
of
400
ce/m"
is
considered
safe
for
fumigating
the
early
American
and
Hybrid
186
varieties
when
containing
not
more
than
12%
water.
This
latter
dose
is
harmful
if
used
for
fumigating
seeds
with
a
higher
moisture
content.
The
mean
percentages
of
germinated
seeds
fumigated
with
this
high
dose
were
:
85,
48
and
84%,
for
the
Early
American,
Hy
rid
17
and
Hybrid
186
varieties,
respectively.
These
percentages
indicate
that
the
Hybrid
17
variety,
is
much
more
susceptible
to
the
,
effect
of
this
fumigant
at
that
dose
level.
ii'AELPJ
`the
mean
percentage
of
germinated
seeds
having
different
moisture
contents
treated
with
different
doses
and
fumigants.
Variety
of
seeds
moisture
content
Control
CH
3
Br
CS
2
Phostoxin
DOSES/
M
3
Grams
co
3
gr.
tablets
20
30
40
200
300
400
2.5
5
7.5
9
96
95
58
49
96
95
91
93
93
91
Early
American
(corn)
12
93
95
54
54
93
99
96
99
96
92
15
96
94
53
46
96
93
68
97
88
88
9
95
98
47
45
95
96
51
95
96
97
Hybrid
17
(corn)
12
95
97
55
50
95
96
66
96
96
97
15
94
98
33
45
94
92
30
96
93
92
9
97
96
49
30
98
98
93
94
90
92
Hybrid
186
(corn)
12
96
96
59
39
92
93 93
97
97
94
15
94
96
13
21
96
79
66
97
62
60
9
99
90
75
7
90
91
90
97
94
94
Giza
155
(wheat)
12
98
14
7
3
93
89
72
97 97
94
15
95
3
2
2
72
59
35
98
97
23
Giza
66
(Cotton)
10
96
96
94
90
93
90
91
95
95
93
Giza
68
(Cotton)
10
96
96
93
94
92
95
90
94
91
96
78
E.Z.
FAM,
A.H.
KAMEL,
M.T.
MAHDI
and
E.M.
SHELTAWY
With
Hydrogen
phosphide,
data
obtained
revealed
that
this
fumi—
gant
could
be
considered
as
the
most
safest
gas
for
treating
the
three
,
calm
varieties.
It
affected
the
germination
only
when
the
rn.c.
of
seeds
was
15%
or
more
and
the
doses
used
were
twice
or
three
times
the
dose
recommended
for
insect
control.
Using
the
high
dose
-
of
7.5
tablets
the
variety
Hybrid
186
seemed
to
,
be
the
most
susceptible
one.
At
this
dose
level,
the
percentage
of
germinated
seeds
were
90,
95
and
822;;
for
the
Early
American,
Hybrid
17
and
Hybrid
186 va-
rieties,
respectively.
ffect
on
wheat
seeds
The
phytotoxic
effect
of
methyl
bromide
on
the
germination
of
Giza
155
wheat
variety
having
9%,
m.c.,
is
shown
in
Table
I
and
data
obtained
indicate
clearly
that
it
increases
rapidly
as
the
dose
was
in-
creased.
The
reduction
in
the
percentage
of
germination
for
seeds.
having
9%
m.c.
amounted
to
9%,
25%
and
92'e,
when
treated
with
doses
of
20,
30
and
40
grams/m
3
,
respectively.
The
phytotoxic
effect
increased
more
badly
at
12%
M.C.
and
was
greatest
at
15%
m.c.
level.
Kamel
et
al.
(1970)
concluded
that
Giza
155
and
Giza
144
varieties
of
wheat
which
are
the
most
dominant
in
Egypt
are
highly
susceptible
to
the
effect
of
methyl
bromide
and
therefore
could
.
not
be
disinfected
using
this
gas.
The
phytotoxic
effect
of
CS,
was
rather
lower
tha.n
in
the
case
of
methyl
bromide.
Seeds
having
9%
m.c.
were
slightly
impaired
whatever
the
concentration
of
CS,
was.
The
reduction
in
the
percentage
,
of
germinated
seeds
was
about
9%.
at
12%
m.c.
level,
the
bad
effect
increased
steadily
by
the
increase
of
the
dose.
The
reduction
in
the
percentage
of
germinated
seeds
was
5,
8
and
27%
for
doses
of
200,
300
and
400
cc/m",
respectively.
At
15%
m.c.
level,
the
phytotoxic
effect
-
of
the
fumigant
was
much
higher.
Attia
and
Kamel
(1953)
indicated
-
that
CS,
is
quite
a
safe
fumigant
at
the
dose
and
period
of
exposure
recommended
for
insect
control.
Longer
periods.
of
exposure
may
result
in
varietal
differences.
With
hydrogen
phosphide,
a,
dose
of
2.5
tablets/
m
3
and
triple
that
dose
did
not
affect
the
percentage
of
germinated
seeds
as
far
as
the
,
moisture
content
of
seeds
was
-
below
12%.
S:,Teds
having
15%
m.c.
were
signifiantly
highly
affected.
However,
:gruel
Van
Den
and
Ballaerts
(1956),
reported
that
a
five
fold
increase
in
dosage
of
-
pho
-
srlaine
did
not
affect
the
germination
of
barley.
It
is
evident
from
the
previous
data
that
phostoxin
could
be
used:
PHYTOTOXIC
EFFECT
ON
THE
GERMINATION
OF
SEEDS
79
very
satisfactorily
in
the
disinfection
of
infested
seeds
using
2.5
tablets/m''
as
far
as
the
moisture
content
of
seeds
is
below
15%.
1+;
feet
on
cotton
seeds
Somade
(1955)
states
that
when
fumigating
groundnuts
with
methyl
bromide,
the
moisture
content
should
not
exceed
5%
or
the
germination
will
be
impaired.
Cotton
seeds
used
in
this
study
had
10%
in.c.
arid
about
25
oil
content.
In
spite
of
the
high
moisture
and
oil
contents,
there
was
no
significant
difference
between
the
per-
centage
germination
of
the
two
cotton
seed
varieties.
The
slight
phy-
totoxic
effect
of
CR,Br
and
CS.,
on
both
varieties
was
nearly
at
the
same
level.
The
fumigant
concentrations
used
for
insect
control
did
not
ma-
terially
affect
the
percentage
of
germinated
seeds
whatever
the
fuinigant
used.
Higher
concentrations
result:d
in
a
slight
reduction
in
the
per-
centage
of
germinated
seeds.
A
dose
of
2.5
tablets
of
Hydrogen
phosphide
could
be
considered
as
the
ideal
fumigant
in
this
respect,
since
it
had
no
bad
effect
on
the
percentage
of
germinated
cotton
seeds.
In
studying
the
influence
of
oil
content
of
seeds
on
the
suscepti-
bility
to
fumigation
with
methyl
bromide,
Blackith
and
Lubatti
(1960)
concluded
that
the
presence
of
substantial
amounts
of
oils
in
seeds
renders
them
only
slightly
more
susceptible
to
methyl
bromide,
the
oil
increases
the
cf
water
present
in
the
seed
and
therefore,
the
deleterious
influence
of
a
high
moisture
content
is
inhanced
in
oily
seeds.
With
respect
to
both
fumigation
damage
and
deteribration
in
storage,
oil
in
seeds
may
act
as
a
reservoir
for
the
fumigant
and
delay
in
germination
up
to
a
month
in
some
seeds
may
be
encountered.
In
this
study
the
relatively
high
moisture
and
high
oil
contents
in
the
two
seed
varieties
had
no
bearing
on
the
phytotoxic
effect
of
either
carbon
bisulphide,
methyl
bromide
or
hydrogen
phosphide
within
the
doses
used.
Higher
concentrations
might
result
in
slight
phytotoxic
effects.
SUMMARY
The effect
of
carbon
bisulphide,
methyl
bromide
and
hydrogen
phosphide
(phostoxin
tablets)
on
the
germination
of
certain
seed
va-
rieties
was
tested.
Results
obtained
could
be
summarized
in
the
following
:
(1)
Doses
of
20
gr.
of
methyl
bromide,
200
cc
of
carbon
bisulphide
Bull.
ent.
Soc.
Egypt,
Econ
Ser.,
VIII,
1974.
80
A.H.
KAMEL,
E.Z.
FAM,
hLT.
MAIIDI
and
E.M.
SHELTAWI
for
a
24
-hour
period
of
exposure
and
2.5
tablets
of
phostoxin
for
a
3
-day
period
of
exposure
for
a
cubic
metre
in
all
cases
did
not
affect
materially
the
percentage
of
germination
of
Early
American,
Hybrid
17
and
Hybrid
186
varieties
of
corn,
Giza
66
and
Giza
68
varieties
of
cotton.
(2)
While
Giza
155
variety
of
wheat
was
not
affected
when
using
carbon
bisulphide
or
phostoxin
at
the
rates
mentioned,
it
was
signifi-
cantly
badly
impaired
when
using
methyl
bromide.
(3)
Higher
doses
or
higher
moisture
contents
in
treated
seeds
might
result
in
proportional
increase
in
the
deleterious
effect
of
seeds.
(4)
Higher
doses
or
higher
moisture
contents
might
result
in
varietal
difference.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Thanks
are
due
to
Mr.
Abbas
I.
Mostafa
of
the
Seed
Testing
Research
Unit
for
his
kind
help.
REFERENCES
Attia,
R.
and
A.H.
Kamel
(1963)
:
The
effect
of
ethylene
dichloride
t
carbon
tetrachloride
mix
3:1
carbon
bisulphide
on
the
germi-
nation
of
some
Egyptian
wheat
varieties.
(Tech.
Bull.
No.
265
Minis.
Agric.
Egypt).
Biackith,
R.E.
and
O.F.
Lubatti
(1960)
:
The
influence
of
oil
content
on
the
susceptibility
of
seed
to
fumigation
with
methyl
bro-
mide
(Sci.
Food
Agr.,
XI,
pp.
253-258).
Bruel
van
den,
W.E.
and
Bcllaerts,
D.
(1956)
:
The
hydrogen
phosphide
fumigation,
a
new
method
with
a
vast
range
of
application.
(Parasitic%
XII,
No.
2
pp.
32-56).
Kanic.1,
E.Z.
Fain,
M.T.
Mandy,
A.
Lotfy
and
E.M.
Sheltawy
(1970)
:
The
effect
of
moisture
content
of
wheat
seeds
on
its
susceptibility
to
the
phytotoxic
effect
of
methyl
bromide
fumigation.
(Bull.
Ent.
Soc.
Egypt,
Econ.
Ser.
IV.,
pp.
7-11).
Kamel,
A.H.,
E.Z.
Fam,
M.T.
Mandy,
A.
Lotfy
and
E.M.
Sheltawy
(1970)
:
The
phytotoxicity
of
methyl
bromide
fumigation
on
the
germination
of
some
seeds
of
certain
crops.
(Bull.
Ent.
Soc.
Egypt,
Econ.
Ser.,
IV,
pp.
1-7).
Scmade
H.M.B.
(1955)
:
J.
Sci
Food
Agr.
VI,
pp.
799-804).