Field trials of citrus black spot control in Taiwan


Tsia, Y.P.; Shiao; Liau, T.H.; Sun, M.H.

Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan 19(2): 140-145

1977


A total of ten field trials were conducted at seven locations throughout Taiwan in 1976 for evaluating the effectiveness of fungicides and fungicide-oil mixtures against the black spot disease (Guignardia citricarpa Kelly) in ponkan (Citrus poonensis Hort.), tankan (Citrus tankan Hay.) and liu-cheng or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Obs.). Field plots were designed to include seven treatments with four replications and five trees in each replication. Fungicides were applied eight times at approximately 2-week intervals following the flowering stage; whereas fungicide-oil mixtures were applied four times at approximately 4-week intervals. The status of all experiments is given in Table 1. At harvest, 40 fruits were randomly sampled from each tree for calculation of black spot index and percentage of spot-free fruit. In all the three kinds of citrus tested, four applications of Benlate-oil mixture, two applications of Dithana M-45-oil mixture followed by two applications of Benlate-oil mixture, both at 4-week intervals, and eight applications of Benlate at 2-week intervals gave the same and the best results of black spot control as well as the production of black spot-free fruits. Moreover, no visible phytotoxicity was observed on citrt. trees treated with either fungicde-oil mixtures or oil alone. The addition of the mineral oil orchex 796 to fungicides reduced not only the concentration of fungicides to two-thirds but the application frepuency to one-half.

植保會刊19
:
140
-145
(1977
)
柑桔黑星病藥劑防治改進試驗1
蔡雲鵬
蕭添印
廖釘煌
孫明i
-
2
(接受日期:民國六十六年五月三十日)
摘要:60
彤免賴得可濕性粉劑G
,。的借)加油劑(Orchex
796
,
200
倍)施藥四次,80
彤鋅
錳乃浦可濕性粉劑(666
倍)加油劑及50
形免賴得可濕性粉劑。,。的倍)加油劑各施藥二次之
柑桔黑星病防治效果,與50
%免賴得可濕性粉劑(3
,000
倍)施藥八次者相同,而優於80
%鋅
錳乃浦可濕性粉劑(5000
倍)施藥八次者。80
彤鋅錳乃浦可濕性粉劑(666
倍)加油劑施藥四
次者防治效果最差。
黑星病(Gui
gnardia
citricarpa
Kiely
)是影響臺灣柑桔果實品質最大的病害,且為銷日柑桔重要
檢疫病害。農林應編印的「植物保護手冊」(7
),推薦80
州鋅錳乃浦可濕性粉劑(大生M
-45
)等八種
藥劑,在落花後一星期起噴藥至八月中旬,約每隔二星期一次,計施藥八次左右,防治成本高,對柑
農來說,是一大負擔。據Kellerman
及Kotxe
(9
)報告,施用免賴得加油劑,噴藥一次即可有效防
治柑桔類黑星病。此種防治方法已在南非推廣使用(8
)。為研究殺菌劑加油劑的防治方法是否可在臺灣
的環境下,對柑桔黑星病可減少施藥次數及降低防治成本,特舉辦本試驗。
材料與方法
供試碰柑、桶柑及柳橙等三種柑桔,每種選擇三至四處以往發病較嚴重之柑園(表1
。七處理
(表2
)
,試區採順序排列,四重複,每小區供試五株。使用藥劑為80
男鋅錳乃浦可濕性粉劑(80
Dithane
M
-45
,
W
.
P
.,有效成分為
A
coordination
product
of
Zinc
ion
and
manganese
ethylene
bisdithiocarbamate
80
%)
2
&50
%免賴得可濕性粉劑(50
%
Benlate
W
.
P
.,有效成分
為1
-(butylcarbamoyl
)
-2
-
benzimidazole
carbamic
acid
,
methyl
ester
,
50
州)。添加殺菌劑
內的油劑為0rchex
796
,係美商標石油公司出品。
施藥八次之處理,自四月底或五月閒開始,至八月中句或九月中旬,每隔約半個月施藥一次。施
藥四次之處理,則自四月底或五月間開始,至八月上句或九月上旬,每隔一個月施藥一次(表1
)
每株每次施用稀釋,藥水量為4
至12
公升,依植株大小而異,關西柑桔試驗場之三試區為每株每次2
公升。
六十五年十一月至六十六年一月間,當果實成熟時,由每株東、西、南、北方各隨機採收10
粒,
計每株調查40
粒,記錄黑星病病斑數。每粒果實按病斑數分為,無病斑,
I
至3
病斑、4
至10
點病斑
及11
點以上病斑等4
級,並以下列公式求取罹病指數。
。幼
---S
,Jht
。十lXni
十2
X
n2
十3n
'
∼‘,∼、
罹病指數=、→‘、→•→、
二撂
∼→二z
唱∼奇
'10Q
..恤‘r1J
悶龔、一
3N
‘、∼、‘
1
•本試驗係農復會補助加強銷n
柑枯病蟲害防治計劃(77
(ARDP
)-3
.3
-A
-252
)之一部分。結果統計分析,承
農復會李元和先生協助,謹表謝忱。
2
.臺灣香蕉研究所關西柑桔試驗場場長,臺灣省政府農林廳技佐,臺灣省青果運銷合作社科員及中國農村復興
聯合委員會技正。
(140
)
柑枯黑星病藥劑防治改進試驗
141
no
=無病斑的果實粒數
ni
=有1
至3
點病斑的果實粒數
n2
=有4
至10
點病斑的果實粒數
n3
=有11
點以上病斑的果實粒數
N
=調查果實總粒數
表一、1976
年柑桔黑星病藥劑防治試驗區概況
TABLE
1
.
Status
of
citrus
black
spot
control
experiments
in
1976
.
variety
Location
施藥日期
Tree
age
Dates
of
spray
ing
採果日期
Date
of
harvest
槿
Ponkan
il
sinchu
13
Miaoli
9
Taichung
12
Chiayi
Tankan
hlan
12
12
竹(北埔)
Hsinchu
(Peipu
)
17
竹(關西)
Hsinchu
(Kwanshi
)
13
Liu
-cheng
il
sinchu
13
(sweet
orange
)
Taichung
12
Chiayi
7
May
7
*,J7
,
June
1
',17
,25
*,
July
12
,
Aug
.
2
*,17
May
7
*,21
,
June
4
*,18
,
July
9
*,23
,
Aug
,
8
*,26
May
9
*,22
,
June
5
*,19
,
July
8
*,24
,
Aug
.
14
*,
Sept
.
4
June
1
*,15
,
July
6
*,20
,
Aug
.
4
*,17
,
Sept
.
2
*,15
May
14
*,25
,
June
7
*,25
,
July
1
*,15
,
Aug
.
2
*,17
May
.
9
*,25
,
June
7
*,21
,
July
2
*,19
,
Aug
.
2
*,16
April
29
*,
May
17
,
June
1
*,
17
,15
*,
July
12
,
Aug
.
2
*,17
April
29
*,
May
17
,
June
1
*,
17
,25
*,
June
12
,
Aug
.
.21
*,17
May
9
*,22
,
June
5
*,19
,
July
8
',24
,
Aug
.
4
*,
Sept
.
4
May
14
*,
July
5
,14
*,,
July
15
',
Aug
.
3
,17
,31
1
,
Dec
.
30
。*表示殺菌劑加油劑處理區施藥日期
0il
-fungicid
}
mixtures
were
sprayed
only
on
dates
with
asterisk
.
綜合10
試區的結果(表2
,3
及4
)
,以0
)50
男免賴得可濕性粉劑4
,000
倍液加油劑200
倍施用四
次及②go
州鋅錳乃浦可濕性粉劑666
倍液加油劑200
倍,50
瘍免賴得可濕性粉劑4
,000
倍液加油劑200
各施用二次的兩種處理對黑星病防治效果最佳,與50
形免賴得可濕性粉劑3
,000
倍液施用八次的效果相
同。80
形鋅錳乃浦可濕性粉劑500
倍液施用八次者次之,80
州鋅錳乃浦可濕性粉劑666
倍加油劑200
施用四次者防治效果最差,但比只施用油劑或水的對照處理為佳。。油劑在200
倍的稀釋濃度下,在各
處理中對柑桔葉片及果實均未產生可見的藥害。
就三種供試柑桔種類而言,柳橙的發病率最高,其藥劑防治效果亦最顯著。宜蘭的桶柑,因發病
142
植物保護學會會刊第19
卷第2
期(1977
)
甚為輕微,施藥與不施藥之間的罹病指數並無顯著差異(表4
)
。調查結果以罹病指數與完全無病斑
果實百分率的兩者表示時,兩者均能同樣的表現出各處理問的差異(表2
、3
及4
)
表二
碰柑黑星病防治試驗結果
TABLE
2
.
Results
of
black
spot
control
experiment
in
ponkan
施藥次數
Hsinchu
苗w
Miaoli
臺→中
Taichttng
.Chiayi
Treatment
主/
N
。.。f
apph
-
cations
96
Black
Black
sp
。t
。‘snot
-free
mdcx
-
Iruit
Black
spot
inuex
Black
snot
-free
Iruit
Black
sD
。t
inaex
"
Black
snot
-free
trait
Black
snot
inuex
%
Black
snot
-free
iruit
DithaneM
-45
Benlate
Dithane
M
-45
+
0rchex
796
Benlate
+
Orchex
796
Ditha16M
-45
0rchex
796
Benlate
+
Orchex
796
0rchex
796
Water
8
8
4
4
2
4
4
10
.89k
14
.05b
22
.63ab
14
.99b
13
.58b
27
.lOa
29
.61
&
70
.91
65
.11
48
.63
65
.59
63
.16
39
.45
36
.80
3
.45c
2
.73c
4
.03b
1
.75c
2
.61c
578ab
6
.85a
90
.00
91
.97
88
.79
95
.41
91
.85
84
.47
82
.08
7
.25b
3
.33b
8
.04b
4
.02b
3
.6Gb
36
.75a
29
.30a
81
.63
90
.66
79
.13
89
.47
91
.88
37
.88
43
.75
11
.06b
功.39b
11
.56b
13
.44b
14
.39b
17
.12b
29
.15a
69
.97
71
.08
69
.69
64
.88
62
.66
56
.41
32
.58
1
/
80
形鋅錳乃浦可濕性粉劑單獨使用時稀釋500
倍,加油劑時稀釋666
倍;50
形免賴得可濕性粉劑單獨使用時稀
釋3
,000
倍,加油劑時稀釋4
,000
倍;油劑均稀釋200
倍。
助形
Dithaen
M
-45WP
.
was
diluted
5
的times
when
used
alone
and
666
times
when
used
in
combination
with
Orchex
79
禽50
州Benlate
W
.P
.
was
diluted
3
,000
times
when
used
alone
and
4
,000
times
when
used
in
combination
with
Orchex
79
死0rchex
was
diluted
2
的times
.
三‘
縱列之英文字母相同者,依Duncan
氏多項變域測驗法分析,在5
彤平準下差異不顯著。
Black
spot
indexes
carr
帥ng
the
same
alphabet
denote
no
significant
difference
by
Duncan
's
inultiple
range
test
(5
彤).
表三
柳橙黑星病防治試驗結果
TABLE
3
.
Results
of
b1acks
pot
control
experiment
in
liu
-cheng
(sweet
orange
)
Treatment
三‘
施藥次數
N
。.。f
appl
cations
Hsinchu
Black
Spot
2
/
spot -free
index
-
fruit
Taichung
Chiayi
Black
BI
spotx
spot-free
index fruit
Bl
alB%
ck
谿:x
spot
-free
ex
fruit
Dithane
M
-45
Benlate
DithaneM
-45
+
0rchex
796
Benlate
十Orchex
796
8
3
.93c
90
.22
25
.29b
51
.50
36
.99a
28
.81
8
1
力9c
96
.74
1
.37c
96
.00
2
.。。。
95
;31
4
10
.79b
75
.33
26
.33b
50
.00
25
.38b
36
.21
4
2
.54c
93
,97
S
.87c
85
.78
4
.48c
89
,5
+《
Dithane
M
-45
0rchex
2
柑枯黑星病藥劑防治改進試驗
'143
796
Benlate
十Orchex
796
2
l
.19c
96
.58
7
.67c
81
.25
6
.96e
86
.63
0rchex
796
4
6
.4lbc
75
唱89
63
.25a
16
.13
37
.95a
33
.88
、vater
4
18
.26a
60
.16
70
.29a
9
.50
36
.65a
'
37
.43
!I
&
2
/洞表2
.
See
footnotes
of
Table
2
.
表4
.
桶柑黑星病防治試驗結果
TABLE
4
.
Results
of
black
spot
control
experiment
in
tankan
.
Treatment
弄/
∼宜蘭Ilan
(螽鑼sinchu
wanshi
)
亂 楹蠱
No
.。
f
Black
'131
Black
BI
Black
Bl
悉,
慧盤
spomd
掙‘spot
-free
spotx
spot
-free
fruit
index
fruit
蠶x
.
x
sp
x
fr
譚ree
Dithane
M
-45
Benlate
Dithatie
M
-45
0rchex
796
Benlate
十Orchex
796
Dithane
M
-45
0rchex
796
Benlat
。十Orchex
796
0rchex
796
Water
8
5
.28a
87
.25
12
.13b
71
.韶
20
.41b
6
0
.41
8
1
.20a
94
.59
9
.07b
76
.84
14
.69b
67
.01
.
4
1
.71a
93
.39
8
.72b
78
.43
19
.94b
62
.42
4
1
.93a
98
.68
13
.87b
68
.52
10
.78b
'
77
.87
2
-
1
.29a
,
95
.34
13
.98b
64
.53
巧.92F
65
.01
仁2
.15a
93
.35
33
.02a
'
38
.62
.
25
萑39ab
-
52
.50
3
.36a
.
82
.35
h
29
.84a
50
.26
"46
.75a
、26
.9
'
主‘
三‘同表2
.
See
footnotes
of
Table
2
.
本試驗的主要目的在探討藉油劑的作用,以加强殺菌劑尤其是系統性殺菌劑免賴得對果皮的侵透
及殺菌能力,殺死已在果皮內潛伏惑染的黑星病菌。由於其具有治療效果,故可以在果實感染黑星病
以後使用,並可減少施藥次數。
黑星病菌感染果實的時問,為柑桔甫落花畢,幼果即能遭受感染(邱,1955
)
(1
)。在新竹縣新埔
,病原菌多在六月初開始兩個月內侵入果實(Liu
,
1966
)
(10
)。據黃及張(1972
)
(2
〕的報告,在新竹地
區,黑星病菌子囊胞子的釋放時期是五月下旬至九月底或十月初。李及蘇(1976
)
(4
)報告,根據1968
年的試驗,幼果遲至六月中旬以後開始普遍被感染(新竹地區)
,四月八日施藥者在防治上不重要;
又六月二十五日以前截止噴藥,幾乎無防治效果可言。李(1976
)(。)報告,五月三十日開始施藥者,
所得防治結果幾乎與四月十五日開始施藥者相同。相反的,僅在四月十五日至六月十五日施藥者,防
治效果就差了。
Mc
Onie
(196
⑧(11
)報告,成熟柑桔果實對黑星病病原菌的侵入有抵抗性。李(1969
)
(5
)認為
碰柑果實在八月中旬至十月初之閒,對黑星病菌具有成熟抵抗性,其時期為花落後第四與第五個月之
間。李及黃(1973
)
(6
)報告,在攝氏21
至28
度下,月雨量在50
至110
公厘之間,較有利於子囊殼發育
144
植物保護學會會刊第19
卷第2
期(1977
)
,從子囊胞子釋放與果實成熟抵抗性情形觀之,新竹地區黑星病菌侵入果實時期,主要是後五月下旬
以後的兩個半月期間。
本試驗結果(表2
、3
及4
)顯示,免賴得加油劑可將黑星病防治施藥次數從目前推薦的八次減
為四次。至於是否能減少到一或二次即可有效防治黑星病,有待進一步探討。柑桔黑星病的發生,受
氣象因子尤其是雨量及下雨時日長短的影響很大。盼望今後能由下雨情況預測黑星病發生程度,以指
導柑農應在何時施藥。根據以往試驗研究((2
,3
,4
,6
),如果使用免賴得加油劑防治黑星病,在新竹地區
第一次施藥時期可在六月中旬,第二次施藥在七月中旬至下旬。
1
.邱人璋,1955
.
2
.
柑枯黑星病之研究。
黃秋雄、張曉鱗,1972
.
21G
)
:256
-263
3
•李英敏,1976
.
1969
年 柑黑星病之研究,
臺灣香蕉研究所闋西柑桔試驗場試驗報告1
:16
-24
4
.李英敏、蘇鴻基。1976
.
1968
年碰柑黑星病感染期初步測定及田間藥劑防治試驗。
臺灣香蕉研究所翮西
柑桔試驗場試驗報告1
:9-15
5
•李永松,1969
.
柑桔黑星病病原菌不同菌株對碰柑果實病原性之探討。
農林學報4
:186
-199
柑枯黑星病侵入葉片之時期及子囊殼成熟度與子囊胞子釋放之關係。
農業研究
農業研究
18
@)
:45
-50
o
6
.李永松、黃秋雄,1673
氣象因子與柑桔黑星病病原菌子囊殼之發育及子囊胞子釋放之關係•
農業研究
22
(2
)
:135
-144
7
.臺灣省農林廳,1976
.
植物保護手冊
第35
頁。
8
.蔡雲鵬•1976
南非共和國柑枯黑星病防治方法簡介。
果農合作
343
期:16
-18
.
9
.
Kellerman
,
C
.
R
.
and
J
.M
.Kotze
.
1973
.
A
single
application
of
benomyl
controls
citrus
black
spot
.
Citrusa
nd
Sub
-tropical
Fruit
Journal
No
476
:
19
,
20
,
22
.
10
,,
Liu
,
K
.C
.
1966
.
Stidjes
on
citrus
black
spot
.
1
.
Infection
of
fruit
by
causal
fungus
.
Jour
.
Taiwan
Agr
.
Res
.
15
。):20
-24
11
.Mc
Onie
,K
,C
.
1964
,
Speckled
blotch
of
citrus
induced
by
the
citrus
black
spot
pathogen
,
Guignardia
citricarpa
.
Phytopathology
54
:
1488
-1489
.
柑桔黑星病藥劑防治改進試驗
FIELD
TRiALS
OF
CITRUS
BLACK
SPOT
CONTROL
IN
TAIWAN
'
Tsia
,
V
.P
.,
Shiao
,
T
.H
.
Liau
and
M
.H
.
Sun2
145
A
total
of
ten
field
trials
were
conducted
at
seven
locations
throughout
Taiwan
in
1976
for
evaluating
the
effectiveness
of
fungicides
and
fungicide
-
oil
mixtures
against
the
black
spot
disease
(Guignardia
citricarpa
Keily
)
in
ponkan
(Citrus
poonensis
Hort
.),
tankan
(Citrus
tan
/con
hay
.)and
liu
-cheng
or
sweet
orange
(Citrus
sinensis
Obs
.)﹝
Field
plots
were
designed
to
include
seven
treatments
with
four
replica
-
tions
and
five
trees
in
each
replication
.
Fungicides
were
applied
eight
times
at
approximately
2
-week
intervals
following
the
flowering
stage
;
whereas
fungicide
-oil
mixtures
were
applied
four
times
at
approximately
4
-week
intervals
.
The
status
of
all
experiments
is
given
in
Table
1
•At
harvest
,
40
fruits
were
randomly
sampled
from
each
tree
for
calculation
of
black
spot
index
and
percentage
of
spot
-free
fruit
.
The
black
spot
index
is
calculated
from
the
following
epuation
:
Black
sdot
index
(州)=(On
,,十hi
,十2n2
十3n3
)/3Nx100
where
N
is
the
tolal
number
of
fruits
harvested
from
replication
;
no
number
of
spot
-free
fruits
;
n1
is
the
number
of
fruits
with
1
-3
spot
;
n2
is
the
number
of
fruits
with
4
-10
spots
;
n
,,
is
the
number
of
fruits
with
I1or
more
spots
.
The
data
were
transformed
to
angles
and
analyzed
by
Duncan
's
multiple
range
test
.
Experimental
results
for
ponkan
,
liu
-cheng
and
tankan
are
presented
in
Tables2
,
3
and
4
,
respectively
.
In
all
the
three
kinds
of
citrus
tested
,
four
applications
of
Benlate
-oil
mixture
,
two
applications
of
Dithana
M
-45
-oil
mixture
followed
by
two
applications
of
Benlate
-oil
mixture
,
both
at
4
-week
intervals
,
and
eight
applications
of
Benlate
at
2
.-week
intervals
gave
the
same
and
the
best
results
of
black
spot
control
as
well
as
the
production
of
black
spot
--free
fruits
.
Moreover
,
no
visible
phytotoxicity
was
observed
on
citrL
trees
treated
with
either
fungicde
-oil
mixtures
or
oil
alone
.
The
addition
of
the
mineral
oil
orchex
796
to
fungicides
reduced
not
only
the
concentration
of
fungicides
to
two
-thirds
but
the
application
frepuency
to
one
-half
.
is
the
I
.This
researc
was
supported
by
grang
from
the
Joint
Commission
on
Rural
Reconstruction
'Taipei
'
lt
1
,i
,dlic
of
China
.
2
.
Director
'Kwanhsi
Citrus
Experiment
Station
'KWa
,山Si
'
Juni
or
Specialist
'
Provincial
Department
cf
A
grinol
t
uro
and
Forestry
'Nuntou
'
Junior
spcial
isi
'
'laiwuit
I
ruits
Marketing
Cooperative
'
Senior
Specialist
'
Joint
con
,
mission
on
Rural
Reconstruct
ion
'
'l
's
ipei