Notes on some plant communities of Blefjell, S. Norway


Hadac, E.

Preslia 43(3): 202-217

1971


The author gives association tables and some ecological data (pH, loss on ignition in soils etc.) of several communities of alpine vegetation in the Blefjell mountains (S. Norway), which hitherto were not studied from the phytocoenological point of view. The comparison of his results from Blefjell with the vegetation of Rondane (DA IL 1957) raises some syntaxonomic problems of more general interest.

PRESLIA
(PRAHA)
43
:
202-217,
1971
Notes
on
Some
Plant
Communities
of
Blefjell,
S.
Norway
Poznamky
o
rostlinnch
spoleeenstvech
pohoii
Blefjell
v
jiinfm
Norsku
Emil
Hada6
Botanical
Institute,
Czechoslovak
Academy
of
Sciences,
Prithonice
near
Praha
Received
May
5,
1970
Abstract
HADA6
E.
(1971):
Notes
on
some
plant
communities
of
Blefjell,
S.
Norway.
—.
Preslia,
Praha,
43
:
202-217.
The
author
gives
association
tables
and
some
ecological
data
(pH,
loss
on
ignition
in
soils
etc.)
of
several
communities
of
alpine
vegetation
in
the
Blefjell
mountains
(S.
Norway),
which
hitherto
were
not
studied
from
the
phytocoenological
point
of
view.
The
comparison
of
his
results
from
Blefjell
with
the
vegetation
of
Rondane
(DA
IL
1957)
raises
some
syntaxonomic
problems
of
more
general
interest.
Introduction
In
summer
1940
I
had
the
opportunity
to
spend
about
a
month
in
the
mountain
group
Blefjell,
SW.
from
Oslo
and
N.
of
Kongsberg.
To
get
some
idea
about
the
plant
communities
of
this
district,
I
made
a
number
of
releves,
collected
soil
samples
and
measured
their
reaction
and
humus
content.
In
the
subsequent
years
I
was
not
able
to
continue
in
my
studies
in
Blefjell
and
I
thought
that
my
notes
were
too
fragmentary
to
be
published.
When
my
friend
Eilif
Dahl
published
his
excellent
monograph
on
Rondane
vegetation
(DAHL
1957)
and
when,
thanks
to
his
invitation,
I
was
able
to
see
the
vege-
tation
of
Rondane
myself,
I
changed
my
mind.
I
think
that
it
would
be
of
some
interest
to
compare
my
fragmentary
notes
with
monographs
from
other
parts
of
Norway,
e.g.
with
Nordhagens
Sikilsdalen
(NORDHAGEN
1943)
and
especially
with
Dahls
Rondane.
The
geology
of
Rondane
and
Blefjell
is
not
very
different,
there
is
no
significant
difference
in
their
geomorphology
and
history
of
the
fl
ora,
so
that
the
only
greater
factor
responsible
for
the
differen
-
ces
in
vegetation
is
probably
the
climate.
I
am
indebted
to
prof.
Dr.
Eilif
Dahl
for
identifying
my
lichens
and
for
many
suggesti
during
my
work.
Geography
and
climate
The
mountain
group
Blefjell
is
composed
mainly
by
grey
-white
quartzite
and
quartz.
111
some
places
mica-schists
appear.
The
substrate
is
extremely
poor.
The
geomorphology
of
this
region
was
influenced
by
two
factors:
the
whole
region
was
covere
d
by
the
ice
during
the
Ice
Age;
its
surface
got
rounded
forms
typical
for
glaciated
areas.
Later
dislocations,
going
from
SE.
to
NW.
slightly
changed
the
morphology
of
the
area
in
some
places.
There
are
many
lakes
and
streamlets
in
the
whole
area.
There
is
no
meteorological
station
in
the
investigated
area,
but
we
can
use
data
from
Kna
te
;
hytta,
which
is
not
very
far
from
BMfjell
(cf.
Nedborn
i
Norge
1895
—1943,
Oslo,
1949,
an
d
BRUUN
I.:
Standard
Normals
of
the
air
temperature
in
Norway,
Oslo,
1967).
202
11 11
Knutehytta
(717
m),
mean
monthly
precipitation
(in
mm)
and
temperature:
Jan.
Febr.
March
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
year
51
38
54
53
63
70
113
143
108
103
95
75
1966
—5.2
—5.6
—2.6
0.7
5.8
10.8
13.2
11.7
8.0
2.4
—1.8
—3.2
2.9
Thus
the
precipitation
in
Blefjell
is
about
twice
as
high
as
in
Rondane,
where
the
years
preci-
pitation
of
458
mm
is
indicated,
and
the
temperature
amplitude
is
lower
in
Blefjell.
The
influence
of
cattel
grazing
in
Blefjell
is
considerable,
especially
in
the
neighbourhood
of
outfarma.
Methods
Field
methods
used
here
are
about
the
same
as
described
in
DAHL
et
HADA6
1941,
DAHL
1957.
Homogeneous
stands
of
vegetation
were
chosen,
their
ecology
and
the
cover
for
all
species
present
in
the
stand
were
noted,
soil
samples
from
each
stand
were
collected
and
dried
in
the
shade
for
further
research.
After
returning
to
Oslo,
i.e.
after
less
than
a
fortnight
from
collecting
the
soil
samples,
the
pH
was
measured
with
a
glass
electrode
(cf.
DAHL
et
HADA6
1941),
and
the
loss
on
ignition
weight.
For
the
assessment
of
abundance
and
dominance
of
plants
Domin's
scale
(slightly
modified)
was
used
(cf.
DAHL
et
HADAo
1.c.,
DAHL
1957),
where:
+
means
odd
individuals
with
reduced
vitality,
1
rare,
one
or
few
individuals,
2
sparse,
3
f
ra
t
cover
ut
5-15%,
below
cover
4
5
cover
15-25%,
6
cover
25-33%,
7
cover
33-50%,
8
cover
50-75%,
9
cover
75-90%,
10
cover
90-100%.
Plant
communities
were
arranged
according
to
their
fl
oristic
similarity,
calculated
by
use
of
Jaccard's
index:
K1
100c
a
b
c
a
is
the
total
sum
of
average
ratings
on
the
Domin
scale
in
the
fi
rst
community,
b
the
same
in
the
second
community,
is
the
sum
of
average
ratings
shared
by
both.
where:
e.g.
A
0
A
0
ratings
shared
in
the
ass.
P
in
the
ass.
Q
by
both:
species
x
4
2 2
species
y
3
6
3
a=
7
b=
8
c=
5
Kj(P/Q)
=
500
:
15-5
=
50
The
vegetation
My
time
in
the
mountains
being
limited,
I
choosed
only
some
vegetation
types
for
my
studies.
I
did
not
study
the
peat
bog
vegetation
and
I
have
but
a
few
notes
on
the
vegetation
of
lakes
and
springs.
Litorellion
uniflorae
W.
KOCH
1926
In
the
lake
Holmevatn
an
interesting
zonation
could
be
seen:
at
a
depth
of
1
.
5
m
a
community
of
Isoetes
and
Sparganium
angustifolium
MICH
X.
o
ccurred:
Sparganium
angustifolium
MICH
X.
4;
Isoetes
sp.
(too
young
for
i
dentification)
4;
Utricularia
vulgaris
L.
2.
203
In
shallow
water,
about
80
cm
deep,
a
Lobelia
dortmanna
community
y
o
;
developed:
Lobelia
dortmanna
L.
6;
Isoetes
sp.
6;
Utricularia
vulgaris
L.
3
Montio-Epilobion,
hornemannii
NORDH.
1936
Springs
are
represented
in
Blefjell
mainly
by
the
association:
Philonoto-Saxifragetum.
stellaris
NORDH.
1943
Localities:
1.
Between
Langevann
and
Gunnarsbunuten,
1.5
m
2
,
1.
8.
2.
N.
side
of
Langevann,
4
m
2
,
1.
8.
1940.
1940.
Releve:
1
2
Altitude
in:
1020
1139
Slope:
15
°
Aspect:
Cover
(herb
layer)
%:
50
30
(moss
layer)
%:
80
90
pH
(humus
layer)
4.7
Loss
on
ignition
%:
41.8
Epilobium
hornemannii
Rene.
7
5
Carex
bigelowii
Tort.
1
1
Rumex
alpestris
JACQ.
3
3
Saxifraga
stellaris
L.
4
Viola
palustris
L.
1
Philonotis
fontana
BRID.
S
.
9
In
one
releve:
No.
1.:
Eriophorum
vaginatum
L.
3,
Solidago
virgaurea
L.
1,
Scapania
pain
dosa
K.
M.
4,
Mnium
pseudopunctatum
BR.
et
Sea.
4.
-
No.
2.:
Eriophorum
angustifoliu
Hovcx
2,
Anthoxanthurn
odoratum
L.
1,
Phleum
commulatum
GAun.
1,
Scapania
uliginoea
(Sw.
Dime.
3,
Sphagnum
teres
ANGSTR.
var.
sguarrosulum
liVARNsT.
4,
Sphagnum
riparium
ANGSTR.
1
Polygonion
avicularis
BR.
-BL.
1931
Nitrophilous
ruderal
vegetation
is
best
developed
in
the
neighbourhood
of
the
outfarms.
A
typical
community
of
such
places
is:
Stellarietum
mediae
HADA6
1969
Localities:
1.
Gunnarsbusaeter,
5
m
2
,
on
a
cow
dung
accumulation,
29.
7.
1940.
2.
Flesebekk,
12
ms,
on
a
cow
dung
accumulation,
7.,
8.
1940.
3.
Flesebekk,
6
m
2
,
on
a
sheep
dung
accumulation,
7.
8.
1940.
Releve:
1
2
3
Altitude
m:
820
804
804
Slope:
35°
40°
40°
Aspect:
NE
.N
N
Cover
(herb
layer)
%:
80
80
70
pH:
5.6
5.8
4.6
loss
on
ignition
%:
90.1
89.4
93.0
Stellaria
media
(L.)
Vim,.
8
8 8
Poa
annua
L.
6
4
4
Poa
trivialis
L.
3
3
2
Ranunculus
repens
L.
2
2
Melandrium
rubrum
GATICIEE
Urtica
dioica
L.
3
Rumex
acetosella
L.
1
Rumex
domesticus
HARTM.
Polygonum
aviculare
L.
204
juacion
trifidi
scandinavicum
(KRianTA.
1933)
NORDHAGEN
1936
The
alpine
vegetation
of
Blefjell
can
be
grouped
in
fi
ve
main
groups
ac
cording
to
their
fl
oristic
similarity.
To
the
fi
rst
group
belong
Cetrario
islandicae-Loiseleurietum,
Juncetum
trifidi
scandinavicum
and
Cetrario
islan-
ilicae-Caricetum
bigelowii,
to
the
second
Vaccinio-Empetretum
hermaphroditi
scandinavicum,
Empetro-Betuletum
nanae,
Empetro-Callunetum
and
Phyllo-
d,oco-Vaccinietum
myrtilli,
to
the
third
group
belongs
Anthoxantho-Deschamp-
sietum
flexuosae
and
the
fourth
group
is
formed
by
Nardetum
chionophilum
and
Alchemillo
alpinae-Nardetum.
Apart
stands
Athyrietum
alpestris
chiono-
I
was
not
able
to
study
their
winter
ecology,
but
it
is
probable
that
the
wind
-exposed
fi
rst
grou
p
has
a
relatively
short
or
nearly
no
snow
cover
in
winter,
the
second
group
a
moderate
snow
c
over,
the
third
and
fourth
a
relatively
long
snow
cover
;
the
last
community
has
apparently
very
long
snow
cover.
The
fi
rst
group
of
associations
belongs
to
the
alliance
Juncion
trifidi
.s
candinavicum
(ordre
caricetalia
curvulae).
This
alliance
was
fi
rst
reco
g
nized
by
KRAJINA.
1933
in
the
Tatra
as
Juncion
rr
ifidi
;
later
on,
independently,
R.
NORDHAGEN
described
Juncion
trifidi
(scandinavicum),
differ
i
ng
from
the
Carpathian
alliance
by
various
Scandinavian
endemics.
Its
communities
are
oligotrophic,
acidiphilous,
chionophobous
or
only
s
lightly
chionophilous,
windexposed,
poor
in
species.
Characteristic
or
differential
species
of
the
alliance
in
the
investigated
area
are
Juncus
trifidus,
Cladonia
mitis,
C.
bellidiflora
and
Cetraria
nivalis.
Cetrario
islandicae-Loiseleurietum
HADA6
ass.
n.
provis.
This
is
a
strongly
windexposed
community
on
gravelly,
winderoded
soil,
covered
by
a
thin
raw
humus
layer,
more
acid
than
in
Juncetum
trifidi.
Its
fl
oristic
similarity
to
Juncetum
trifidi
scandinavicum
and
to
Cetrario
islandicae-Caricetum
bigelowii,
as
well
as
the
occurrence
of
Juncus
trifidus,
Cladonia
mitis,
C.
coccifera,
C.
bellidiflora,
Ochrolechia
tartarea,
0.
frigida,
Cetraria
nivalis
etc.
show
that
it
belongs
to
the
alliance
Juncion
trifidi
scan-
dinavicum,
but
it
also
contains
some
species
from
the
Vaccinio-Empetretum
hermaphroditi,
like
Empetrum
hermaphroditum
or
Vaccinium
uliginosum.
It
is
characterized
by
the
dominance
of
Loiseleuria
procumbens
and
by
the
occurrence
of
Cladonia
amaurocraea
and
C.
squamosa.
It
stands
near
to
Loiseleurio-Diapensietum
NORDHAGEN
1943,
but
there
is
no
Diapensia
in
the
Blefjell
community,
nor
Alectoria
ochroleuca,
A.
divergens
or
Stereocaulon
paschale,
and
on
the
other
hand,
in
Loiseleurio-Diapensietum
in
Rondane
Carex
bigelowii,
Vacciniurn
vitis-idaea,
Deschampsia
flexuosa,
Ptilidium
ciliare,
Cladonia
rangiferina,
C.
bellidiflora
etc.,
do
not
occur
so
I
do
not
think
that
the
two
communities
are
identical.
The
average
number
of
species
in
one
releve
is
16,
in
4
releves
24
species
were
observed.
Localities:
1.
Gunnarsbunuten,
northern
slope,
3
ms,
27.
7.
1940.
2.
Gunnarsbunuten,
on
the
top,
5
ms,
25.
7.
1940.
2.
Gunnarsbunuten,
near
the
top,
3
m',
4.
8.
1940.
4.
Numedals
B16,
4
m2,
7.
8.
1940.
205
Cetrario
islandicae-Loieeleurietum
HADA6
Releve:
Altitude
m:
Slope:
Aspect:
1
1140
.
2
1120
20-25°
N
3
1130
20
0
SE
4
1130
N
Cover
(herb
layer)
%:
80
70
60
60
(moss
layer)
%:
30 30
30
30
Soil
depth
cm:
10-30
5-20 5-35
30
pH
(surface
layer
of
the
soil):
3.2
3.5
3.8
3.9
Humus
contents
%:
82
72
12
73
Subsoil:
pH
4.0
Loss
on
ignition
%:
2.8
Loiseleuria
procumbens
DESV.
8
8
8
8
7.6
Juncus
trifidus
L.
3 3
3
3
3.0.
Carex
bigelowii
ToRR.
4
2
3
1
2.5
Empetrum
hermaphroditum
HAGER.
5
±
2
4
2.9
Vaccinium
vitis-idaea
L.
3
2
1
1.5
Vaccinium
uliginosum
L.
3
+
+
1.01
Calluna
vulgaris
(L.)
HILL
1
.
2
0.7
1
Deschampsia
flexuosa
(L.)
Tnru.
2
2
1.0
1
Ptilidium
ciliare
(L.)
HAMPE
4
3
+
1.9/
Dicranum
fuscescena
TURN.
.
4 .
+
1.1
Cetraria
islandica
(L.)
Acn.
6
4
5
5
5.0
Cladonia
rangiferina
(L.)
WEE.
3 3
3
2
2.7
Cladonia
mitis
SANDST.
4
4
4 4
4.0
Cladonia
bellidiflora
(AcH.)
Sou.
3
1
1
3
2.0
Cladonia
elongate
(JACQ.)
HOFFM.
2 2
1
1
1.5
Cetraria
nivalis
(L.)
ACR.
2
4
3
2.2
Cladonia
uncialis
(L.)
WEB.
1
2
0.7
Cladonia
coccifera.
(L.)
ZOPF
1
+
0.4
Ochrolechia
frigida
(Sw.)
LYNGE
+
1
0.4
In
one
releve:
No.
2.:
Polytrichum
juniperinum
HEDW.
2,
Cladonia
amaurociea
(FLO.
SCHAER.
I.
-
No.
3.:
Cladonia
equamosa
(SCOP.)
HOFFM.
1,
Cetraria
crispa
(ACE.)
NYL.
1.
No.
4.
Arctous
alpina
(L.)
NIEDENZII
3.
Juncetum
trifidi
scandinavicum
NORDHAGEN
1943
A
slightly
wind
-exposed
community
on
sandy,
gravelly
soil,
covered
by
a
thin
humus
layer.
The
raw
humus
layer,
about
2
cm
thick,
has
pH
3.4
3.7
-4.3,
the
subsoil
pH
4.5
-4.6.
The
characteristic
species
of
this
association
in
Blefjell
is
Hieracium
alpinum.
The
average
number
of
species
in
one
releve
is
19,
the
total
number
in
5
releves
is
32.
Juncetum
trifidi
s.
1.
has
a
wide
distribution
not
only
in
Scandinavia,
but
also
in
the
Alps
and
Carpathians.
Its
fl
oristic
composition
is
relatively
con
-
stant.
So
e.g.
Juncetum
trifidi
scandinavicum
and
tatricum
have
the
following
species
in
common:
Juncus
trifidus,
Hieracium
alpinum,
Vaccinium
pais-
idaea,
V.
myrtillus,
Anthoxanthum
odoratum,
Solidago
virgaurea,
Deschampsio
flexuosa,
Ptilidium
ciliare,
Cetraria
islandica,
Cladonia
rangiferina,
C.
sylva-
tica,
C.
uncialis,
C.
elongata,
C.
pyxidata
etc.
Juncetum
trifidi
scandinavicum
from
Blefjell
has
much
in
common
with
Chiono-Juncetum
tri-
fidi
DAHL
1957
(alliance
Deschampsio-Anthoxanthion).
This
is
a
strange
thing,
because
Jutacetufi
l
in
trifidi
from
Blefjell
does
not
occur
on
places
which
are
likely
to
be
covered
by
much
snow
winter.
There
are
on
the
other
hand
several
species
occurring
in
Chiono-Juncetum
trifidi6
.fl
not
in
Juncetum
trifidi
scandinavicurn
in
Blefjell,
e.g.
Empetrum
hermaphroditum,
imdoce
h
coerulea,
Salix
herbacea,
Carex
lachenalii,
Gnaphalium
supinum,
Sibbaldia
procumbens,
L
0
P-
teut
206
d
pes
teis,
Webera
nutans,
Stereocaulon
paechale,
Crocynia
neglecta,
Lecidea
granuloea
etc.
Those
two
co
mmunities
have
some
features
in
common,
but
they
are
certainly
not
identical.
There
is
also
some
similarity
between
our
Juncetum
trifidi
scandinavicum
and
Cetrarietum
nivalis
trifidetosum
D
A
HL
1957
(alliance
Arctoetaphyllo-Cetrarion
niva/is),
but
the
Blefjell
community
has
no
Cetraria
Cladonia
alpestris,
C.
amaurocraea,
C.
deformie
etc.,
and
in
the
Rondane
community
does
not
grow
Deschampsia
flexuaga,
Trientalis
europaea,
Dicranum
scoparium,
D.
fuscescene,
Cladonia
unciatie
etc.
Localities:
1.
Svartekulpen,
5
m
2
,
26.
7.
1940.
2.
Svartekulpen,
3
m
2
,
1.
8.
1940.
3.
Graafjell,
10
m
2
,
2.
8.
1940.
4.
N.
slope
of
Svartekulpen,
5
m
2
,
2.
8.
1940.
5.
Storevassnuten,
W.
slope,
4
m
2
,
5.
8.
1940.
6.
Numedals
Ble,
2
m
2
,
7.
8.
1940.
7.
Numedals
Ble,
2
m
2
,
7.
8.
1940.
Juncetum
trifidi
scandinavicum
NORDH.
Releve:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
K
A
Altitude,
m:
1100
1250
1280
1220
1230
1150
1150
Slope:
30°
18°
10°
12°
42°
15°
20°
Aspect:
NNW
W
SW
W W
E
SW
cover
(herb
layer)
%:
50
70
60 60
90
60
60
(moss
layer)
%:
50
40
40
60
10
60
55
Soil
depth
cm:
5-10
15 15
5-15
25
5
5-15
Humus
layer
pH:
3.7
4.1
3.4
3.9
4.3
3.6
4.1
Loss
on
ignition
%:
62.9
55.7
86.6
81.9
10.1
88.5
54.6
Subsoil
pH:
4.6
81.9
Loss
on
ignition
%:
2.2
1.6
Juncud
trifidus
L.
6
7
7
7
9
7 7
V
7.1
Carex
bigelowii
TORR.
4
2
3
4
3
4
3
V
3.3
Deschumpaia
flexuoaa
Tun/.
5
1
2
4
4
4
4
V
3.4
Trientalis
europaea
L.
2
2
2
4
3
4
V
2.4
Vaccinium
myrtillus
L.
1
1
1
+
III
0.5
Hieracium
a/pinum
L.
2
1
1
1
III
0.7
Voce.
vitis-id,aea
L.
3
3
2
3
III
1.1
Solidago
virgaurea
L.
1
1
1
III
0.4
Care
x
brunnescens
Pout.
1
.
3 3
.
2
.
III
1.3
LoWeleuria
procumbens
(L.)
DESV.
2
.
+
II
0.3
Diphasium
alpinum
Rcrrnm.
6
4
II
1.4
.
4
nthoxanthum
odoratum
L.
1
2
.
II
0.4
Dicranum
scoparium
HEDW.
2
2
+
5
1
2
4
.
V
2.3
Dicranum
tumescent/
TURN.
6
2
3
3
1
IV
2.1
Ptaidium
ciliare
RAMPE
. .
1
1
II
0.3
Lophozia
floerkei
W.
et
M.
4
2
.
HI
1.5
Cetraria
istandica
Amt.
5
4
6
7
2
.
5
6
.
V
5.0
Cladonia
bellidiflora
(AcE.)
SCHAER.
3
2
4
1
2
3
V
2.1
Okulonia
midis
SANDST.
2
3
2
3
5
IV
2.1
C'lado
n
ia
elongata
HoFsm.
2
5
2
4
2
IV
2.1
%don/a
uncialis
WEB.
1
1 1
2
III
0.7
Cladonia
pleurota
FLR.
3
1
1
3
1
III
1.3
Cladonia
crispata
FLOR.
1
1
1
1
III
0.6
eiodonia
ecmocyna
NYL.
1
3
1
III
0.7
Cladonia
ran
t/
farina
WEB.
2 2
6
.
4
.
III
2.0
Cladonia
pyxidata(L.)
FR.
4
3
1
III
1.1
Ochrolechia
/rigida
(SW.)
LYNOE
1
1
+
III
0.4
Ochro/echia
tartarea
(L.)
MASS.
1
+
1
III
0.4
e
straria
crispa
NYL.
1
1
II
0.3
Clari
on(cylvatica
(L.)
HARK.
1
2
.
II
0.4
207
In
one
releve:
No.
1.:
Huperzia
selago
(L.)
BERNH.
2,
Polytrichum
commune
R
ED
Cetraria
delisei
(Bowe)
TH.
ER.
1,
Cladonia
sguamosa
(Scot.)
HOFFM.
1.
No.
2.:
Biatora
sp,
No,
5.:
Lophozia
sp.
1.
No.
6.:
Lecanora
sp.
+.
Cetrario
islandicae-Caricetum
bigelowii
HADA6
ass.
n.
provis.
This
is
a
slightly
wind
-exposed,
strongly
acidophilous
community
shallow
mineral
soil
facing
N.
or
W.
Lichens
cover
about
as
much
grou
n
d
as
higher
plants,
sometimes
even
more.
The
occurrence
of
species
like
Juncus
trifidus,
Cetraria
nivalis,
Cladonia
uncialis,
C.
bellidiflora
etc.
shows
that
this
community
belongs
to
Juncion
trifidi
scandinavicum.
It
stands
near
b
oth
to
Cladonietum
alpestris
caricetosum
bigelowii
DAHL
1957
(allia
nce
A
rcto-
staphyllo-Cetrarion
nivalis),
and
to
Polytricho-Caricetum
bigelowii
(all.
Nardo-
Caricion
bigelowii).
This
is
not
strange,
as
Cladonietum
alpestris
and
Poly-
tricho-Caricetum
bigelowii
of
Rondane
are
very
similar
in
their
fl
oristic
com-
position.
The
question
is
whether
the
placing
of
the
later
association
in
the
alliance
Nardo-Caricion
bigelowii
is
well
founded.
Cetrario
islandicae-Caricetum
bigelowii
is
closely
related
to
Juncetum
trifidi
scandinavicum
as
well
as
to
Cetrario
islandicae-Loiseleurietum,
but
very
little
to
Vaccinio-Ernpetretum
hermaphroditi.
The
average
number
of
species
in
one
releve
is
17.
Localities:
1.
Storevassnuten,
on
the
top,
3
m
2
,
5.
8.
1940.
2.
Numedals
Ble,
3
m
2
,
7.
8.
1940.
Cetrario
islandicae-Caricetum
bigelowii
HADA6
Releve
1
2
Altitude
m:
1242
1160
Slope:
15°
Aspect:
Cover
(herb
layer)
%:
50 50
(moss
layer)
%:
60
60
Sooil
depth
cm:
5-20
5-20
pH:
3.8
3.7
Loss
on
ignition
%:
17.3
22.2
Carex
bigelowii
TORR.
7
6
Juncus
trifidus
L.
2
2
Trientalis
europaea
L.
2
3
Salix
herbacea
L.
1
I'accinium
vitis-idaea
L.
5
Deschampsia
flexuosa
(L.)
TRIN.
3
Carex
brunnescen8
(PERS.)
POIR
2
Polytrichum
jumiperinum
HEDw.
3
2
Dicranum
scoparium
HEDW.
Dicranum
fuscescens
TURN.
4
Lophozia
hatcheri
EVANS
2
Cetraria
islandica
(L.)
ACH.
6
6
Cladonia
rangiferina
(L.)
WEB.
6
4
Cladonia
mitis
SANDST.
5
6
Cladonia
elongata
(JACQ.)
HOFFM.
3
3
Cladonia
uncialis
(L.)
WEB.
2 2
Cladonia
alpestris
(L.)
RADII.
4
Cladonia
coccifera
(L.)
ZOPF
Cladonia
bellidiflora
(ACE.)
SCHAER.
208
Vaccinio-Empetrum
hermaphroditi
scandinavicum
HA.DAO
I
Relave
1
2
3
4
8
6
'7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
K
A0
Altitude
m:
1005
925
1150
1085
1140
1175
1170
1000
1110
1148
1085
1100
1120
1135
Slope:
30
°
15
°
15
°
22
°
22
°
32°
20
°
17
°
15
°
-
10
°
7
°
-
10
°
Aspect:
NE
NE
E
E
N
E
N
E
NE
-
NE
ENE
-
E
Cover
(herb
layer)
%:
85
80
70
80
70
90
80
80
85
80
80
75
80
80
(moss
layer)
%:
50
60 60
45
50
30
55
50
30
40
55
50
60
50
Soil
depth
cm:
14-35 5-25
16
25
10
17
3-20
25
25
15
35
10-20
13
5-20
Humus
layer
pH:
3.3
3.4
3.2 3.2
3.2
3.4
3.3
3.4
3.2 3.2
3.7
3.2
3.0
3.2
Loss
on
ignition
%:
94.0
95.6
96.0
95.5
90.3
84.0
94.3
91.4
95.8
96.2
85.4
84.5
95.0
95.3
Subsoil
pH:
4.3
Loss
on
ignition
%:
2.0
Empetrum
hermaphroditum
HAGER.
7
6
6
6
7
6 6
5
6 6
8
6
7
6
V
6.1
Vaccinium
myrtillus
L.
6
2
6 6
6
6
6
5
6
6
6
6:
6
6
V
5.6
Deschampsia
flexuosa
(L.)
TRIN.
3
1
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
V
3.0
Vaccinium
vitis-idaea
L.
3
3
4
3
4
4
4
.
1
5
5
4
IV
2.8
Vaccinium
uliginosum
L.
2
7
4 4
5
4
6
4
.
.
4
5
4
IV
3.5
Loiseleuria
procumbens
(L.)
DESV.
-f-
2
3
5
.
3
4
3
4
5
4
IV
2.6
Carex
bigelowii
TORR.
3
3
1
.
1
3
2 2
3
2
3
IV
1.6
Betula
nana
L.
5
4
+
1
4
.
5
.
III
1.3
Bubus
chamaemorus
L.
2
1
3
2
+
1
III
0.6
Comm
suecica
L.
3
3
4
.
+
II
0.7
Calluna
vulgaris
(L.)
Hia.L.
2
.
2
3
4
II
0.7
Andromeda
polifolia
L.
.
1
-F
.
3
II
0.3
Arctous
alpina
(L.)
NIED.
2
5
-
.
I
0.5
Gentian
purpurea
L.
. .
-
I
-
.
+
.
I
0.1
Dicranum
scoparium
HEDW.
6
3
5
4
5 5
5
. 4
5
2
.
7
.
7
V
4.1
Ptilidium
ciliare
(L.)
HAMPE
3 3
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
IV
1.5
Dicranum
fuscescens
TURN.
3
5
5
3
6
4
III
1.1
Pleurozium
schreberi
BRID.
5
5
4
6
1
II
1.6
Polytrichum
commune
HEDV.
1
2
.
3
3
.
II
0.5
Lophozia
floerkei
(W.
et
M.)
SCRIF.
.
3
5
.
3
3
II
1.0
Holocomium
aplendens
BR.
et
SCH.
3
.
3
. .
.
I
0.4
Cetraria
islandica
(L.)
AcR.
3
5
5
5
6
.
4
5
4
5
5
5
7
4
5
V
4.8
Cladonia
rangiferina
(L.)
WEB.
5
4
3
1 1
4
3
4
5
2
5
4
IV
2.8
Cladonia
elongata
HOFFM.
1
3
4
.
3
.
1
1
2
1
1
2
IV
1.3
Cladonia
sylvatica
(L.)
RASH.
.
2
4
2
1
1
3
III
0.9
Cladonia
'rajas
SANDST.
4
4
3
.
3
1
3
III
1.3
Cladonia
alpestris
(L.)
HABIL
2 2
1
1
II
0.4
Cladonia
ecmocyna
(Amt.)
NvL.
i
3
1 1
II
0.4
Cl.
crispata
FLOT.
V.
virgata
TOPF.
+
+
3
II
0,3
Cladonia
pleurota
(FLR.)
SCHAER.
2
1 1
II
0,3
Cladonia
uncialis
(L.)
WEB.
+
1
2
2
.
II
0.4
Cladonia
bellidiflora
(ACE.)
SCHAER.
1-
1
3
II
0.3
In
one
releve:
No.
1.
Lophozia
hatcheri
Evnbis
2.
-
No.
4.
Polytrichum
juniperinum
HEDw.
1,
Cetraria
crispa
(AcH.)
NYL.
1.
-
No.
5.
Cla-
donia
pyxidata
(L.)
FR.
1.
-
No.
6.
Lophozia
lycopodioides
(WALLR.)
COON.
1.
-
No.
7.
Play
iothecium
denticulatum
(HEDw.)
BR.
et
Scn.
2.
-
No.
10.
Juncua
trifidus
L.
+.
No.
11.
Huperzia
selago
(L.)
BERM.
+,
Nephroma
arcticum
(L.)
Tonss.
3,
Peltigera
canna
(L.)
WILLD.
1.
Cladonia
ecmocyna
(Am.)
NYL.
1
Cl.
eriapata
FLOT.
V.
virgata
VAIN.
1
Ochrolechia
tartarea
(L.)
MASS.
Cetraria
eriapa
(ACH.)
NYL.
2
Cetraria
nivalia
(L.)
ACH.
3
Phyllodoco-Vaccinion
myrtilli
NORDI1AGEN
1936,
1943,
DAHL
1957
The
following
group
of
associations
belongs
most
probably
to
the
alliance
Phyllodoco
Vaccinion
myrtilli.
Characteristic
or
differential
species
of
the
alliance
in
Blefjell
seem
to
be
Betula
nana,
Empetrum
hermaphroditism,
Calluna
vulgaris,
Pleurozium
schreberi,
Ptilidium
ciliare,
and
also
Vaccinium
myrtillus
has
its
optimum
in
communities
of
this
alliance.
The
following
associations
belong
here:
Vaccinio-Empetretum
hermaphro-
diti
scandinavicum,
Empetro-Betuletum
nanae,
Empetro
hermaphroditi-Callu-
netum
and
Empetro-Phyllodocetum
coeruleae.
Vaccinio-Empetretum
hermaphroditi
scandinavicum
HADA6
ass.
n.
A
moderately
protected,
strongly
acidophilous
chamaephytic
community
on
humose
soil,
facing
E.,
NE.
or
N.
Mineral
subsoil
(with
ma.
2%
organic
matter)
is
very
shallow
or
entirely
lacking,
the
15
-30
cm
thick
black
brown
humus
layer
contains
about
91%
organic
matter.
Its
reaction
is
pH
3.0
-
3.2
-3.7.
Average
number
of
species
is
18,
in
14
releves
72
species
were
observed.
Chamaephytes
dominate,
lichens
have
a
slightly
higher
cover
than
mosses.
The
association
is
characterized
by
the
occurrence
of
Vaccinium
utiginosum,
Cornus
suecica,
Hylocomium
splendens,
Nephroma
arcticum
and
Peltigera
canina.
Not
without
interest
is
the
absence
of
Phyllodoce
coerulea
in
this
community.
Phyllodoce
is
fairly
rare
in
Blefjell,
due
perhaps
to
the
Atlantic
climate.
Similar,
but
not
quite
identical
communities
were
described
from
different
parts
of
Scandinavia
and
Central
Europe;
it
stands
near
to
Empetro-Betuletum
nanae.
Localities:
1.
NE.
slope
of
Gunnarsbunuten,
3
m
2
.
The
whole
soil
profile
is
formed
by
a
black
brown
humus,
25.
7.
1940.
2.
Numedals
B16,
5
m
2
,
1.
8.
1940.
3.
Svartekulpen,
E.
slope,
4
m
2
,
deep
black
brown
humus,
1.
8.
1940.
4.
E.
slope
of
a
hill
W.
for
Gunnarsbunuten,
4
m
2
,
1.
8.
1940.
5.
Between
Gunnarsbunuten
and
Graafjell,
above
a
lake,
8
m
2
,
2.
8.
1940.
6.
NW.
shore
of
Langevatn,
4
m
2
,
3.
8.
1940.
7.
Kongljan,
4
m
2
,
3.
8.
1940.
8.
E.
slope
of
Gunnarsbunuten,
4
m
2
,
4.
8.
1940.
9.
Gunnarsbunuten,
below
the
top,
4
m
2
,
4.
8.
1940.
10.
Gunnarsbunuten,
near
the
top,
3
m
2
,
4.
8.
1940.
11.
Slope
above
Langevatn,
4
m',
5.
8.
1940.
12.
E.
slope
of
Gunnarsbunuten,
4
m
2
,
4.
8.
1940.
13.
At
the
spring
of
Gunnarsbuelva,
4
m
2
,
6.
8.
1940.
14.
Numedals
Ble,
4
m
2
,
7.
8.
1940.
See
the
table
on
p.
208.
209
Empetro-Betuletum
nanae
NORDH.
1943
Empetro-Betuletum
nanae
is
a
well
protected,
strongly
acidophilous
com-
munity
on
humose
soil,
covered
sometimes
by
an
up
to
4
cm
thick
litter.
Lichens
have
a
slightly
higher
cover
than
mosses.
The
average
number
o
species
is
15,
in
8
releves
28
species
were
observed.
It
is
thus
poorer
in
species
than
V
accinio-Enzpetretum
hermaphroditi.
Empetro-Betuletum
nanae
in
Blefjell
is
characterised
by
the
absolute
do-
minance
of
Betula
nana
and
practical
absence
of
Loiseleuria
procumbens,
which
is
frequent
in
other
communities
of
the
alliance.
Empetro-Betuletum
nanae
NORDH.
has
much
in
common
with
Cladonietu
alpestris
betuletosum
nanae
DAHL
1957,
but
lichens
do
not
dominate
in
o
community
and
Cladonia
alpestris
is
represented
only
by
scattered
indi
duals.
Localities:
1.
Gunnarsbunuten,
4
m',
4.
8.
1940.
2.
Storevassnuten,
4
m',
5.
8.
1940.
3.
Flesebekknuten,
3
m',
5.
8.
1940.
4.
Numedals
Ble,
4
ma,
7.
8.
1940.
6.
Above
the
springs
of
Gunnarsbuelva,
4
m
2
,
6.
8.
1940.
7.
Gunnarsbunuten,
4
m
2
,
4.
8.
1940.
8.
Graafjell,
northern
slope,
4
m
2
,
9.
8.
1940.
Empetro-Betuletum
nanae
NORDH.
Releve
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
K
A
0
Altitude
m:
1125
1150
1055
1100
1080
1125
1135
1120
Slope:
5
°
-
10
°
17° 10°
5
°
5
°
Aspect:
NE
-
W
E
E
N
NNE
Cover
(herb
layer)
%:
80
75
85 85
90
80 80
85
(moss
layer)
%:
60
70
50
85
40
70
50
80
Soil
depth
cm:
5-35 5-25 5-15
15
15
15
5-25
15
pH:
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.1
3.1
Loss
on
ignition
%:
82.0
24.8
71.3
95.0
90.9
90.4
58.1
80.0
Betula
nana
L.
8
7
7 7 7
7
7
7
V
7.1
Empetrum
hermaphroditum
HAGER.
6
5
6
4
5
5
6
6
V
5.4
Vaccinium
myrtillus
L.
4
5
6
5
6
5
3
4
V
4.7
Vaccinium
ritia-idaea
L.
2
4
4
3
4
4
4
5
V
3.7
Deach,arnpaia
flexualta
TRIM.
4
4 4
3
2
4
6
2
V
3.6
Carex
bigelowii
TORR.
1
2
--I-
3
4
1
1
3
V
1.9
Vaccinium
uligincaum
L.
2
3
5
5
.
III
rn
Rubes
chamae
orua
L.
3
. . .
0.51.9
Ptilium
eitiare
HAMPE
3
3
3
1
1
2
1
2
V
2.0
Dicranum
scoparium
HEDW.
7
1
7
2
.
6
5
.
IV
3.5
Dicranum
fuweacens
TURN.
.
4
6
2
5
7
IV
3.0
Hettroziunt
sehreberi
MITT.
Polytrichum
juniperinum
H.
.
.
4
1
7
5
1
4
.
III
II
2.5
0.3
Lophozia
hatcheri
EVANS
.
1
.
.
.
2
II
0.4
Cladonia
rangiferina
WEB.
3
4
3
3
4
4
3 3
V
3.3
Cladonia
elongata
HOFFM.
2
3
1
3
1
3
2
V
Cetraria
ialandica
Amt.
5
7
4 4
5
6 6 6
V
5.11.9
Cladonia
sylvatica
RABA.
2
4
1
2
in
1.1
Cladonia
ecmocyn
a
NYL.
1 1
1
1
m
0.5
Cladonia
mitia
SANDST.
1
1
11
0.3
Cladonia
pleurota
Sca.
2
1
11
0.4
210
l
a
In
one
zeleve:
No.
1.:
Cladonia
umiak
(L.)
WEB.
1,
C.
criepata
(Acrt.)
FLOT.
1.
No.
4.:
pingiothecium
denticulatum
(HEDw.)
B.
et
S.
1,
Cladonia
pysidata
(L.)
Fn.
1.
No.
6.:
Lophozia
lucopodioidea
(WALLR.)
Coon.
3.
—'No.
7.:
Loiseleuria
procumbens
(L.)
DESV.
3,
Cladonia
furcata
(BUDS.)
SCHRAD.
1.
Empetro
hermaphroditi
-
Callunetum
HADA6
ass.
n.
provis.
Empetro
hermaphroditi
—Callunetum
differs
from
other
communities
of
this
alliance
by
the
dominance
of
Calluna
vulgaris
and
the
absence
of
Betula
nana,
Carex
bigelowii,
Juncus
trifidus
and
Vaccinium
uliginosum.
Its
soil
is
very
acid
and
contains
very
low
amounts
of
mineral
nutrients.
Locality:
Numedals
Ble,
1020
m
alt.,
2
m
2
,
20°
E.,
soil
depth
5-20
cm,
pH
3.3,
loss
on
ignition
97.1%,
cover
(herb
layer)
90%,
(moss
layer)
20%,
7.
8.
1940.
Calluna
vulgaris
(L.)
HILL
7
Empetrum
hermaphroditum
HAGER.
7
Vaccinium
vitis-idaea
L.
3
Vaccinium
myrtillue
L.
3
Deschampeia
flexuoaa
(L.)
Time.
2
i
i
Laiseleuria
procumbens
(L.)
DEsv.
3
Dicranum
fuscescens
TURN.
4
Pktiroziuni
schreberi
MITT.
3
;
Ptilidiurn
ciliare
(L.)
HAMPE
3
Cetraria
islandica
(L.)
ACH.
2
Cladonia
rangiferina
(L.)
WEB.
4
Cetraria
crisps
(Am.)
NYL.
1
Cladonia
eylvatica
(L.)
RArin.
4
Cladonia
alpeetrie
(L.)
RASH.
3
Cladonia
elongata
(JACQ.)
HOFFM.
1
Phyllodoco-Vaccinietum
myrtilli
NORDHAGEN
1943
This
is
a
strange
community,
dominated
by
Empetrum
hermaphroditum,
Phyllodoce
and
Vaccinium
myrtillus,
where
Salix
herbacea
meets
with
Loise-
leuria
and
Juncus
trifidus,
a
plant,
which
is
supposed
to
be
chionophilous
with
usually
chionophobous
species.
Its
soil
is
richer
in
mineral
compounds
and
has
a
slightly
lower
acidity
than
other
communities
of
the
alliance.
Locality:
E.
slope
of
Gunnarsbunuten,
1085
m
alt.,
2.5
m
2
,
soil
depth
5
cm,
pH
3.7,
loss
on
ignition
73.6%,
cover
(herb
layer)
80%,
(moss
layer)
60%,
4.
8.
1940.
Phyllodoce
coeruka
(L.)
BAB.
5
Empetrum
hermaphroditum
HAGER.
6
Vaccinium
myrtillus
Betula
nana
L.
4
Salix
herbacea
L.
3
Loiseleuria
procumbens
(L.)
DESV.
3
Juncus
trifidus
L.
2
Deschampsia
flexttoeta
(L.)
TR/N.
2
Carex
bigelowii
TORR.
2
Dicranum
scoparium
HEDw.
5
Polytrichurn
commune
HEDW.
4
Lophozia
lycopodioides
Cocit.
3
Ptilidium
ciliare
(L.)
HAMPE
1
Cetraria
iganclica
(L.)
Am.
5
Cladonia
rangiferina
(L.)
WEB.
3
Cladonia
elongata
HOFFM.
2
According
to
NORDHAGEN
(1943)
this
association
belongs
to
the
affiance
Phyllodoco-Myrtillion.
In
Blefjell
Phyllodoco-Vaccinietum
stands
very
near
to
Empetro-Betuletum
nanae,
which,
according
to
the
same
author,
belongs
to
the
affiance
Loiseleurio-Arctostaphylion.
I
do
not
think
that
they
belong,
at
least
in
Blefjell,
to
different
alliances.
For
this
reason
I
have
placed
both
the
above
associations
in
the
alliance
Phyllodoco-Vaccinion.
heschampsio-Anthoxanthion
DultIETz
1942
I
ob5ierved
only
one
community
which
belongs
probably
to
this
alliance
in
Blefjell
Akhemillo-Deschampsietum
flexuosae.
Alchemillo
alpinae-Deschampsietum
flexuosae
HADA6
ass.
n.
provis.
This
is
probably
a
late
snow
bed
community,
being
well
protected
against
wind.
Its
soil
is
less
acid
if
compared
with
previous
communities,
due
perhaps
211
Soil:
depth
cm:
15-30
40
20
10
15
25
10-20
humus
layer
pH:
.4.2
4.5
4.0
3.5
4.1
4.0
5.0
humus
contents
%:
78.1
3.6
83.2
78.4
75.9
89.4
85.1
Subsoil:
pH
3.7
Loss
on
ignition
%:
3.8
13.2
Nardus
arida
L.
9
8
9 9
8
7
9
Antlioxanthum
odoratum
I..
5
4
5
1
3
5
4
Carex
bigelowii
TORR.
4
3
3
4
3
4
3
Deschampsia
flexuosa
TR
I
N.
2
3
3
3
4
2
3
Vaccinium
myrtillus
L.
3
4
2
4
2
5
Gentiana
purpurea
L.
2
4
3
2
2
Trientalis
europaea
L.
3
.
4
4
3
.
Solidago
virgaurea
L.
1
1
2
1
Hieracium
alpinurn
L.
1
2
-I-
Carex
brunnescens
POIR.
3 3
3
Juncus
trifidua
L.
H
1
Viola
palustris
L.
2
1
Luzu/a
frigida
(Buren.)
SAM.
2
1
Empetrum
hermaphroditum
HAGER.
3
3
Vaccinium
uliginosum
L.
1
Dicranum
scoparium
HEDW.
3
±
4
Lophozia
floerkei
W.
et
M.
1
5
3
4
Lophozia
lycopodioides
Coax.
3
3
Cetraria
islandica
(L.)
ACK.
2
Colponia
ecmocyna
NYL.
1
1
EEEE-,Ecc
8.4
3.7
3.4
2.8
2.8
1.8
2.0
0.7
0.5
1.3
0.5
0.4
0.8
II
0.8
II
0.6
HI
1.0
III
1.8
II
0.8
III
0.4
II
0.3
In
one
relay
e:
No.
2.:
Diphazzum
alpinuni
(L.)Rom
5,
Salix
herbacea
L.
2.
-
No.
3.:
Luzula
multiflora
(RETZ.)
LEJ.
1.
-
No.
5.:
Polytrichum
commune
HEDW.
1.
-
No.
6.:
Trichophorum
attar/actor;
PALLA
1.
No.
7.:
Polytrichum
alpinum
HEDW.
4,
P.
juniperinum
HEDW.
2,
Sphagnum
girgensohnii
Russ.
4,
Marchantia
polymorpha
L.
1,
Sphagnum
compactum
DC.
2,
Cladonia
elongates
(JACQ.)
HOFFlif.
1,
C.
crispata
(AcH.)
FLOP.
V.
virgata
VAIN.
1.
Alchemillo
alpinae-Nardetum
strictae
HADA.6
ass.
n.
provis.
At
lower
altitudes
than
Nardetum
chionophilum
another
Nardetum
occurs,
strongly
influenced
by
cattle
-grazing.
It
is
doubtless
secondary.
It
may
be
characterized
by
Agrostis
tenuis
and
Juncus
filiformis
and
should
perhaps
be
classified
as
a
community
of
the
alliance
Nardo-Agrostidion
tenuis
SILL,
but
its
fl
oristic
affinity
to
Nardetum
chionophilum
in
Blefjell
seems
to
be
too
high,
so
it
is
provisionally
placed
in
the
alliance
Nardo-Caricion
bigelowii.
Localities:
I.
At
Gunnarsbusaeter,
near
Gunnarsbuelven,
3
m',
4.
8.
1940.
2.
Near
Grdtebustua,
4
m
2
,
8. 8.
1940.
Akhemillo
alpine-Nardetum
strictac
HADAa
Releve:
1
2
Altitude
m:
830
780
Slope:
-
-
Cover
(herb
layer)
%:
90
95
(moss
layer)
%:
2
y
0
10.
Soil:
depth
cm:
20
30
pH:
4.3
.
4.8
Loss
on
ignition
%:
8.9
213
Nardue
atricta
L.
9
8
Alchemilla
alpina
L.
2
2
Anthoxanthum
odoratum
L.
4
3
Luzula
rnultiflora
(RETZ.)
LEJ.
2
3
Deschampaia
flexuasa
(L.)
TRIN.
3
1
Potentilla
erects;
(L.)
RAEIISCH.
3
3
Viola
paluatria
L.
2
4
Trientalis
europaea
L.
1
1
Solidago
virgaurea
L.
1
V
accinium
myrtillua
L.
3
1
Polytrichum
commune
HEDW.
3
4
In
one
releve:
No.
1.:
Carex
nigra
(L.)
REIC1
(L.)
Hum
1,
Majanthemum
bifolium
(L.)
F.
W.
Sca
norvegicum
Gusx.
1,
Dicranum
scoparium
HEDW
Rhytidiadelphus
aguarroaus
WA.ENST.
2,
Lophozia
/y(
uncinatus
(HEDW.)
WARNST.
1.
No.
2.:
Agrostis
te
brunnescens
(Pmts.)
Pont.
2,
Carex
bigelowii
TORR.
Allosoro-Athyrion
alpestris
NORDH
The
last
community
is
a
very
poor
which
agrees
well
with
the
community
d
HAGEN
1936
or
Th
um
1957.
NORDHAGEN
Allosoro-Athyrion
alpestris
of
the
ordre
of
the
opinion
that
it
belongs
to
Lactuci
talia.
Its
fl
oristic
affinity
to
other
associi
vely
low.
On
the
other
hand,
Athyrietum
in
common
with
the
communities
of
Sal
place
it
in
NORDHAGENS
Allosoreto-Athyr
ing
to
its
fl
oristic
composition
and
ecolo,
villosae
PAWL.
1928
(Adenostyletalia
BR.
1936).
i.
4,
Juncua
filiformia
L.
1,
Callum
vulgaria,
MIDT
3,
Gentians
purpurea
L.
1,
Gnaphaliuv
.
4,
Pleurozium
achreberi
(Bum.)
MITT.
3
;opodioides
(WALLB..)
Coax.
2,
Drepanocladus
nuia
SIBTE.
5,
Rumex
alpestris
JACQ.
3,
Carex
3,
Bistorta
vivipara
(L.)
S.
F.
GRAY
1.
.
1936
Athyrietum
alpestris
chionophilum,
escribed
under
this
name
by
NORD
Iaces
this
community
in
the
alliance
herbaceae.
DAHL
(1957)
is
:on
alpinae
of
the
ordre
Adenostyle
itions
of
Lactucion
alpinae
is
relati
alpestris
chionophilum
has
not
much
icetalia
herbaceae.
I
think
it
best
to
ion,
alpestris,
which
belongs,
accord
gy,
to
the
ordre
Calamagrostidetalia
-BL.
1930,
Aconitetalia
NORDHAGEN
Athyrietum
alpestris
chionophilum
NoRDH.
1943
This
is
an
extremely
chionophilous
community.
Its
soil
forms
a
thin
layer
between
stones
on
steep
slopes.
Humus
contents
in
soil
is
low,
the
soil
acidity
is
high.
Localities:
1.
N.
slope
of
Gunnarsbunuten,
at
a
brook,
7
m
2
,
27.
7.
1940.
2.
Slope
NE.
from
Gunnarsbusaeter,
near
a
brook,
8
m
2
,
29.
7.
Athyrietum
alpestris
chinophilum
NORDH.
1940.
Releve:
1
2
Altitude
m:
930
960
Slope:
35
°
37•
Aspect:
NNE
S
Cover
(nerb
layer)
%:
(moss
layer)
%:
100
95
Soil:
pH
3.3
3.8
Loss
on
ignition
%:
31.1
13.7
Athyrium
distentifolim
Tscx.
Gentiana
purpurea
L.
214
9
9
3 3
Trientalis
europaea
L.
2
3
Rubus
chamaemorus
L.
4
Dryopteris
spinulosa
WATT.
3
Rumex
alpestrie
JACQ.
2
Deschampsia
flexuosa
(L.)
TRIN.
2
Phegopteris
polypodioicles
FEE
2
Melandrium
rubrum
GARCKE
1
Vaccinium
myrtalus
L.
Polytrichum
alpinum
HEDW.
Discussion
The
fl
oristic
affinity
of
the
described
communities
of
Blefjell
mountains
may
be
seen
from
the
following
table
of
Jaccards
indexes:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
1.
Cetr.-Loiseleurietum
x
x
36.5
35.6
31.9
26.9
22.7
27.2
4.5
7.7
3.3
1.4
2.
Cetr.-Cari,c.
bigelowii
36
5
x
x
40.8
6.0
24.6
15.7
17.1
10.9
10.0
5.3
4.7
3.
Juncetum
trifidi
35.6
40.8
X
x
27.3
28.6
16.0
22,6
1.4
11.8
9.6
1.3
4.
Vaccin.-Empetretum
31.9
8.0
27.3
x
x
53.6
37.9
36.5
8.3
12.5
7.2
3.8
5.
Empetr.-Betuletum
26.9
24.6
28.6
53.6
x x
44.0
44.6
12.3
13.6
8.9
2.4
6.
Empetro-Callunetum
22.7
15.7
16.0
37.9
44.0
X
X
30.9
4.7
8.9
6.7
2.5
7.
Phyllod.-Vaccinietum
27.2
17.1
22.6
36.5
44.6
30.9
x
x
7.0
11.3
13.2
2.5
8.
Akhem.-Deschapsietum
4.5
10.9
1.4
8.3
12.3
4.7
7.0
x
x
31.2
26.2
10.5
9.
Nardetum
chionophilum
7.7
10.0
11.8
12.5
13.6
8.9
11.3
31.2
x
x
41.2
10.7
10.
Alchem.-Nardetum
3.3
5.3
9.6
7.2
8.9
6.7
13.2
26.7
41.2
-
7.0
11.
Athyrietum
alpestris
1.4
4.7
1.3
3.8
2.4
2.5
2.5
10.5
10.7
7.0
Higher
vegetation
units
are
based
on
fl
oristic
similarity
of
associations,
but
we
may
use
ecological
data
as
a
verification,
if
our
system
is
right.
Communities
of
the
same
higher
units
should
have
similar
ecology
and
vice
versa.
Let
us
see
how
it
is
in
our
communities:
altitude
aspect
pH
loss
on
ignition
(
Yo
Juncion
trifidi
1100
-
1280
W,
N
3.2-4.3
20-48-63
Phyllodoco-Vaccinion
925-1175
E
3.0-3.7 74-84-97
Desch.-Anthoxanthion
1120
S
4.4
66
Nardo-Caricion
780-1280
E
4.0-5.0
8-39-70
Allosoro-Athyrion
930-
960
S,
NNE
3.3-3.6
22
The
correlation
between
the
syntaxonomy
and
synecology
of
the
discussed
communities
is
evident:
each
alliance
has
its
own
characteristic
combination
of
ecological
factors,
e.g.
Juncion
trifidi
scandinavicum
occurs
on
wind
-
exposed
W.
and
N.
slopes,
has
an
acid
soil
and
a
relatively
low
humus
contents;
Phyllodoco-Vaccinion
occurs
on
windprotected
E.
slopes,
its
soil
is
more
acid
and
contains
nearly
twice
as
much
humus
etc.
Let
us
now
compare
vegetation
units
of
Blefjell
mountains
with
the
commu-
nities
of
Rondane,
described
by
DAHL
(1957).
Since
our
methods
are
quite
identical,
the
comparison
will
be
easy.
Blefjell:
Rondane:
Litorellion
unif
lorae
Montio-Epilobion
hornernannii
.
Ph
ilonoto-Sarifragetum
stellaris
Pokyonion
avicularis
not
studied
Mniobryo-Epilobion
hornemarinii
(synonym!)
Philonoto-Saxifrageturn
stellaria
not
studied
215
Bléfjell:
Rondane:
Caricetalia
curvulae
Juncion
trifidi
scandinavicum
bigelowii
Jun,cetum
trifidi
acandinavicum
Cetrario
islandicae-Loieeleurietum
Phyllodoco-Vaccinion
myrtilli
Vaccinio-Empetretum
hermaphroditi
Empetro-Betuletum
nanae
Empetro-Callunetum
Phyllodoco-Vaccinietum
myrtilli
Deechampsio-Myrtilletaltia
Deschampaio-Anthoxanthion
Alchemillo-Deschampsieturn
flex.
Nardeto-Caricion
bigelowii
Nardetum
chionophilum
Akhemillo alpestris-Nardetum
Allosoreto-Athyrion
alpestris
Athyrietum
alpestris
chionophilum
not
studied
Caricetalia
curvulae
Arctoetaphylo-Cetraricrn
?avails
Polytricho-Caricetum
bigelowli
Cladonietum
alpestris
caricetoeum
bigelowii
Cetrarietum
nivalis
juncetosum
t.
(Chiono-Juncetum
trifidi)
Loiseleurio-Diapensietum
Phyllodoco-Vacciwion
myrtilli
Cladonietum
alpestris
betuletosum
(all.
Arctoetaphylo-Cetrarion!)
Phyllodoco-Vaccinietum
myrtilli
Deschampsio-Myrtilletalia
Deachampeio-Anthoxanthion
Deachampaio-Dicranetum
fuaci
Nardeto-Caricion
bigelowii
NN
ardetumchionophilum
Lactucion
alpine
Athyrietum
alpestris
chionophilum
Salicetalia
herbaceae,
Caricetalia
fuscae,
Scheuchzerietalia,
Oxycocco-Ledetalia
There
are
some
few
associations
practically
identical
in
both
region
(Philonoto-Saxifragetum
stellaris,
Nardetum
chionophilum,
Athyrietum
al
pestris
chionophilum),
others
are
similar,
but
not
identical.
Most
of
the
alliance+
are
identical,
but
there
are
also
certain
discrepances.
So,
for
example,
Empetro
Betuletum
nanae
belongs
in
Blefjell
to
the
alliance
Phyllodoco-Vaccinioi
myrtilli,
whereas
a
very
similar
association
Cladonietum
alpestris
betuletosun
nanae
in
Rondane
belongs
to
Arctostaphyllo-Cetrarion
nivalis;
(the
Jaccard
indexes
of
fl
oristic
similarity
of
the
two
associations
are
48
for
vascular
plant
and
25
for
mosses
and
li
chens).
A
strange
thing
is
that
the
alliance
Phyllo
doco-Vaccinion
myrtilli,
belonging
in
Rondane
to
Deschampsio-Myrtilletalia
is
nearest
related
to
Juncion
trifidi
scandinavicum
in
Blefjell
mountains
an
forms
together
with
this
alliance
a
fairly
natural
ordre
Caricetalia
curvulae
I
do
not
doubt
that
the
two
results,
DmEas
and
mine,
are
correct
fo
the
areas
investigated
but
what
can
be
done
in
a
general
review
of
plan
communities
of
a
larger
area,
where
atlantic
and
continental
communitie
occur?
There
is
no
doubt
that
the
classification,
based
on
the
total
qualitative
and
quantitative
features
of
the
communities,
is
more
objective
than
a
class'
fi
cation,
based
on
characteristic
species
only.
But
our
results,
concerning
Caricetalia
curvulae,
raise
some
questions.
If
we
compare
the
fl
oristic
composition
of
the
communities
of
Juncioi
trifidi
scandinavicum
and
Arctostaphyllo-Cetrarion
nivalis,
we
can
see
tha
there
is
no
big
difference
in
the
vascular
fl
ora
and
that
even
mosses
an
lichens
do
not
differ
much.
The
Jaccard's
indexes,
counted
separately
f
vascular
plants
and
for
cryptogams,
for
corresponding
associations
are
a
follows:
Juncetum
trifidi
scandinavicum:
Cetrarietum
nivalis
juneetoaum
trifidi
Kj
33
and
18;
Cetrario
islandicae-Caricetum
bigelowii:
Cladonietum
alpestris
caricetorum
bigelowii
Kj
40
and
3(
Cetrario
islandicae-Loieeleurietum:
Loiseleurio-Diaperunetum
Kj
38
and
10.
(As
a
base
fc
counting
the
Kj
the
fi
gures
of
the
average
abundance
[A:21]
were
taken).
216
1
or
The
main
difference
between
the
two
alliances
seems
to
be
quantitative:
lichens
practically
dominate
in
all
communities
of
Arctostaphyllo-Cetrarion
nivalis,
whereas
in
Juncion
trifidi
scandinavicum
the
dominant
role
belongs
o
higher
plants.
Is
it
right
to
maintain
both
alliances
for
this
reason?
Our
knowledge
of
the
Norwegian
alpine
vegetation
is
not
yet
sufficient
to
give
a
definitive
answer.
Considering
these
problems
I
have
some
doubts
hether
our
optical
method
of
assessment
of
the
plant
abundance
and
domi-
ance
is
always
the
best
one
for
deciding
about
higher
vegetation
units,
when
comparing
atlantic
and
continental
vegetation.
It
is
certainly
right
in
most
cases,
but
in
the
case
of
Juncion
trifidi
scandinavicum:
Arctostaphyllo-Cetra-
c
on
nivalis
we
may
ask:
are
the
vascular
and
cryptogamic
members
of
the
ommunities
of
the
same
value
from
the
point
of
view
of
the
economy
of
nature?
Vascular
plants
usually
produce
higher
amounts
of
organic
matter
han
lichens.
In
very
oligotrophic
conditions
under
continental
climate
lichens
em
to
be
stronger
in
competition
for
space
than
most
of
higher
plants
and
cover
a
relatively
bigger
area
but
produce
less
organic
matter
than
higher
plants.
Our
assessment
of
the
vegetation
cover
respects
the
abundance
and
do-
minance,
but
not
the
amount
of
organic
matter
produced
by
the
respective
members
of
the
community.
In
pure
cryptogamic
or
in
practically
pure
vascular
communities
the
abundance
and
dominance
corresponds
roughly
with
the
respective
weight
of
dry
matter,
but
in
cases
where
li
chens
and
vascular
plants
are
on
the
same
abundance
level,
it
does
not
fi
t
quite
well.
By
comparing
also
dry
weight
of
plants,
the
similarity
of
the
corresponding
associations
of
both
alliances
would
in
my
opinion
be
much
higher
than
it
seems
to
be
by
using
optical
comparison.
I
hope
that
further
research
of
the
alpine
vegetation
will
throw
more
light
on
this
interesting
problem.
Souhrn
V
tete
praci
jsou
popsana
nektere,
alpinskil
rostlinna
spoleoenstva
v
Blofjell
v
jitnim
Norsku
a
uvedena
nekton!"
data
o
jejich
ekologii
(pH,
ztrata
v
pude
apod.).
Srovnent
s
vegetaci
pohoii
Rondane
(DAHL
1957)
je
zajimave
z
toho
dilvodu,
to
to
jde
o
fizemi
s
prakticky
stejnym
geologickfm
podkladem
ale
rozdfinfmi
klimatickYmi
podminkami
(Rondane
je
pomerne
kontinentelni,
Blefjell
atlanticke).
Soueasne
vyystive
iada
syntaxonomickYch
problemil,
ktere
bude
tfeba
v
budoucnu
References
DAHL
E.
(1957):
Rondane.
Oslo.
Daum
E.
et
E.
FIADA6
(1941):
Strandgesellschaften
der
Insel
Ostoy
im
Oslofjord.
Nytt
Mag.
Naturvidensk.
Oslo,
82
:
251-312.
HADA6
E.
et
al.
(1969):
Die
Pflanzengesellschaften
des
Tales
„Doling
Siedmich
pramenov"
in
der
Belaer
Tatra.
Bratislava.
ORDIIACIEN
R.
(1936):
Versuch
einer
neuen
Einteilung
der
subalpinen-alpinen
Vegetation
Norwegens.
Bergens
Mus.
Aarb.
7
:
1-88.
(1943):
Sikilsdalen
og
Norges
fjellbeiter.
Bergens
Mus.
Skr.
22.
Reeensent:
R.
Neuhaus'
217