Nasal infection of Alcaligenes bronchisepticus (Bordetella bronchiseptica) and lesions in newborn rabbits


Maeda, M.; Shimizu, T.

National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly 15(1): 29-37

1975


The mode of experimental infection with Alcaligenes bronchisepticus (Bordetella bronchiseptica) of pig and rabbit origin, and lesions in the respiratory organs were examined in three groups, A, B and C, of newborn rabbits. Groups A and C were free from the organism and agglutinating antibody and inoculated with the organisms of pig and rabbit origin, respectively. Group B had maternal antibody and was inoculated with the organism of pig origin. Establishment and persistence of infection with the organism were certified in the nasal cavities, trachea, or lungs of groups A and C 3 days after inoculation or later. Late establishment of infection occurred in trachea and lungs of group B. Agglutinating antibody was detected in groups A and B mostly 14 days after inoculation or later. Ventral turbinate atrophy occurred in groups A and B mostly 10 days after inoculation or later. Histologically, it was hypo-osteogenesis caused by degeneration of osteoblasts and proliferation of fibroblast-like cells in the osseous tissue. Catarrhal inflammation in the nasal and tracheal mucous membranes, and bronchopneumonia with peribronchiolitis developed commonly in all the groups. The fluorescent antibody technique revealed antigen of the organism of pig origin on the nasal mucosa, mostly of the dorsal and ventral meatus, and on the tracheal and bronchiolar mucosa in groups A and B.

NASAL
INFECTION
OF
ALCALIGENES
BRONCHISEPTICUS
(BORDETELLA
BRONCHISEPTICA)
AND
LESIONS
IN
NEWBORN
RABBITS
MINORU
MAEDA'
and
TAKEsm
SHIMIZU'
(Received
for
publication
June
14,
1974)
The
mode
of
experimental
infection
with
Alcaligenes
bronchi-
septicus
(Bordetella
bronchiseptica)
of
pig
and
rabbit
origin,
and
lesions
in
the
respiratory
organs
were
examined
in
three
groups,
A,
B
and
C,
of
newborn
rabbits.
Groups
A
and
C
were
free
from
the
organism
and
agglutinating
antibody
and
inoculated
with
the
organisms
of
pig
and
rabbit
origin,
respectively.
Group
B
had
maternal
antibody
and
was
inoculated
with
the
organism
of
pig
origin.
Establishment
and
persistence
of
infection
with
the
organ-
ism
were
certified
in
the
nasal
cavities,
trachea,
or
lungs
of
groups
A
and
C
3
days
after
inoculation
or
later.
Late
establishment
of
infection
occurred
in
trachea
and
lungs
of
group
B.
Agglutinating
antibody
was
detected
in
groups
A
and
B
mostly
14
days
after
inoculation
or
later.
Ventral
turbinate
atrophy
occurred
in
groups
A
and
B
mostly
10
days
after
inoculation
or
later.
Histologically,
it
was
hypo—osteogenesis
caused
by
degeneration
of
osteoblasts
and
proliferation
of
fi
broblast
—like
cells
in
the
osseous
tissue.
Catarrhal
inflammation
in
the
nasal
and
tracheal
mucous
mem-
branes,
and
bronchopneumonia
with
peribronchiolitis
developed
commonly
in
all
the
groups.
The
fluorescent
antibody
technique
revealed
antigen
of
the
organism
of
pig
origin
on
the
nasal
mucosa,
mostly
of
the
dorsal
and
ventral
meatus,
and
on
the
tracheal
and
bronchiolar
mucosa
in
groups
A
and
B.
Nasal
infection
of
piglets
with
Alcaligenes
bronchisepticus
(Bordetella
bronchiseptica)
has
been
reported
to
cause
nasal
turbinate
atrophy
by
many
workers.
1,6,11-16
)
Similarity
on
the
development
of
lesions
of
the
nasal
turbinate
has
been
observed
in
both
experi-
menta1
2,3
'
12
)
and
natural")
atrophic
rhinitis
(AR).
The
inhibitory
effect
of
immune
antibody
against
Alc.
bronchiscpticus
infec-
tion
and
its
lesions,
however,
were
not
completely
elucidated
as
yet.
7,9
'
12)
For
basic
investigation
on
these
points,
it
may
be
IDNF.','9'-Vi'1-s6}z
Alcaligenes
bronchisepticus
ogeaf
f
i
iik
1
1111111
ft:
Third
Research
Division,
National
Institute
of
Animal
Health,
Kodaira,
Tokyo,
187
Japan.
2
R:
First
Research
Division
of
the
same
institute.
Nat.
Inst.
Anim.
Hlth
Quart.
15,
29-37
(1975)
necessary
to
fi
nd
some
experimental
animals
fit
for
AR
research.
In
rabbit
herds
an
extensive
outbreak
of
interstitial
pneumonia
in
connection
with
B.
bronchiseptica
infection
was
reported
by
Oldenburg
et
al.
13
>
Gwatkin
et
al.
5
>
reported
on
rhinitis
with
the
destroyed
nasal
turbinate
in
young
rabbits
inoculated
with
nasal
mate-
rial
and
Pasteurella
multocida
collected
from
diseased
pigs.
Genovi)
observed
rhinitis
with
turbinate
atrophy
in
rabbits
inoculated
with
B.
bronchiseptica
isolated
from
a
diseased
pig
and
performed
passage
intermediately
in
a
guinea
pig.
Maeda'
1
>
recognized
turbinate
atrophy
in
newborn
rabbits
inoculated
with
(15-1-29)
30
Maeda,
M.
and
Shimizu,
T.
Alc.
bronchisepticits
originated
directly
from
a
diseased
pig.
No
detailed
studies,
however,
have
been
conducted
as
yet
on
the
mode
of
infection
or
lesion
with
Alc.
bronchisepticus
of
pig
origin
in
rabbits.
This
paper
deals
with
the
mode
of
infection
of
newborn
rabbits
with
Alc.
bronchisepticus
originated
from
both
pig
and
rabbit
and
respiratory
lesions
of
the
infection.
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
Animals
used:
Seventy—four
newborn
white
rabbits
of
14
litters
were
divided
into
four
groups,
A
to
D.
Group
A
consisted
of
16
animals
of
three
litters,
group
B
of
20
animals
of
another
fi
ve
litters,
group
C
of
23
animals
of
another
four
litters,
and
group
D
of
15
animals
of
the
other
two
litters.
The
newborn
of
groups
A,
C,
and
D
were
proved
to
be
free
from
Alc.
bronchisepticus
and
agglutinin
against
the
organism
before
inoculation.
The
newborn
of
group
B
were
found
to
have
maternal
antibody
in
agglu-
tinating
titers
from
1:
40
to
1:
80.
All
the
newborn
were
nursed
by
their
mothers
in
productive
cages
until
3
weeks
of
age,
and
raised
in
individual
cages
after
that.
Inoculation:
Two
strains
of
Alc.
bron-
chisepticus
were
used
in
the
stage
of
phase
I.
They
were
the
A-19
strain
originated
from
a
naturally
diseased
pig,
and
the
F-36
strain
isolated
from
a
healthy
rabbit.
Group
A
was
inoculated
intranasally
with
1.0
or
6.0
x
10
6
cells
of
the
A-19
strain
at
5
or
6
days
of
age.
Group
B
was
exposed
to
8.0
x
10
5
cells
of
the
A-19
strain
some
time
between
1
and
10
days
of
age.
Group
C
was
instilled
with
1.0
or
5.0
x
10
6
cells
of
the
1
7
-36
strain
at
2,
3,
or
6
days
of
age.
Group
D
served
as
a
control.
Pathological
examination:
All
the
animals
were
autopsied
some
time
between
1
and
56
days
after
inoculation,
as
shown
in
Tables
1
and
2.
Histological
examination
was
performed
on
two
transverse
nasal
sections
at
a
level
where
the
ventral
turbinates
and
ethmoids
showed
a
maximum
development
(Fig.
1).
Specimens
were
also
collected
from
the
cervical
trachea,
each
pulmonary
lobe,
1
st
is
it
Fig.
1.
Longitudinal
section
of
rabbit's
snout.
1
and
2:
Levels
at
which
transverse
sections
were
made.
V.T.
:
Ventral
turbinate,
D.T.:
Dorsal
turbinate,
V.M.:
Ventral
meatus,
D.M.
:
Dorsal
meatus,
Eth.
:
Ethmoid,
Br.:
Brain.
and
some
other
principal
organs.
They
were
fixed
in
10%
formalin,
embedded
in
paraffin,
and
cut
into
thin
sections,
which
were
stained
with
hern.atoxylin
and
eosin.
Specimens
from
the
snout
were
decalcified"
)
before
em-
bedding.
Fluorescent
antibody
technique
(FAT):
This
technique
was
applied
in
the
same
manner
as
used
in
the
preceding
study.'
2
)
Immune
globulin
precipitated
from
hyper
—immunized
rabbit
serum
against
the
A-19
strain
with
ammonium
sulfate
was
purified
by
Sephadex
G-25
filtration
and
diethylaminoethyl
(DEAD)
cellulose
chromatography
after
con-
jugation
with
fluorescein
isothiocyanate.
The
purified
product
of
conjugation
was
absorbed
with
rabbit
liver
powder.
It
showed
a
staining
titer
of
1
:
16.
Thin
sections
cut
from
specimens
were
stained
with
four
units
of
the
product
of
conjugation
at
4°C
for
16
hours.
A
rabbit
serum
showing
agglu-
tinating
titer
of
1:
2,560
blocked
the
anti-
genicity
in
the
thin
sections.
Recovery
of
the
organism:
Direct
reisola-
tion
of
the
organism
was
tried
from
the
nasal
cavities,
trachea,
and
lungs
at
autopsy.
Colonies
grown
on
24
—hour
cultures
on
MacConkey
agar
enriched
with
1%
glucose
and
on
DHL
agar
were
identified
by
the
slide
agglutination
with
rabbit
antiserum
against
the
A-19
strain.
(15-1-30)
Nat.
Inst.
Anini.
Hlth
Quart.
15,
29-37
(1975)
Alc.
bronclaisepticus
Infection
and
Lesion
in
Newborn
Rabbits
Agglutination
test:
The
method
by
Shimizu
et
alio
was
applied
to
the
sera
of
all
the
animals
at
autopsy,
using
formalin-killed
antigen
of
pig
origin
purchased
from
the
Kitasato
Laboratories,
Ltd.
To
the
sera
of
the
rabbits
of
group
C
inoculated
with
the
organism
of
rabbit
origin,
live
cells
of
this
organism
grown
in
an
18
-hour
culture
of
trypticase
soy
broth
were
used
as
antigen.
A
serum
showing
clear
agglutination
at
1:
10
or
higher
dilutions
was
regarded
as
one
containing
agglutinating
antibody.
Groups
Table
1.
RESULTS
31
1.
Evidence
of
infection
after
inoculation
Nasal
establishment
of
the
inoculum
was
confirmed
by
reisolation
of
the
organism
in
both
groups
A
and
C
3
days
after
inoculation
(hereinafter
expressed
as
day
3),
and
in
group
B
on
day
1.
Nasal
infection
was
persistent
until
the
end
of
each
experimental
period.
Tracheal
infection
started
in
groups
A
and
C
on
day
3
and
in
group
B
mostly
on
day
7.
It
lasted
in
each
group
until
the
Infection
and
lesions
in
newborn
rabbits
inoculated
with
the
organism
of
pig
origin
(Groups
A
and
B)
Days
after
inoculation
Nasal
cavity
Recovery
of
organism
Trachea
Lungs
A
3
4/4*
3/4
3/4
7
4/4
4/4
4/4
10
2/2
2/2
2/2
14
3/3
3/3
3/3
21
2/2
2/2
2/2
28
1/1
1/1
1/1
B
1
0/3
5
1/4
7--
8
2/5
9
,
-1
1
4/4
29
2/2
56
2/2
0/3
1/4
3/5
4/4
2/2
0/2
0/3
1/4
3/5
4/4
2/2
0/2
Aggluti-
nating
antibody
Nasal
turbinate
atrophy
Tracheitis
Pneumonia
Linear
lesion
in
lungs
0/4
0/4
2/4
1/4
0/4
0/4
1/4
2/4
2/4
2/4
0/2
1/2
0/2
1/2
2/2
1/3
3/3
1/3
2/3
2/3
2/2
2/2
0/2
1/2
2/2
1/1
1/1
0/1
0/1
1/1
1/2
0/3 0/3
0/3
0/3
2/2
0/4
1/4
0/4
0/4
2/3
3/5
2/5
3/5
0/5
NT
4/4
3/4
2/4
1/4
2/2
0/2
1/2
0/2
1/2
2/2 2/2
0/2
0/2
2/2
*
The
numerator
indicates
the
number
of
animals
from
which
the
organism,
antibody,
and
lesions
were
detected
and
the
demonimator
the
number
of
animals
tested.
NT:
Not
tested
Days
after
inoculation
Table
2.
Infection
and
lesions
in
newborn
rabbits
inoculated
with
the
organism
of
rabbit
origin
(Group
C)
Recovery
of
organism
Aggluti-
Nasal
eating
turbinate
Tracheitis
Trachea
Lungs
antibody
atrophy
Nasal
cavity
Linear
Pneumonia
lesion
in
lungs
3
2/2*
2/2
7
2/2
2/2
14
5/5
5/5
21
5/5
5/5
28
5/5
5/5
42
4/4 4/4
*
See
the
remarks
of
Table
1.
0/2
0/2
5/5
5/5
5/5
4/4
0/2
0/2
0/5
0/5
0/5
0/4
0/2
0/2
1/5
0/5
0/5
0/4
0/2
0/2
3/5
0/5
0/5
0/4
0/2
0/2
2/5
1/5
1/5
1/4
0/2
0/2
2/5
2/5
4/5
4/4
Nat.
Inst.
Anim.
Hlth
Quart.
15,
29-37
(1975)
(15-1-31)
32
Maeda,
AI.
and
Shimizu,
T.
end
of
the
experimental
period.
Pulmonary
infection
was
observed
in
groups
A
and
C
over
a
period
from
day
3
to
the
end
of
the
experimental
period,
and
in
group
B
over
a
period
between
days
7
and
29.
Late
establishment
of
the
organism
was
recogniz-
able
in
the
trachea
and
lungs
of
animals
with
maternal
antibody.
Early
disappearance
of
the
organism
from
the
lungs
was
also
detected
in
these
animals.
Agglutinating
antibody
of
a
titer
ranging
from
1:
10
to
1:
20
was
detected
from
one
of
three
rabbits
examined
on
day
14
and
from
all
the
three
rabbits
examined
later
in
group
A.
In
group
B,
the
antibody
of
a
titer
ranging
from
1:
40
to
1:
80
was
found
in
five
of
seven
rabbits
examined
between
days
1
and
8,
and
that
of
the
titers
ranging
from
1:
40
to
1:
640
in
all
four
rabbits
examined
between
days
29
and
56.
On
the
other hand,
the
antibody
was
not
noticed
in
group
C
even
when
both
antigens
of
pig
and
rabbit
origin
were
used
(Tables
1
and
2).
In
group
A
nasal
turbinate
atrophy
accom-
panied
by
mucous
exudation
was
recognized
in
one
of
four
rabbits
examined
on
day
7,
in
one
of
two
rabbits
on
day
10,
and
in
all
six
rabbits
on
day
14
or
later.
Severe
atrophy
(Fig.
2)
occurred
in
two
rabbits
on
day
14
in
this
group.
In
group
B,
the
atrophy
was
mild
in
7
of
13
rabbits
between
days
7
and
56,
and
moderate in
one
rabbit
on
day
11.
Only
one
rabbit
exhibited
mild
atrophy
in
group
C
on
day
14.
In
group
A,
8
of
15
rabbits
were
affected
bilaterally
with
lobular
pneumonia
(Fig.
3)
of
the
apical
and
cardiac
lobes
between
days
3
and
21.
The
pneumonia
also
occurred
in
six
of
nine
rabbits
of
group
B
between
days
7
and
11,
and
in
9
of
15
rabbits
of
group
C
between
days
3
and
21.
In
addition
to
the
pneumonia,
gray
linear
pulmonary
lesions
were
noticed
along
the
bronchus
and
bronchioles
mainly
in
the
apical
and
cardiac
lobes
in
these
three
groups.
The
lobular
pneumonia
was
inclined
to
occur
mostly
in
the
middle
stage
of
the
experimental
period,
and
the
linear
lesions
appeared
frequently
in
the
late
stage
in
common
in
the
three
groups.
The
organ-
.1
,
17
,
1•111.
1
,1rIFIVS,41
.
7.
7
,
Fig.
2.
Transverse
section
of
snout.
Group
A
ex-
amined
on
day
14.
Ventral
turbinates
were
destroyed
completely.
Much
mucous
exu-
date
is
present
in
nasal
cavity.
Fig.
3.
Lung.
Group
B
on
day
1
1.
Pneumonia
in
the
apical
and
cardiac
lobes.
It
is
extended
restrictedly
to
the
diaphragmatic
lobe.
ism
or
any
lesion
was
not
detected
from
group
D.
2.
Development
of
lesions
Rhinitis
and
turbinate
atrophy:
Three
stages
of
rhinitis
were
commonly
observed
in
groups
A,
B,
and
C.
They
were
acute
catarrhal
rhinitis
(acute
rhinitis),
acute
catarrhal
rhinitis
with
the
proliferation
and
desquamation
of
epithelial
cells
(subacute
(15-1-32)
Nat.
Inst.
Anim.
filth
Quart.
15,
29-37
(1975)
1kt?
,1
4
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4
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f
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,
tit:t
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in
t•
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I'
14
4.,
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4
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61
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Mi
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1'
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9
Val
N
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%
n,
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,
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'
.,
41.•
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I:
''''' .•
'
-.
rk
bifvt,
1
..ire**-.
~
_
.....,_
.,.
.
t,
..,
47,7
a_
...•••.-.....itt,••
,7.-
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,
...
".•
.
...,
i
'...
Edit
A
.."....,,,,
,.%
4
.
: .
T
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-
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i--,..r...i•
w w
Iv
-
_
,
maff.,,p
...V
O
bronchiseptic4s
Infection
and
Lesion
in
Newborn
Rabbits
•••
.*
A
t
e
t
r
,t
yd.
an
e
re
t
jt
T;
w.
.
....;
r
....:
Ai
4
0.
t,
",,
' '
li
•,‘
,
oc,
1,
:s
..
-
or
'1
%
".......
16.;
"7
'..
y;:'
,
........
....
..:
-.7
..,
A.
..-7-r-
-
*.'
er "..•,,,,..........
)
ii,y,
,,
,,,;,.
ri
-
wft,
'Vpit:
,
t
.:
•,::
1;
74'
.
.1,....,
.0
4
s
-
-i•
<-+)...
"Yr;
.t
,t
.....,2,1.;.;
,....,
.,
.4„.
.,
...-,„
r
•t
/
:).!;-');.',
,......,.....-,..
'
-
'-***-7•
10
',s,
,
..7
,
S"*
. 40...r....".;,t.e.:.,
.
*-"*"..-.,
'''
,..,,.f:";
7
4
"
Fig.
4.
Nasal
mucosa
of
ventral
turbinate.
Group
A
on
day
7.
Acute
catarrhal
rhinitis.
Hematoxylin
and
eosin
(HE)
staining,
x
250
Fig.
5.
Nasal
mucosa
of
dorsal
meatus.
Group
A
on
day
14.
Subacute
catarrhal
rhinitis
with
prolifer-
ation
of
epithelial
cells.
HE
staining,
x
250
Fig.
6.
Nasal
mucosa
of
ventral
turbinate.
Group
B
on
day
56.
Chronic
rhinitis
with
lymphocytic
infiltration.
HE
staining,
x
250
Fig.
7.
Nasal
mucosa
of
ethmoid.
Group
A
on
day
14.
Acute
ethmoiditis.
HE
staining,
x
100
rhinitis),
and
chronic
catarrhal
rhinitis
with
a
minimized
lesion
(chronic
rhinitis).
Acute
rhinitis
(Fig.
4)
was
represented
by
mild
karyopyknosis
and
vacuolation
of
epithelial
cells
accompanied
by
a
mild
heterophil
infiltration
in
the
epithelial
layer.
Mild
heterophil
infiltration
and
hyperemia
were
also
seen
in
the
lamina
propria.
Acute
rhinitis
was
extended
all
over
the
nasal
mucous
membrane
in
groups
A
and
C
between
clays
and
7,
and
was
mainly
located
at
the
tip
of
the
ventral
turbinate
and
in
the
dorsal
meatus
in
group
B
between
days
1
and
14.
Subacute
rhinitis
(Fig.
5)
exhibited
localized
proliferation
or
desqua-
mation
of
epithelial
cells,
together
with
a
marked
lieterophil
and
lymphocytic
infiltra-
tion
in
the
lamina
propria.
The
desqua-
mation
was
more
conspicuous
in
subacute
rhinitis.
The
rhinitis
was
situated
in
common
at
the
tips
of
the
ventral
and
dorsal
turbi-
33
mites
and
in
the
dorsal
meatus
in
the
three
groups.
It
was
observed
mostly
in
groups
A
and
C
between
days
14
and
28,
and
in
group
B
between
days
7
and
29.
Chronic
rhinitis
showed
a
marked
focal
lymphocytic
infiltration
with
a
mild
desquamation
of
epithelial
cells
(Fig.
(1),
in
addition
to
a
mild
lymphocytic
and
plasmacytic
infiltration
in
the
lamina
propria.
The
rhinitis
occurred
to
the
tips
of
the
turbinates
and
in
the
dorsal
meatus
in
group
B
mostly
on
day
5(3
and
in
group
C
mainly
on
day
42.
Catarrhal
ethmoiditis
(Fig.
7)
was
observed
in
all
the
newborn
of
these
three
groups.
In
the
osseous
cores
of
the
atrophic
ventral
turbinates,
the
bone
trabeculae
presented
a
decrease
in
number
and
rarefaction.
And
degeneration
of
osteoblasts
and
an
increase
in
number
of
fibroblast
—like
cells
(Fig.
8)
were
additionally
shown
in
the
medullary
spaces,
mainly
at
the
tips
of
the
ramifications
Nat.
Inst.
Anim.
HIM
Quart.
15,
29-37
(1975)
(15-1-33)
34
4
Maeda,
Al.
and
Shimizu,
T.
11*
""4
Atv
81.
V.
VT
4
9
it
1,4
tr.!
•,
1.•
t
Fig.
8.
Osseous
tissue
of
ventral
turbinate.
Group
A
on
day
14.
Proliferation
of
fibroblast
—like
cells.
HE
staining,
x
250
Fig.
9.
Tracheal
mucosa.
Group
A
on
day
3.
Acute
catarrhal
tracheitis.
HE
staining,
x
250
.
..t.
:
os,
4
4
.4,
t.•
r
4
1
0
r
r,
r
/
..-1/:
0
.
.-.,
.
%
f7,,
4
.
1/
20
4
.%
!C
.4
•talt
.
.,
..
.;,u'it
....
1
.
.
4
.6
k)
i '
e
s'
:*
.7
•4
4'
4
r*
r
.....
*4
0
's
"s•
456
til
I
4;
'J"r;?:`
Fig.
10.
Lung.
Group
A
on
day
14:
Histiocytic
and
Fibroblastic
infiltration
in
alveolar
septa.
Alveolar
epithelial
cells
are
proliFerative.
HE
staining,
x
250
Fig.
11.
Lung.
Group
B
on
day
56.
Peribronchiolitis
with
lymphocytic
infiltration.
HE
staining,
x
100
..••••
eQ
,•
"
4
)
.0
ti
4
;
et
I!
to,
RA
.Pk
*V.
..$
tx?
11
4.
414
:
r.
+6,
a
of
the
ventral
turbinates.
The
degenera-
tive
osteoblasts
exhibited
karyopyknosis
or
vacuolation.
Such
hypo—osteogenesis
as
this
was
conspicuous
in
the
case
of
subacute
rhinitis
in
groups
_
A
and
B
in
the
middle
and
late
stages
of
the
experimental
period.
In
two
rabbits
of
group
B
examined
on
day
.00,
the
ventral
turbinates
showed
an
increase
of
collagenous
fi
bers
beneath
the
periosteum
of
;the
osseous
tissue.
Tracheitis:
Acute
and
chronic
catarrhal
.tracheitis
were
observed.
Acute
tracheitis
was
manifested
by
a
mild
desquamation
of
epithelial
cells
and
heterophil
infiltration
in
the
epithelial
layer
(Fig.
0),
as
well
as
by
hyperemia
in
the
lamina
propria.
Chronic
tracheitis
exhibited
a
lymphocytic
and
plasmacytic
infiltration
in
the
lamina
pro-
pria.
.
Acute
tracheitis
was
detected
in
groups
A
and
C
some
time
between
days
3
'05-1-34)
and
10,
and
in
group
B
some
time
between
days
3
and
11.
Chronic
tracheitis
developed
subsequently
in
each
group.
Pneumonia
and
linear
lesion:
In
each
group,
pneumonia
was
manifested
histologi-
cally
by
catarrhal
bronchopneumonia
accom-
panied
by
a
marked
heterophil
infiltration
and
desquamation
of
alveolar
and
bron
-
chiolar
epithelial
cells.
Histiocytic
infiltra-
tion
and
proliferation
of
fibroblasts
were
also
remarkable
in
the
alveolar
septa
(Fig.
10
)
and
around
the
bronchioles.
The
linear
lesion
corresponded
to
peribronchitis
or
peribronchiolitis
with
marked
lymphocytic
infiltration
(Fig.
11).
A
mild
heterophil
infiltration
was
seen
frequently
in
the
mucosa
of
the
bronchus
and
bronchioles.
3.
Distribution
of
antigen
detected
by
FAT
Nasal
cavity:
Two
forms,
granular
and
Nat.
Inst.
Anim.
111th
Quart.
15.
29-37
(1975)
.-
llc.
bronchisepticus
Infection
and
Lesion
in
Newborn
Rabbits
35
14
qh
12
A
'.
d
t
le
r
AAron
"Nt
•p•
3
41
,
I
LA.
Fig.
12.
Ramification
of
ventral
turbinate.
Group
A
on
day
10.
Granular
antigen
on
the
nasal
mucosa
and
in
exudate.
Fluorescent
antibody
technique
(FAT),
x
200
Fig.
13.
Nasal
mucosa
of
ventral
meatus.
Group
C
on
day
14.
Laminated
antigen
on
epithelial
cells.
FAT,
x
200
15
r
t
t•-•
t.
4
,
4
sa
$
laminated,
of
antigen
were
detected
from
epithelial
cells
and
nasal
exudate.
No
antigen
was
demonstrated
in
the
lamina
propria.
Fine
granular
antigen
was
revealed
mainly
on
the
nasal
epithelial
cells
of
the
dorsal
meatus,
and
slightly
on
the
ventral
turbinate
(Fig.
12)
in
groups
A
and
B.
On
the
nasal
epithelial
cells
of
the
ventral
meatus
much
laminated
antigen
(Fig.
13)
was
seen
in
these
groups.
In
group
C,
much
laminated
antigen
was
detected
on
the
ventral
meatus
and
a
little
granular
antigen
on
some
other
parts.
These
forms
of
antigen
were
demonstrated
frequently
in
the
case
of
acute
and
subacute
rhinitis
in
groups
A
and
C
between
days
7
and
28
and
in
group
B
between
clays
3
and
9
9.
1
Fig.
14.
Tracheal
mucosa.
Group
A
on
day
3.
Granular
antigen
on
epithelial
cells.
FAT,
x
200
Fig.
15.
Bronchiole.
Group
B
on
day
7.
Fine
granular
antigen
on
epithelial
cells.
FAT,
x
100
Trachea
and
lung:
A
little
granular
antigen
was
detected
on
the
tracheal
epithelium
(Fig.
14)
in
some
animals
of
groups
A
and
B
examined
between
days
3
and
10,
and
on
the
tracheal
mucosa
in
group
C
on
day
28.
In
the
lung
there
was
granular
antigen
mainly
on
epithelial
cells
of
the
bronchiolar
crypts
(Fig.
15)
and
in
bronchiolar
exudate.
Antigen
was
demonstrable
in
group
A
be-
tween
clays
7
and
21,
and
in
group
B
between
days
7
and
56.
Alveolar
exudate
contained
a
homogeneously
antigenic
substance
in
an
animal
of
group
B
on
day
11.
DISCUSSION
No
precise
description
has
been
made
on
the
experimental
infection
of
rabbits
with
Nat.
Inst.
Anim.
Illth
Quart.
15,
29-37
(1975)
(15-1-35)
36
Maeda,
M.
and
Shimizu,
T.
Aic.
bronchisepticus
of
pig
origin
or
on
its
lesions.
In
the
present
study,
newborn
rabbits
which
were
free
from
Aic.
bronchisepticus
before
inoculation
(free
newborn)
were
in-
fected
intranasally
with
the
organism
of
pig
origin
(group
A)
or
rabbit
origin
(group
C).
Infection
with
the
inoculated
organism
took
place
in
the
nose,
trachea,
and
lungs,
re-
gardless
of
the
origin
of
the
organism.
Catarrhal
rhinitis,
catarrhal
tracheitis,
bron-
chopneumonia,
and
peribronchitis
developed
in
common
after
infection.
Antigen
was
commonly
detected
also
by
FAT
on
epithe-
lial
cells
of
the
nasal,
tracheal,
and
bron-
chiolar
mucosa.
On
the
other
hand,
nasal
turbinate
atrophy,
as
well
'
as
agglutinin
against
the
organism,
appeared
in
group
A
alone.
Antigen
detectable
by
FAT
was
distributed
mostly
on
the
ventral
and
dorsal
meatus
in
the
case
of
both
acute
and
sub-
acute
rhinitis
in
group
A,
while
in
group
C
it
was
mainly
on
the
ventral
meatus
which
showed
no
inflammatory
changes.
These
differences
between
both
groups
might
come
from
the
different
pathogenicity
of
both
organisms
to
the
newborn
rabbit.
In
experimental
AR
produced
by
nasal
infection
with
Alc.
bronchiscfiticus
(B.
bron-
chiseptica)
of
pig
origin
in
piglets,
nasal
establishment
of
the
organism
has
been
reported
to
occur
mostly
1
or
2
weeks
after
inoculation.
8,12,11)
Persistent
infection
was
shown
after
the
establishment
in
the
nose,
trachea,
and
lungs.
Agglutinating
antibody
was
detected
in
hysterectomy
-produced,
colostrum
-deprived
piglets
on
day
35
or
later
by
Shimizu
et
al.
15
)
and
on
day
15
or
later
by
Kemeny.
7
>
Nasal
turbinate
atrophy
was
recognized
to
initiate
in
piglets
1
12
>
or
2
14
)
weeks
after
inoculation.
It
was
shown
to
develop
in
piglets
as
a
result
of
hypo-
osteogenesis
12)
in
osseous
tissue
in
relation
to
acute
catarrhal
rhinitis
exhibiting
con-
spicuous
proliferation
and
desquamation
of
epithelial
cells.
Following
acute
catarrhal
rhinitis,
bronchopneumonia
was
observed
together
with
an
increase
in
fi
broblasts
and
connective
tissue
in
the
alveolar
septa
and
around
the
bronchioles.
12
)
Antigen
detect-
able
by
FAT
was
distributed
on
tile
nasal
mucosa,
mainly
on
the
ventral
turbinate
and
dorsal
meatus,
and
also
on
the
tracheal
and
bronchiolar
mucosa.
12
)
In
the
present
study
of
newborn
rabbits
inoculated
with
the
organism
of
pig
origin
(groups
A
and
B),
establishment
of
infection
with
the
organism
was
certified
in
the
respiratory
organs
in
these
rabbits
earlier
(on
day
3
in
group
A)
than
in
piglets.
Ag-
glutinating
antibody
or
high
titers
of
agglu-
tinin
came
out
in
the
rabbits,
as
well
as
in
piglets,
mostly
2
or
4
weeks
after
inoculation.
Nasal
turbinate
atrophy
in
this
study
became
detectable
on
day
7.
It
was
shown
clue
to
the
same
hypo-osteogenesis
at
the
turbinate
bones
as
in
piglets.
On
the
other
hand,
acute
and
subacute
rhinitis
on
the
nasal
turbinate
were
more
transient
and
localized
in
newborn
rabbits.
Antigen
detected
by
FAT
in
the
nasal
cavity
was
distributed
predominantly
on
the
ventral
and
dorsal
meatus
in
the
newborn
rabbit,
while
it
was
distributed
excessively
on
the
ventral
turbi-
nates
in
piglets.
12
)
Generally,
some
simi-
larities
on
the
mode
of
infection
and
develop-
ment
of
lesions
seemed
to
be
present
between
newborn
rabbits
and
piglets
both
of
which
had
been
inoculated
with
the
organism
of
pig
origin.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This
study
was
partially
performed
at
the
Department
of
Veterinary
Science,
National
In-
stitute
of
Health,
Tokyo,
while
the
senior
author
was
working
with
this
institute
as
a
research
fellow.
The
authors
wish
to
thank
the
research
staff
of
that
department
for
their
kind
help
and
supply
of
the
P-36
strain
to
this
study.
Thanks
arc
also
given
to
Messrs.
M.
Ito
and
V.
Ando
of
the
authors'
institute
for
their
technical
assistance
in
photography.
LITERATURE
CITED
1)
Cross,
R.E.
&
Cal
Min,
N.M.
:
Bordetella
bron-
chiseptica
induced
porcine
atrophic
rhinitis.
J.Amer.Vet.Illed.Ass.
141,
1-167-1168
(1962).
2)
Duncan,
J.R.
et
al.:
Pathology
of
experimental
Bordetalla
bronchiscptica
infection
in
swine:
Atrophic
rhinitis.
Amer.
J.
Vet.
fl
es.
27,
.157-
-166
(1966).
(15-1-36)
Nat.
Inst.
Aninz.
Illth
Quart.
15,
29-37
(1975)
Ale.
bronchiseplicus
'Infection
and
Lesion
in
Newborn
Rabbits
37
3)
Fetter,
A.W.
&
Capen,
C.C.
:
Ultrastructural
evaluation
of
bone
cells
in
pigs
with
experi-
mental
turbinate
osteoporosis
(atrophic
rhini-
tis).
Lab.
Infest.
24,
392-403
(1971).
4)
Genov,
I.
:
Studies
oil
the
etiology
of
infectious
atrophic
rhinitis
in
pigs
in
Bulgaria.
Zbl.
Velllied.
B15,
224-229
(1968).
5)
Gwatkin,
R.,
Dzenis,L.
&
Byrne,
J.L.
:
Rhinitis
of
swine.
VII.
Production
of
lesions
in
pigs
and
rabbits
with
a
pure
culture
of
Pasteurella
nzultocida.
Gonad.
J.
Coinp.
11Ted.
Vet.
Sci.
17,
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